Organizational Culture and Leading Change


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  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • Do you agree with this statement? Why/why not? Where else do we see this in other parts of our lives?
  • i.e. reorganizations, installation of new computer hardware, and the creation of new products or services
  • Gonzo from the muppets, I don’t know where I want to go, I just know I don’t want to be here.
  • Strategic planning as practiced in today's organizations should be future oriented toward a vision, but in fact it is more about solving today's problems than realizing tomorrow's opportunities.
  • Performance Management cycle begins with the planning process How much time to you give this part? (Not enough, too much?) Probably we spend too little time, yet it is the most important 1 st step to set people up for success.
  • Organizational Culture and Leading Change

    1. 1. Leadership Now! Organizational Culture and Leading Change December 9-10, 2008
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Tuesday, December 9 </li></ul><ul><li>9:00 am Welcome and Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>NYPL Universe </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 pm Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 pm Project Team working session </li></ul><ul><li>3:00 pm Project Team updates and next steps </li></ul><ul><li>3:30 pm Leading Change </li></ul><ul><li>4:30 pm Adjourn </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Wednesday, December 10 </li></ul><ul><li>9:00 am Community Review </li></ul><ul><li>9:30 am Power Dynamics and Influencing Skills </li></ul><ul><li>-Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 pm Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 pm Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>-Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>-Good Job Design </li></ul><ul><li>4:00 pm Adjourn </li></ul>
    4. 4. Norms for Group Learning <ul><li>Participate </li></ul><ul><li>Inquire to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Lean into your discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Try on new ideas for size </li></ul><ul><li>Help the group learn </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid side conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of comfort needs </li></ul><ul><li>Give timely feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Respect confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Come prepared to sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Overview <ul><li>Introduction and Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Change </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of Leaders </li></ul>
    6. 6. Dimensions of Organizational Culture <ul><li>Overt organizational behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational ideology and philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Group and organizational values </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused organizational values </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, procedures, and rules of socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul>
    7. 7. Edgar Schein’s Definition of Organizational Culture <ul><li>… the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered, or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration , and that have worked well enough to be considered valid , and, therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. </li></ul>
    8. 8. How to think about culture <ul><li>Learned set of assumptions that manifest themselves at various levels: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Espoused values </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shared underlying assumptions </li></ul>
    9. 9. ICEBERG ANALOGY of CULTURE basic working assumptions values attitudes beliefs biases notions behaviors architecture food dress music language patterns of thought emotional expression
    10. 10. Artifacts <ul><li>Includes all phenomena that one sees, feels, and hears </li></ul>
    11. 11. Espoused Values <ul><li>Sense of what ought to be as distinct from what is – in other words, the ideal to which the organization aspires but which may not manifest itself on a daily basis in people’s behaviors… </li></ul>
    12. 12. Shared Underlying Assumptions <ul><li>Guide behavior, tell group members how to perceive, think about, and feel about things </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken for granted responses or solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members will find behavior based on any other premise inconceivable </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. What is the culture at NYPL? <ul><li>What are the “above the water line” attributes of New York Public Library? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you describe yourself to prospective colleagues? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the “below the water line” attributes of New York Public Library? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of your culture to your change efforts? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Leading Change
    15. 15. <ul><li>One of the most critical predictors of organizational success is the alignment of staff with the mission, values, and goals of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Price Waterhouse, Coopers </li></ul><ul><li>Study of 300 Improvement-Driven Companies </li></ul>
    16. 16. What is change? <ul><li>Change is the process of moving an organization from status quo to an envisioned destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Any change process involves three critical components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Developmental change is… <ul><li>An improvement on an organization’s existing way of operating—increasing skills, improving the performance of a business process, or learning how to sell more products. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Change Process Essentials <ul><li>All change processes should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supported from and aligned with the top; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded in the organization’s rewards system; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicated effectively. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Three Types of Change <ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Transitional change involves… <ul><li>replacing the current state with a known new state that is intentionally formulated to resolve the inadequacies of the old state. </li></ul><ul><li>design and implementation of something different from what exists; and </li></ul><ul><li>leaders dismantling the current way of operating and systematically put into place the newly designed desired state. </li></ul><ul><li>This process can be planned, paced, and managed . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Transformational Change <ul><li>Consider Dakota tribal wisdom applied to organizations in need of transformational change: </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you discover you are riding a dead horse,the best strategy is to dismount.” </li></ul>
    22. 22. Transformational change is… <ul><li>The fundamental shift from one state of being to another, a change so significant that it requires the organization to shift its culture and people’s behavior and mindsets to implement it successfully and to sustain it over time. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Vision Current reality Wake up calls: feedback to learn from and guide course correction CM Process Map
    24. 24. All change starts with a vision
    25. 25. Governing ideas that anchor vision: Mission why we exist Vision what we achieve Values how we act
    26. 26. Strategic change A shared vision is made achievable through the development of strategic priorities, i.e., chunks of work that address critical gaps (creative tensions) between current reality and vision.
