Using tests for teacher evaluation texasPresentation Transcript
Using tests for high stakes evaluation, what administrators need to know TASA Midwinter Conference – January 29, 2013 Austin, Texas John Cronin, Ph.D. Director The Kingsbury Center @ NWEA
Using tests for high stakes evaluation, what educators need to know.Presenter - John Cronin, Ph.D.Contacting us:Rebecca Moore: 503-548-5129E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgThis PowerPoint presentation and recommended resources areavailable at our SlideShare website:http://www.slideshare.net/NWEA/tag/kingsbury-center
Much of the nation has moved from amodel of education reform thatfocused on fixing schools to a modelthat is focused on fixing the teachingprofession. Texas has not yet joinedthis bandwagon, but administratorsneed to understand the issues tocontribute to the public dialogue.
NWEA’s position on the use of tests for teacher evaluation• The principal or designated evaluator should control the evaluation of teachers.• Multiple sources of data should inform this evaluation including: – Classroom observation – Evidence of student achievement – Professional participation• Tests may inform the evaluation process but should be a controlling factor
Does NWEA participate in the use of tests for teacher evaluation?• We serve 5200 school systems throughout the United States.• In many states, the use of local assessments is required as part of the teacher evaluation.• In these states we: – Advise our partners on the issues associated with this issue. – Work with partners to implement common solutions that are in compliance with state mandates, fair to all stakeholders, and legally defensible. – Form state advisory groups of school systems to provide input to this process, implement a common solution, and establish a network for schools to get support from colleagues.
Primary sources of teacher dismissal• Top source – Economic layoff• Second source – non-renewal of probationary teachers• Third source – dismissal for misconduct• Fourth source – dismissal for incompetence.
What are the primary issues in using tests for teacher evaluation• Alignment between tests and curriculum expectations
Issues in the use of tests for teacherevaluation – curriculum alignment 1. Assessment of high school subjects 2. Assessment of subjects without assessments
Issues in the use of tests for teacherevaluation – curriculum alignment Assessment of subjects without assessments Music, art, PE, and many other courses lack appropriate assessments to measure student learning and gains.
Issues in the use of tests for teacherevaluation – curriculum alignment Common Solutions that are problematic Solution - Hold all teachers accountable for basic skills Problem – This distracts specialized teachers from their core responsibilities and is not a fair assessment of their job performance
Issues in the use of tests for teacherevaluation – curriculum alignment Common Solutions that are problematic Solution – Evaluate by having teachers develop SLO’s or Student Learning Objectives Problem – This creates a huge evaluation load on administrators and SLO’s are often not rigorous or targeted to all students
Issues in the use of tests for teacherevaluation – curriculum alignment Assessment of high school subjects We are aware of one district in the United States that assesses all courses. They manage 2600 tests. State and standardized math and reading tests do not always closely align to the expectations of math and English courses
How the teacher’s contribution to learning iscommonly measured by tests Is the progress produced by this teacher dramatically greater or less than teaching peers that deliver instruction to comparable students?
Moving from Proficiency to Growth All students count when accountability is measured through growth.
One district’s change in 5th grade math performance relative to Kentucky cut scores proficiency college readiness
Number of 5th grade students meeting math growth target in the same district
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Measurement design of the instrument Many assessments are not designed to measure growth. Others do not measure growth equally well for all students.
Tests are not equally accurate for all students California STAR NWEA MAP
Tests are not equally accurate for all students Grade 6 New York Mathematics
Item Pool Depth
Issues in the use of growth and value- added measures “Among those who ranked in the top category on the TAKS reading test, more than 17% ranked among the lowest two categories on the Stanford. Similarly more than 15% of the lowest value-added teachers on the TAKS were in the highest two categories on the Stanford.”Corcoran, S., Jennings, J., & Beveridge, A., Teacher Effectiveness on High and Low StakesTests, Paper presented at the Institute for Research on Poverty summer workshop, Madison, WI(2010).
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Instability of results A variety of factors can cause value- added results to lack stability. Results are more likely to be stable at the extremes. The use of multiple-years of data is highly recommended.
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Instability of results Los Angeles Times Study
Reliability of teacher value-added estimates Teachers with growth scores in lowest and highest quintile over two years using NWEA’s Measures of Academic Progress Bottom Top quintile quintile Y1&Y2 Y1&Y2 Number 59/493 63/493 Percent 12% 13% r .64 r2 .41Typical r values for measures of teaching effectiveness rangebetween .30 and .60 (Brown Center on Education Policy, 2010)
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Control for statistical error All models attempt to address this issue. Nevertheless, many teachers value-added scores will fall within the range of statistical error.
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Control for statistical error New York City
Range of teacher value-added estimates
Issues in the use of growth and value-added measures Lack of random assignment The use of a value-added model assumes that the school doesn’t add a source of variation that isn’t controlled for in the model. e.g. Young teachers are assigned disproportionate numbers of students with poor discipline records.
Potential Litigation IssuesThe use of value-added data for high stakespersonnel decisions does not yet have a strong,coherent, body of case law.Expect litigation if value-added results are thelynchpin evidence for a teacher-dismissal caseuntil a body of case law is established.
Possible legal issues• Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Disparate impact of sanctions on a protected group.• State statutes that provide tenure and other related protections to teachers.• Challenges to a finding of “incompetence” stemming from the growth or value-added data.
Other issues Security and Cheating When measuring growth, one teacher who cheats disadvantages the next teacher.
Cheating Atlanta Public Schools Crescendo Charter Schools Philadelphia Public Schools Washington DC Public Schools Houston Independent School District Michigan Public Schools
CheatingAtlanta Journal Constitution Database
Mean spring and fall test duration in minutes by school
Mean value-added growth by school
Security considerations• Teachers should not be allowed to view the contents of the item bank or record items.• Districts should have policies for accomodation that are based on student IEPs.• Districts should consider having both the teacher and a proctor in the test room.• Districts should consider whether other security measures are needed for both the protection of the teacher and administrators.
Recommendations• Embrace the formative advantages of growth measurement as well as the summative.• Create comprehensive evaluation systems with multiple measures of teacher effectiveness (Rand, 2010)• Select measures as carefully as value-added models.• Use multiple years of student achievement data.• Understand the issues and the tradeoffs.
Thank you for attendingPresenter - John Cronin, Ph.D.Contacting us:NWEA Main Number: 503-624-1951E-mail: email@example.comThe presentation and recommended resources areavailable at our SlideShare site:http://www.slideshare.net/NWEA/tag/kingsbury-center