Communication Skills


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  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • ARL LMSI 1 07/24/09
  • Communication Skills

    1. 1. Leadership Now! Communication Skills January 13-14, 2009
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Tuesday, January 13 </li></ul><ul><li>9:00 am Welcome and Overview </li></ul><ul><li>9:30 am The Skilled Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>-Helping Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 pm lunch </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 pm Understanding Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Communication </li></ul><ul><li>4:30 pm Adjourn </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Wednesday, January 14 </li></ul><ul><li>9:00 am Feedback and Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 pm lunch </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 pm Feedback and Coaching, cont’d </li></ul><ul><li>2:00 pm Project Teams </li></ul><ul><li>4:00 pm Review and Next Steps </li></ul>
    4. 4. Norms for Group Learning <ul><li>Participate </li></ul><ul><li>Inquire to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Lean into your discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Try on new ideas for size </li></ul><ul><li>Help the group learn </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid side conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of comfort needs </li></ul><ul><li>Give timely feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Respect confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Come prepared to sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Some Thoughts on Communicating <ul><li>Unskilled: </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent </li></ul><ul><li>Too little, too much, too late </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear, lack follow-through </li></ul><ul><li>Hoard or doesn’t see its importance </li></ul><ul><li>One mode only </li></ul><ul><li>Provides preliminary information that isn’t correct </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information people aren’t ready to handle </li></ul>
    6. 6. Some Thoughts on Communicating <ul><li>Skilled: </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates in a timely manner </li></ul><ul><li>Allows colleagues to feel good about what they do and who they do it with </li></ul><ul><li>Timely so others can make accurate decisions </li></ul>
    7. 7. Helping Relationship <ul><li>Purpose : help another person with a problem without taking on the responsibility yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits : keeps responsibility where it belongs, and helps the person discover realistic, workable solutions. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Helping Relationship <ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>1. Present problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Explore options. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Decide how to proceed. </li></ul>Gerard Egan, The skilled helper... Helper 1. Listen, clarify. 2. Offer ideas. 3. Give support.
    9. 9. Helping Relationship <ul><li>Client : </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Present problem . Describe briefly </li></ul><ul><li>what is happening; </li></ul><ul><li>what information you have; </li></ul><ul><li>your current view . </li></ul>Gerard Egan, The skilled helper... <ul><li>Helper : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Listen, clarify. </li></ul><ul><li>ask questions to get information; </li></ul><ul><li>make sure you understand the client. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Helping Relationship <ul><li>Client : </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Explore options. </li></ul><ul><li>identify alternatives and evaluate their chances of success. </li></ul>Gerard Egan, The skilled helper... <ul><li>Helper : </li></ul><ul><li>2. Offer ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>share your perception of the problem; </li></ul><ul><li>suggest options for client to consider; </li></ul><ul><li>provide insights to options already under consideration. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Helping Relationship <ul><li>Client : </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Decide how to proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>decide what options to explore further; </li></ul><ul><li>choose a solution to implement; </li></ul><ul><li>develop an action plan . </li></ul>Gerard Egan, The skilled helper... <ul><li>Helper : </li></ul><ul><li>3. Give support. </li></ul><ul><li>offer encouragement; </li></ul><ul><li>show concern; </li></ul><ul><li>invite the client to seek help again. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Diversity and Cross-Cultural Communication
    13. 13. Definition of Diversity <ul><li>Diversity is defined as all the characteristics that can be used to describe humans. We are all diverse in many ways. It is the unique intersection of these characteristics that define each individual’s diversity. A few examples of these characteristics include: </li></ul><ul><li>age gender politics </li></ul><ul><li>ancestory geographic region race </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive style language(s) spoken religion </li></ul><ul><li>cultural background marital/partner status sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>economic background nationality </li></ul><ul><li>ethnicity physical ability or appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Michigan Libraries </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Equity <ul><li>… not everyone faces the same consequences for their diversity. We cannot forget that issue of difference are closely tied to issues of power and discrimination. Issues of equity are inseparable from issues of diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan Libraries </li></ul>
