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OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL FAE STUDENT HANDOUT
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WATER MEASUREMENTS1 cubic ft. of water weighs 62.5 lbs.1 cubic ft. of water contains 1,728 cubic ins.1 cubic ft. of water contains 7.5 gallons1 gallon of water weighs 8.35 lbs.1 gallon of water contains 231 cubic inches
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HEAD & ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 1 ft. of water exerts a back pressure of .434 psi 1 psi will elevate water 2.304 ft. Atmospheric pressure at sea level = 14.7 psi Maximum lift =(Atmospheric pressure)(Number of ft. each psi lifts water)
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AVAILABLE WATER FROM HYDRANTSWhen estimating available water– Quality/quantity of the water supply system– Fire department connections to the system
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ESTIMATING WATER AVAILABLENote static readingNote drop after discharging first lineMultiply the drop the first line by the squareof velocity to see if the original flow maybe doubled, tripled, etc. • Multiply by 4 if doubling flow • Multiply by 9 if tripling flow • Multiply by 16 if quadrupling flow • Multiply by 25 if quintupling flow
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ESTIMATING WATER AVAILABLESubtract total drop from original staticpressure, but do not take Compound Gaugelower than 10 psi.Product from #3 and your original flow ratewill determine total flow
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MOBILE WATER SUPPLY OPERATIONSApparatusPortable TanksAuxiliary Equipment
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APPARATUSTanker/tender– NFPA minimum • 1000 gallon capacity • 750 GPM– Construction features • Tank capacity & size • Chassis & axle loading • Engine & drive train type & size • Dump & vent size • Pump location & size • Tank type or style
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APPARATUSPumpers– Fittings & adapters– Use • Pump at water source • Unload tankers • Relay • Fire Attack
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PORTABLE TANKSFunction– Reservoir– Dumping site for tanksSize– 500-6,000 gallons– Circular or square
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PORTABLE TANKSConstruction– Folding synthetic– Floating collarUse– Position & spotting for dumping & drafting– Level surface– Access & turn around
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AUXILIARY EQUIPMENTPortable Pumps– Lightweight– High volume at low pressureLoading & unloading dumps– Special hoses or chutes– Jet drafts– Siphons or transfer devices– Low level strainers– Fill devices– Cam-lock or quick connect couplings
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PUMP TESTS100% capacity@150 psi net pump pressure70% capacity@250 psi net pump pressure50% capacity@250 psi net pump pressure
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NET ENGINE PRESSURENet engine pressure (NEP) is themeasurement of the total work performedby the pump– To lift water into the pump– Discharge water from the pumpAllowances are made for– Friction loss in intake hose– Height of lift
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FRICTION LOSSRated Diameter 10 ft. of Addt. 10 ft.capacity of Suction suction suctionpumper Hose (Ins.) hose hose500 GPM 4 6 Plus 1 4 1/2 3 1/2 Plus 1/2750 GPM 4 1/2 7 Plus 1 1/2 5 4 1/2 Plus 11000 GPM 4 1/2 12 Plus 2 1/2 5 8 Plus 1 1/2 6 4 Plus 1/2
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FRICTION LOSSRated Diameter 10 ft. of Addt. 10 ft.capacity of suction suction suctionpumper hose (Ins.) hose hose1250 GPM 5 12 1/2 Plus 2 6 6 1/2 Plus 1/21500 GPM 6 9 Plus 1 2-5 7 Plus 1 2-6 2 Plus 1/2
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FRICTION LOSSRated Diameter 10 ft. of Add. 10 ft.capacity of suction suction suctionpumper hose (Ins.) hose hose1750 GPM 6 12 1/2 Plus 1 1/2 2-5 6 1/2 Plus 1 2-6 3 Plus 1/22000 GPM 2-5 8 Plus 1 1/2 2-6 4 Plus 1/2
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NET ENGINE PRESSURE (DRAFTING)N.E.P. = Suction side work + Discharge Side WorkWork performed on the discharge side ofthe pump is indicated on the pump’sdischarge gauge
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NET ENGINE PRESSURE (DRAFTING)Work performed on the suction side on thepump is determined by computing thefollowing formula Work =Lift (ft.) + Intake Hose F.L (psi) 2.3 ft.