    27. 27. <ul><li>Characteristics of good strategic priorities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linked to shared vision very clearly; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>galvanize commitment from as least the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implementation team; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are limited enough to be doable; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are quantifiable or at least observable. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Leadership Role <ul><li>Be optimistic yet realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Plan carefully, but don’t hesitate to engage </li></ul><ul><li>Share plan at big picture level and detailed level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie to vision, and to employee’s job/role at individual level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure that process includes opportunities for small successes early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrate/recognize successes and progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicate that course corrections are necessary in any change effort </li></ul>
    29. 29. Planning Phase Coaching Organization Mission & Goals Staff Needs & Competencies Feedback Coaching Feedback Feedback Coaching Evaluation Development Planning
    30. 30. Feedback is critical for… <ul><li>Improving performance </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding one another </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing results and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Managing behavioral change </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining world class organizations </li></ul>
    31. 31. Guide to Providing Feedback <ul><li>Be timely in providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Find a private setting </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on specific behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start/Stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do more/Do less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do it differently - Solicit and provide concrete suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for individual’s understanding of the feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Give positive and corrective feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    32. 32. Five Bases of Power <ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul>
    33. 33. Reward Power <ul><li>Ability to administer rewards desired by others </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards can be tangible or intangible </li></ul>
    34. 34. Coercive Power <ul><li>Ability to administer punishments and motivate through fear </li></ul><ul><li>Effective at getting short-term compliance </li></ul>
    35. 35. Legitimate Power <ul><li>Being perceived as having the “right” to influence others </li></ul><ul><li>Based on role in organization </li></ul><ul><li>Works because people are socialized to accept </li></ul>
    36. 36. Referent Power <ul><li>Possessing personal qualities and characteristics that others find attractive (charisma) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not depend on role in organization </li></ul>
    37. 37. Expert Power <ul><li>Possessing knowledge or expertise relevant to a particular problem or situation </li></ul><ul><li>Highly contextual </li></ul>
    38. 38. Acquiring Power <ul><li>Rosabeth Moss Kanter: </li></ul><ul><li>Do the right things </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate the right people </li></ul>
    39. 39. Do the Right Things <ul><li>Dependable role performance </li></ul><ul><li>Extraordinary activities </li></ul><ul><li>Visible activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant activities </li></ul>
    40. 40. Cultivate the Right People <ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors </li></ul><ul><li>Outsiders </li></ul>
    41. 41. Four Leadership Competencies <ul><li>Warren Bennis: </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Self </li></ul>
    42. 42. Management of Attention <ul><li>Have a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you want </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about focus, direction, goals </li></ul>
    43. 43. Management of Meaning <ul><li>Communicate the vision so others can support it </li></ul><ul><li>Let people know what you stand for </li></ul>
    44. 44. Management of Trust <ul><li>Demonstrate reliability </li></ul><ul><li>People would rather follow individuals they can count on, even when they disagree with their viewpoint, than people they agree with but who shift positions frequently </li></ul>
    45. 45. Management of Self <ul><li>Know your skills and use them effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture your strengths </li></ul>
    46. 46. Motivation
    47. 47. A Personal Approach <ul><li>How do we get the best work from people… </li></ul><ul><li>... when have I done my best work? </li></ul>
    48. 48. What motivates me? <ul><li>My best work example: </li></ul><ul><li>My best work factors: </li></ul>
    49. 49. What motivates you? <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Think of an example of your best work. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What were the factors that made it so? </li></ul>
    50. 50. What demotivates me? <ul><li>My not best work example: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>My not best work factors: </li></ul>
    51. 51. What demotivates you? <ul><li>Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Think of an example of your not best work. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What were the factors that made it so? </li></ul>
    52. 52. Motivation factors <ul><li>Table exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the factors in common around the table that led to best work? Not best work? </li></ul>
    53. 53. Intrinsic & Extrinsic Factors <ul><li>Best work factors usually intrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>direct relationship between job and self </li></ul><ul><li>applied by self </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., interest, challenge, accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Not best work factors usually extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>comes from work environment </li></ul><ul><li>applied by others </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., salary, benefits, policies, supervision </li></ul>Frederick Hertzberg
    54. 54. Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivators <ul><li>Extrinsic motivators: </li></ul><ul><li>get and keep people in the org. </li></ul><ul><li>prevent dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>can lead to conditional commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivators: </li></ul><ul><li>inspire people to do their best work </li></ul><ul><li>create satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>can lead to long-term, lasting, commitment </li></ul>Frederick Herzberg
    55. 55. Job Motivation <ul><li>“ If you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do.” </li></ul>Frederick Hertzberg
    56. 56. Good Job Design <ul><li>Task variety - use a variety of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity - seeing something to completion </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance - how does the job contribute? </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy - some control over what and how </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback - data on performance </li></ul>Frederick Hertzberg
    57. 57. Core Dimensions and Values <ul><li>Task variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>Frederick Hertzberg Meaning Responsibility Knowledge of results
    58. 58. Job Design Rating Scale <ul><li>Task variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>Frederick Hertzberg low high
    59. 59. Improving Motivation <ul><li>Individual exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a person (or group) you would like to motivate for improved performance? Consider each of the core dimensions. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Improving Motivation <ul><li>Partner exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your ideas with a partner, focusing on the five core dimensions of job design. </li></ul>