    15. 15. Mosaic of Diversity ethnicity race sexual orientation age ability gender learning style geographic location educational background personality style marital/partner status economic background spirituality/ religious beliefs work experience/ profession national origin/ first language parental status
    16. 16. Taken from Educating the Net Generation, EDUCAUSE, 2005 Matures Baby Boomers Generation X Net Generation Birth dates 1900-1946 1946-1964 1965-1982 1982-1991 Description Greatest generation Me generation Latchkey generation Millennials Attributes Command and control Self-sacrifice Optimistic workaholic Independent skeptical Hopeful determined Likes Respect for authority Family Community involvement Responsibility Work ethic Can-do attitude Freedom Multitasking Work-life balance Public activism Latest technology Parents Dislikes Waste technology Laziness Turning 50 Red tape Hype Anything slow Negativity
    17. 17. What is Culture? <ul><li>The sum total of shared values, beliefs, meanings, symbols, attitudes, languages, patterns of thought and expression, products, artifacts, aesthetic standards and styles of communication—all of which have been created by a group of people, which have been transmitted , learned and internalized . </li></ul><ul><li>Clyde Kluckhohn, Mirror for Man , 1949 </li></ul>
    18. 18. ICEBERG ANALOGY of CULTURE assumptions values attitudes beliefs biases notions behaviors architecture food dress music language patterns of thought emotional expression
    19. 19. Communication Patterns Across Cultures <ul><li>High Context </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Asian, Latin, African American) </li></ul><ul><li>Much of meaning outside verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship is central </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Social relationship strengthens professional relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Low Context </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. German, United States) </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal language conveys literal and full meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Clear lines between personal and professional relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is direct and close to events </li></ul>
    20. 20. Personal Action Plan <ul><li>What personal insight will you take away from this session? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two concrete actions that you can take as a leader to further HRC’s efforts to create an inclusive work environment. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Feedback and Coaching
    22. 22. Goals of Process <ul><li>Resolve performance problems </li></ul><ul><li>Defuse negative emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent defensive response </li></ul><ul><li>Build commitment </li></ul>
    23. 23. Key Elements <ul><li>Analyzing the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Giving feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Listening and gaining information </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing on solutions/strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Planning follow-up </li></ul>
    24. 24. Analyzing the Problem <ul><li>Problem Behavior Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>a tool that helps you describe the behavior concretely, decide whether to confront it, and explain the negative impact it has on others </li></ul>
    25. 25. Offering Feedback: Criteria <ul><li>Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Evaluative </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>Future-Oriented </li></ul>
    26. 26. Feedback Criteria <ul><li>Timely—given soon after the behavior or event occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Specific—describes precisely what occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Focused—limited to one issue at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Evaluative—does not ascribe attributes, motives, attitudes, or intentions </li></ul>
    27. 27. Feedback Criteria <ul><li>Purposeful—gives the person useful, actionable information; deals with behavior that can and needs to be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Future-Oriented—establishes an opportunity for growth and/or change </li></ul>
    28. 28. Giving Feedback Requires: <ul><li>Positive Intent—desire to help the person and solve the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Tact—choose your words, tone, and timing carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Willing Listener—the person receiving feedback must be receptive to it </li></ul>
    29. 29. Giving Feedback Requires: <ul><li>Open-Mindedness—hearing and respecting the other person’s point of view, even if it differs greatly from your own </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of Responsibility—both people must be willing to acknowledge their part in both creating and resolving the problem </li></ul>
    30. 30. Kinlaw’s Coaching Model <ul><li>Presenting </li></ul><ul><li>Using Reaction to Develop Information </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving </li></ul>
    31. 31. Stage 1: Presenting <ul><li>       State the problem concretely </li></ul><ul><li>       Limit the scope of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>       Establish a focus on change </li></ul>
    32. 32. Tool <ul><li>Scripting </li></ul>
    33. 33. Stage 2: Developing Information <ul><li>Listen and observe </li></ul><ul><li>Drop your agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the person’s reactions/feelings </li></ul>
    34. 34. Stage 3: Resolving <ul><li>Summarize what has been discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Create a shared action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Test for agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify follow-up measures </li></ul><ul><li>Offer support </li></ul>