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PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSUREN.E.P. = Suction side work + Discharge side workPump discharge pressure (PDP) = NEP - Suction side work
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NEP OF A POSITIVEPRESSURE WATER SOURCE No work is being performed on the suction side of the pump Incoming pressure added to the discharge pressure, produced by the pump, produces the total discharge pressure NEP =PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE (PDP) - INTAKE PRESSURE (IP)
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NOZZLE PRESSURES ON FOG NOZZLES GPM from fog nozzles at various pressure =(Rated GPM) ( desired nozzle pressure ) (.1)
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GPM’S FROM CIRCULAR OPENINGS GPM’S = 29.7d2 P Pressure D = diameter of orificeP = flow pressure (psi) of discharging stream
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HAND LINES/MASTER STREAMSHandlines flows up to 350 GPMMasterstreams flows over 350 GPMNozzle Pressures– Smooth Bore • Handheld = 50 psi • Master = 80 psi– Fogs • Most fogs 100 psi
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NOZZLE REACTIONNR = 1.57D2PFor fog nozzles and master stream smoothbore tips, fireground calculations can becomputed at approximately 1/2 the flow(measured in lbs.)
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ANGLE OF DEFLECTION & EFFECTIVE REACHTwo variables– Air resistance– GravityAir resistance increases at an acceleratedrate as the pressure is raised with the sametip
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ANGLE OF DEFLECTION & EFFECTIVE REACHGreater horizontal reach occurs at elevations of30-34 degreesMaximum effective vertical reach of firestream occurs at 60 - 75 degrees3rd floor may be said to be the highest floor towhich streams may be thrown effectively fromstreet levelModerated head & tail winds decrease reach10% to 15%
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ONE EIGHTH (1/8”) RULE1/8” change in nozzle diameter at 50 psinozzle pressure changes the flow byapproximately 50 GPM1/8” change in nozzle diameter at 80 psinozzle pressure changes the flow byapproximately 100 GPM up to andincluding 2” tips
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FRICTION LOSS FOR 100 FT. OF HOSE Q = GPM divided by 100 For 1 1/2" hose FL = the FL in 2 1/2"hose at 4 times the stated GPM 2 1 3/4" hose FL = (10 Q ) + 10 2 2" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x 3 2 2 1/2" hose FL = (2Q + Q)
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FRICTION LOSS FOR 100 FT OF HOSE 2For 3" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x .4 2For 3 1/2" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x .17 2For 4" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x .1 2For 4 1/2" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x .05 2For 5" hose FL = (2Q + Q) x .03
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FRICTION LOSSStandard GPM & friction loss for 1 1/2”hose is 100 GPM and 30 psi per 100 ft. ofhoseStandard GPM and friction loss for 1 3/4”hose is 150 GPM and 32 psi per 100 ft. ofhose
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FIELD HYDRAULICS250 GPM fog nozzle on a 2 1/2” line = 15lbs. per 100’ friction loss100 GPM fog nozzle on a 1 1/2” line = 30lbs. per 100’ friction loss150 GPM fog nozzle on a 1 3/4” line = 32lbs. per 100’ friction loss
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ELEVATIONAdd 5 psi for each floor of elevation(exclude one floor)Subtract 5 lbs. for each floor below grade
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APPLIANCESAdd 25 psi for standpipe system & siameseAdd 10 psi for gated wyes & siameseAdd 20 psi for in-line operations
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SPINKLER SYSTEMSSprinkler systems shall be maintained at150 psi pump discharges pressuresCalculate flow from sprinkler heads byusing the following formula Flow(in GPM’s) = 1/2 pressure + 15
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HYDRANT RESIDUAL PRESSURERecommended minimum of 10 psi shouldbe maintained on the compound gaugewhen taking water from a hydrant
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TRANSFER VALVE SETTINGSPump in CAPACITY when you are goingto discharge over 50% of your pumperscapacityPump in PRESSURE when you are going tohave to develop a net pump pressure over200 psi
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2 1/2 INCH, LBS. OFFRICTION LOSS PER 100 FT.200 GPM 200/100 = 2 2 x (2x2)+2 = 10 lbs.300 GPM 300/100 = 3 2 x (3x3)+2 = 21 lbs.400 GPM 400/100 = 4 2 x (4x4)+2 = 36 lbs.500 GPM 500/100 = 5 2 x (5x5)+2 = 55 lbs.600 GPM 600/100 = 6 2 x (6x6)+2 = 78 lbs.
