X-Ray Inspection: Understanding the Technology to Maximize Your Results
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X-Ray Inspection: Understanding the Technology to Maximize Your Results



X-Ray Inspection has been around for 100 years but, is relatively new to the food industry. Having a solid ...

X-Ray Inspection has been around for 100 years but, is relatively new to the food industry. Having a solid
understanding of the operating principles and technology behind X-Ray Inspection provides a sound base for
properly defining the capabilities, understanding the limitations, and determining if there are implementation
benefits in your plant or processes. In addition common safety questions regarding X-Ray inspection and setting
realistic expectations in a company X-Ray specification must be addressed. In this session we will also cover proper X-Ray detection testing methods, third party audits, and basic X-Ray troubleshooting issues.



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X-Ray Inspection: Understanding the Technology to Maximize Your Results X-Ray Inspection: Understanding the Technology to Maximize Your Results Presentation Transcript

  • Bill Scott; R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 1
  • Who, What, When, & Where  R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. is a Manufacturer’s Rep firm founded in 1984.  Corporately based in Eagle, ID with field offices in Portland, OR and Seattle, WA.  Our Core Focus is Process and Packaging equipment.  600 + clients with $170M + in procured/installed projects.  Our Niche Market is the Food Industry. R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 2
  • Cross Section of Our Clients R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 3
  • I’d Like to Pick Your Brain R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 4
  • Quick Questions  How do they work?  How many are in the evaluation process for the incorporation of X-Ray technology?  How many are currently using X-Ray technology?  Are they designated CCP’s, secondary inspection points, etc…?  What drove you to either the implementation of or consideration of using X-Ray technology in your plant? R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 5
  • In 2011 39,702,319 lbs of Food were recalled due to Contamination Food Processing Magazine Nov. 2013 R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 6
  • Common Contaminates R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 7
  • The Discovery of X-Ray German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X-Ray’s in 1895 and won the first Nobel Prize in Physics R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 8
  • The First Images The first X-Ray Image ever produced December 22 1895 Mrs. Roentgens hand The first Medical X-Ray Image in January 1896 R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 9
  • Where X-Rays Fit Into Life The Electromagnetic Spectrum X-Ray’s are characterized by:  High energy  High frequency  Short wavelengths R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 10
  • X-Rays  X-Rays like light, represent energy transmitted in a wave without the movement of material  Unlike light, X-Rays have great penetrating power and can pass through the human body and most organic matter in a very predictable manner  As the x-ray beam penetrates through mass, the absorption of the beam is a function of density (mass) and thickness of the object being inspected R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 11
  • How X-Rays Are Generated The X-Ray Generator  A high current is applied to an electronic filament, within an X-Ray tube, sending a stream of electrons (-) toward an anode  Upon collision of electrons to the anode (+) both X-Ray photons and Heat are released R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 12
  • The Key Components R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 13
  • How X-Rays are Detected The Photo-Diode Array A series of Photo-Diodes (lenses) are placed directly beneath the conveyor belt to capture the X-Ray Photon fan beam from the generator A scintillator film layer is applied to the surface of the photo diodes to convert the X-Ray photons to light The degree of light intensity received by the diodes corresponds to the relative mass and thickness of the product and the X-Ray’s ability to pass through it This degree of light intensity received by the Photo-Diodes is converted to pixels in grey scale R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 14
  • Typical X-Ray Machine X-ray Generator X-ray Beam Product Linear Detector R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 15
  • Creating an Image The processor digitally converts the individual cross section images of the product, as it passes under the X-Ray fan beam, and builds the product image R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 16
  • Analyzing the Image • • • • Each image is made up of ‘pixels’ Each pixel can have a value which goes from black to white in 255 steps Density (mass) and Thickness of the product will determine grey scale value and distribution in the image Imaging software is employed to analyze the image through a series of algorithms 255 White 145 0 Black R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 17
