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Piston Pumps First types of pumps used for firefighting Very simple Pumps water and air Single or double displacement Very efficient Lack volume
Rotary Pumps Developed to be used with steam engines Still used today Primer pump Rotating gears create pressure Pumps water and air
Centrifugal Pumps Used today Uses impellers Cannot pump air Series vs. parallel Series = pressure Parallel = volume Transfer valve
Centrifugal Pumps Parallel mode Water enters pump through two intakes Twice the volume at same pressure
Centrifugal Pumps Series mode Water enters one side and is then thrown to the other side Double pressure, half volume
Gauges and Controls Pump switch Truck stopped Transmission = neutral Parking brake Lever down Transmission = drive Look and listen
Gauges and Controls Tank to pump Brings water from the booster tank to the fire pump Not used when running directly off a hydrant
Gauges and Controls Tank Fill / Re-circulate Fills the booster tank Re-circulates water from discharge back to intake Keep closed when flowing water Open when sitting idle Overflow under truck
Gauges and Controls Relief valve Equalizes pressure on all discharges +/- 10 psi. pressure Simple on/off switch
Gauges and Controls Relief valve Mechanical spring valve Set highest discharge pressure Decrease slightly
Gauges and Controls Throttle control Turn clockwise Increase throttle Turn counter-clockwise Decrease throttle Emergency operation Push red button in
Gauges and Controls Transfer valve Pressure Volume Operate when pumping more than ½ the rated capacity of the pump 500 gpm +
Gauges and Controls Primer Rotary pump Pumps air and water Drafting Lose prime in fire pump Pull handle 30-45 seconds Water will spray under the truck
Gauges and Controls Compound gauge Intake pressure Discharge pressure Drafting – vacuum pressure Inches of mercury
Gauges and controls Discharges Control pressure to each line Control each line Gate / feather Pull out on handle to operate Turn 90 degrees to lock
Gauges and Controls Discharges Control pressure to each line Control each line Gate / feather Pull back on the handle Turn clockwise to lock
Gauges and controls Control panel on 4224 Throttle controls RPM/Pressure mode
Gauges and controls Aerial Flow meter Rear panel on 4229 Digital display Gallons per minute
Gauges and controls Aerial Discharge Valve Directs flow of water up the pre-piped waterway Post indicator comes out when valve is open
Line pressures Calculating engine pressure Variables Hose length Hose diameter Nozzles, appliances, etc. Elevation Friction loss standards
Line pressures Attack lines 1 ¾” hose 100 feet long Friction loss 32 psi.
Line pressures Attack line/supply line 2 ½” hose 100 feet long Friction loss Depends on volume and pressure
Supply lines Large Diameter Hose LDH or 5” hose
Line pressures Nozzles Smooth bore Fog nozzles
Line pressures Smooth bore nozzle Stacked tips Bail Friction loss Hand line 50 psi. Master stream 80 psi.
Line pressures Fog nozzle Bail Volume selector Friction loss 100 psi.
Line pressures Discharge pressure Nozzle + Hose + Appliances (+ or -) Elevation Example: 200 foot pre-connected 1 ¾” hose with a fog nozzle 100 psi (fog nozzle) + 60 psi (32 psi hose X 2) = 162 psi NWFD = typically 144 - 150 psi
Line pressures Hose lines Longer hose lays = higher friction loss Smaller hose = higher friction loss Fog nozzles = higher friction loss than smooth bore Things to think about: Long hose lays Multiple lines off
Standpipes and sprinklers Locations Kings House Shrine Firehouse crossing Others??
Standpipes and sprinklers Standpipe Connect 2 ½” hose to fire dept connection Discharge pressure 25 psi + hose
Standpipes and sprinklers Sprinkler connection Connect 2 ½” hose to fire department connection Discharge pressure 150 psi
Hydrant Detail Dry Hydrant
Hydrant Volumes Colored Bonnets Blue = 1500 gpm + Green = 1000 – 1499 gpm Orange = 500 – 999 gpm Red = less than 499 gpm
Opening Hydrants “Hydrant man” Get off the truck ready to go to work PPE SCBA Tools Grab a radio!
Opening Hydrants Pull hose and hydrant bag off apparatus DO NOT FORGET THE HYDRANT BAG!!!
Opening Hydrants Hitting a hydrant Wrap end of hose around hydrant Signal for driver
Opening HydrantsDO NOT STAND ON THE HOSE!!
Opening Hydrants Opening the hydrant Flush first, then connect Charge when told/signaled Open slowly Open up 100%
Opening HydrantsDO NOT CHARGE BEFORE ENGINEER IS READY!!
Connecting the supply line LDH intake Connect LDH Charge hydrant Open petcock valve Allow air to escape Close petcock valve Open gate valve
Basic Pumper/Apparatus Operations Any Questions???