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2 1/2 INCH, LBS. OFFRICTION LOSS PER 100 FT.700 GPM 700/100 = 7 2 x (7x7)+2= 105 lbs.800 GPM 800/100 = 8 2 x (8x8)+2= 136 lbs.900 GPM 900/100 = 9 2 x (9x9)+2= 171 lbs.1000 1000/100 = 2 x (10 x 10) 210GPM 10 +2= lbs.
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3 INCH HOSE, LBS. OFFRICTION LOSS PER 100 FT.200 GPM 200/100=2 2 x 2 x 2 + 4.0 lbs. 2 x .4 =300 GPM 300/100=3 3 x 3 x2 + 8.4 lbs. 3 x .4 =400 GPM 400/100=4 4 x 4 x 2 + 14.4 lbs. 4 x .4 =500 GPM 500/100=5 5 x 5 x 2 + 22.0 lbs. 5 x .4 =600 GPM 600/100=6 6 x 6 x 2 + 31.2 lbs. 6 x .4 =
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3 INCH HOSE, LBS. OFFRICTION LOSS PER 100 FT.700 GPM 700/100=7 7 x 7 x 2 + 42.0 7 x .4 = lbs.800 GPM 800/100=8 8 x 8 x 2 + 54.4 8 x .4 = lbs.900 GPM 900/100=9 9 x 9 x 2 + 68.4 9 x .4 = lbs.1000 1000/100 10 x 10 x 2 84.0GPM = 10 + 10 x .4 = lbs.
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SUPPLY & SUPPORT OFSPINKLERS & STANDPIPESIndicators that you are not getting into a sprinkleror standpipe system with a supply line:– In warm, humid weather, lack of condensation on hose coupling– Discharge port & hose butt supplying the line is or becomes warm– Lack of drop in residual pressure on the compound gauge as this line is charged– Inability to gate & feather various pressures on the discharge port
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SUPPLYING A STANDPIPE SYSTEMThe following procedures should be usedthe fire department connection is not usable– Stretch a line from the pumper to a gated outlet on the first floor– Remove any house lines, reducer connections, and/or pressure reducers– Connect the pumper supply to the discharge outlet using a double female adapter
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SUPPLYING A STANDPIPE SYSTEMNo fire dept. connection cont.– When water is started in the supply line, the outlet valve is opened fully to allow water to flow into the riser– Where the hose outlet extends at a right angle from the riser, the weight of the hose & fittings should be supported by a short length of rope– Additional lines can be similarly stretched to hose outlets on other floors
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FIRE SERVICE BASIC HYRDAULICSSiamese operations– Siamesing lines is one way of reducing the excessive friction loss created by large volume lines– When it becomes necessary to siamese • Divide the GPM by the number of lines the pump is supplying • Compute the friction loss for 1 line at the reduced GPM flow & disregard the other lines • All that remains is to add either the nozzle pressure is supplying a deluge gun or 20 psi for residual pressure if supplying another line
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EQUAL SIZE LINESDivide the total GPM by two lines. This will give 400GPM through each lineCompute the friction loss for one line of 3” hosedelivering 400 GPM– 4 x 4 x 2 + 4 = 36 x .4 = 14.4 or 15 lbs. F.L. per 100’ of hoseMultiply the F.L. for 100’ by length of the lay inhundreds of feet– 15 x 4 = 60 psi F.L. for the total layTo the 60 lbs. F.L., add 80 lbs. NP = 20 lbs.approximate loss for deluge set and this will theengine discharge pressure
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UNEQUAL SIZE LINESDivide the total GPM by two lines, this willgive 400 GPM through each lineCompute the friction loss for one line of 2 1/2”hose delivering 400 GPM– 4 x 4 x 2 + 4 = 36 x .4 = 14.4 or 15 lbs. F.L. per 100’ of hoseAdd the Two F.L. answers together & divideby two– 36 +15 = 51 : 2 = 22.5 lbs. F.L. per 100’ of hose