  • X-Ray Absorption is a Function of Density and Thickness Specific Gravity Specific Gravity Water 1.000 Water 1.000 Hair 0.320 Diamonds 2.260 Insects 0.590 Aluminum 2.710 Wood (Oak) 0.650 Glass/Rocks Poly Propylene 0.900 Iron 7.150 UHMW 0.940 Steel 7.860 Nylon 1.150 SS 7.930 PVC 1.380 Nickel 8.900 Dense Rubber 1.520 Copper 8.930 Beryllium 1.848 Lead 11.30 Calcified Bone 2.200 Gold 19.30 R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 2.500-4.200 18
  • Defining the Physical Composition What is the constitute make-up of the product being inspected? What is the constitute make-up of the packaging materials? What is the constitute of the product/packaging vs the anomaly? R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 19
  • X-Ray Beam Attenuation X-Ray Energy Dissipates Exponentially Over Distance R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 20
  • Balancing X-Ray Energy Image Quality & Contaminate Discrimination R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 21
  • Dual Energy R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 22
  • Common X-Ray Systems R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 23
  • Inspection Capabilities           Detection of Contaminants Ability to “See” inside a package Metalized Packaging inspection Overall Mass control / Zone Mass Counting Product Integrity Fill Level detection Verify the Absence or Presence of items such as O absorbers 2 Fat / Lean Analysis Shape Recognition………. R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 24
  • Resultant Images Contaminates embedded inside the potatoes R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 25
  • Resultant Images Rubber gasket in a bag of meat sauce R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 26
  • Resultant Images Stones in a foil bag of coffee beans R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 27
  • Resultant Images Six packs of 4 oz cups of applesauce R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 28
  • Resultant Images Mass and Contaminate in a foil tray at 400 packs/min 2mm Glass Foil Tray Petfood 1mm St Steel Incomplete Fill R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 29
  • Resultant Images Nutritional Bars in a foil film- Mass and Contaminate at 280 bars/min R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 30
  • Resultant Images Tray of Hash Brown Patties- mass & contaminate R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 31
  • Resultant Images Metal in metal R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 32
  • Resultant Images Side Shoot glass coffee drink- glass in glass R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 33
  • Resultant Images Entrée Meal- Zone Mass, Seal Inspection & Contaminate Detection at 228 packs/min R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 34
  • Resultant Images Cardboard box and pie with dented pie tin R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 35
  • Resultant Images Packs of Vitamins and Minerals- Contamination, Overall mass, Zone mass, Counting, Wrong configuration, and Damaged tablets R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 36
  • X-Ray Safety X-Ray is produced when power is applied to the tube. Remove power and X-rays are not produced. Very Safe! R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 37
  • X-Ray Safety • Most systems use very low energy, electrically generated X-Rays which are fully contained within the cabinet. • Cabinet units meet the requirements of 21 CFR1020.40 as well as the requirements of 21CFR, Part 179, Subpart B. • FDA regulations CFR 1020.40 which is slightly less than .5 mrem  Most cabinet X-Ray systems produce approximately .1 mrem  Estimated that US individuals are exposed to 620 mrem each year from naturally occurring background radiation radiationanswers.org ((Table source: NCRP 160, 2009) R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 38
  • “Frequent Fliers” FDA regulations CFR 1020.40 which is slightly less than .5 mrem  One general use backscatter scan radiation dose = .01 mrem  One day of natural background radiation = ~ 1 mrem (10 backscatter scans)  Average commercial airplane flight (one way) = 4 mrem (40 backscatter scans)  Typical chest x ray = 10 mrem (100 backscatter scans)  Typical abdominal x ray = 70 mrem (700 backscatter scans)  Annual maximum permission radiation dose limit for the public = 100 mrem (1,000 backscatter scans)  Annual maximum permissible radiation dose limit for radiation workers = 5,000 mrem (50,000 backscatter scans) To accumulate a dose that will cause a clinically observable effect (not harmful, but observable), we would need to have over one million scans in a relatively short period of time*** Cited from Radiationanswers.org (2007) R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 39
  • Common Contaminates What’s Possible R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 40
  • Conclusions  X-Ray technology provides inspection options not previously available to the industry  Capabilities matched with Realistic expectations creates successful installations  At the start of the “applications discovery curve” R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 41
  • Thank you! R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. (208) 322-0400 R.L. Scott & Associates, Inc. 42