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UNEQUAL SIZE LINESMultiply the F.L. for 100’ by the length ofthe lay in hundreds of feet– 25 x 4 = 100 lbs. F.L. for the total layTo the 100 lbs. F.L., add 80 lbs. N.P. + 20lbs. approximate F.L. in deluge set
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FIRE SERVICE BASIC HYDRAULICSWye operations– Common & are used in one way or another, on just about any fire of consequence– Uses • 1/ 1/2” hand lines to the fire where the reach is too long for preconnect • Used for overhaul from 2 1/2” lines rather than laying longer & additional lines of 1 1/2
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FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONSWhen it is necessary to supply a pre-pipedwaterway– Supply the water to the pump inlets, or aerial intake when by-passing the pump & supplying the total operation– Know the size tip that is intended for use in order to calculate pressure, determine the number of lines required & their diameter
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FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONSFriction loss factor pre-piped waterwayswill include the friction loss in the– Piping– Turret gun– Intake at the GPM flow providedStandard flow for pre-piped waterways of1000 GPM, friction loss of 60 psi, and anadditional 20 psi for friction loss whenpumping directly
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FRICTION LOSS CALCULATIONSWays to supply a pre-piped waterway– Ladder truck pumps through internal piping to ladder– Ladder truck pumps through hose into the ladder intake– Engine companies pumps into ladder intake– Relay to ladder truck pump operator (refer to relay operations)
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ELEVATED STREAMSRecommended procedures for obtaininggood elevated stream– Try to keep supply lines under 300 ft.– Nozzle pressure should be 80 psi for solid streams & 100 psi for fog nozzlesEach foot of elevation, the weight of waterproduces a pressure of .434 pounds persquare inch
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ELEVATED STREAMSGood elevated streams are possible if– Proper size tip or fog nozzle is used for the available water supply & pumping capacity– Sufficient lines or sufficient diameter are run from pumper to the base of the elevated apparatus– Sufficient pressure is maintained
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GENERAL OPERATIONS FOR CENTRIFUGAL FIRE PUMPDesigned for a specific duty & ordinarilywill perform this duty satisfactorily over along period of timeIf pump will not prime or loses prime – Air Leaks • Faulty Connection • Faulty pump packing • Leaky pump gaskets
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GENERAL OPERATIONS FOR CENTRIFUGAL FIRE PUMPPump will not prime or loses prime cont. – Detecting air leaks • Connect suction hose to the pump with a cap on the opposite end of the hose • Close all pump openings • Opening the priming valve & operate the primer until a vacuum of from 20-22 inches of mercury is shown on the vacuum gauge • Close the priming valve, shut off the primer, & shut off the engine
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GENERAL OPERATIONS FOR CENTRIFUGAL FIRE PUMPPump will not prime or loses prime cont. – Locating air leaks • Dirt in suction screens • Engine speed too low • Primer not operated long enough • Lack of oil primer reservoir • Improper clearance in rotary primer • Excess carbon on exhaust primer valve seats • Defective priming valve • High point in suction line • Suction lift too high • End of suction hose no under water
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