Improving the Performance    of Under-PerformingTeachers: Research Says . . .        Andy Hegedus Sr. Manager, PD Data Ana...
The policy world is shifting . . .Our nation has moved from a model ofeducation reform that focused on fixingschools to a ...
. . . and we were curious• We champion being evidence based, so we  wanted to walk our talk• MAP data being used more in t...
We found a few things, none of            which are simple or surprising . . .• You need to identify which teachers are  u...
How can we reliably judge a                          teacher’s performance anyway?                   Let’s dive in a step ...
Defining expectations for                            teachers - Singapore style• Defined “Competency”     – Patterns of th...
Singapore example  Competency             All Teachers               Master TeachersSubject Mastery   • Active interest in...
A wide variety of constructs                  are in use here• Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project  studies five ...
Attention must be paid to ensuring                 accuracy of observers• Create a standard for accuracy• Train observers ...
Reliable results can be                       elusive• Two biggest obstacles are:  – Teacher variation lesson to lesson  –...
Some practical ideas might                     be . . .• Need multiple observations and multiple  people  – Need independe...
Use multiple measures to           determine your reliable conclusion• Student achievement alone is a poor judge of  teach...
Some things to consider as             rating process is finalized• What is “far below” a district’s expectation is  subje...
How to approach improving                               performance starts with “Why”?• Many factors can contribute signif...
Although we default to PD                               often, it may not be a solution   There are many reasons why some ...
If learning is the answer, let’s                                    consider how the brain works                          ...
Professional learning needs to            create learning efficiently1. Create the structure and environment that   allows...
Two main options  One on one coaching                                                Teacher Learning Communities  • Trust...
Several key final thoughts• Focus teacher learning on areas shown to  have a substantial impact on student learning• Key c...
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Improving the performance of under-performing teachers: Research says . . . nder performing teachers

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Improving the performance of under-performing teachers: Research says . . .
Dr. Andy Hegedus, Senior Manager, Professional Development Data Analytics, NWEA
Fusion 2012, the NWEA summer conference in Portland, Oregon

Although some would like to fire all the teachers identified as under-performing, many believe teacher with this label can perform adequately with the appropriate supports. With all the rhetoric these days, it’s important to cut through the noise to understand what the research actually says about what practices most effectively promote student achievement and how we can impact the performance of teachers.

Learning outcome:
- Identify significant research findings about improving teacher performance
- Identify some key ideas to incorporate into effectively supporting teachers

Audience:
- District leadership
- Curriculum and Instruction

Published in: Education
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  • Concept – If we fix schools we fix education. Schools actually did improve during this period.Race to the Top, Gates Foundation, Teach for America…Signaled in a number of waysNCLB about fixing schools – 100% Proficient by 2014Punishments for AYP – SES, Choice, RestructuringObama switch – Race to the TopFixing or improving teaching and the teaching professionRecruiting teachers from alternative careersMove from holding schools accountable to holding teachers accountable. Wrong no. Different Yes.David Brooks – Aug 2010 – Atlantic Monthly – Teachers are fair game – Teachers under scrutiny – Somewhat unfairlyBOE are asking about test based accountabilityCharleston SC – Any teacher without 50% of students on growth norm – Yr 1 on report, Yr 2 only rehired by approval by BOE50% Yr 1, 25% year 2 to be rehiredOur goal – Make sure you are prepared. Understand the risk. Proper ways to implement including legal issues. Clarify some of the implications – Very complex – Prepare you and a prudent course
  • Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project studies fiveRequires a common vision of effective instructionWhat competencies are in or out?How is the range of effectiveness defined?Non-trivial aspects of practicesStill easier to define and execute on some vs. othersRequires understanding and judgmentSome instruments correlated strongly, some didn’t – couldn’t tease out higher leverage competenciesFFT (Danielson),All Academic subjects, 2 domains, subdivided into 8 components Note: Includes 2 additional domains— “planning and preparation” and “professional responsibilities”— that could not be observed in the videoCLASS (Pianta UVA), all academic subjects, 3 domains of teacher-student interactions subdivided into 11 “dimensions,” plus a fourth domain on student engagementPLATO (Grossman, Stanford – Reading), MQI (Hill, Harvard U of M), UTOP (UT-Austin)Practice is overwhelmingly in the mid-range of any toolHighest scores for orderly environment, lowest for the most complex attributes – more than two-thirds of scores given for “managing student behavior,” “creating an environment of respect and rapport,” and “engaging students in learning” are proficient orabove.44 percent for scores on “using assessment in instruction,”34 percent for “using questioning and discussion techniques,” and 30 percentfor “communicating with students”
  • AccuracyStandard – compared to expert observers and their scoring of video taped lessons3-4 days of training
  • Variation could be from lesson, rater, students, other – off dayLesson to lesson – could be content or subject matter, change in pedagogy
  • Variation could be from lesson, rater, students, other – off dayPeers, IcsDifferent numbers for new, tenure, poor performing vs. masterDifferent if formative vs high stakes
  • Curriculum: Pacing, sequence, fidelity – consistent problems across teachers?Instruction: Materials, Pedagogy, techniques – Formative Assessment; data use for differentiationTeachers: Content knowledge, expectations for learningStudents: Preparation and background knowledge; Learning strategies; Connections to and engagement in subjectInfrastructure: Time off task – 1st thing in the morning – pulled on Fridays; Supports provided for support/extension
  • Database:Need a Change in Body state – a strong emotional reaction, repeated is better – to get storedDoing is prior to understanding – Experience builds tacit knowledgeError detection:Deviation from the remembered present is a surprise – warnings issued – amount of surprise creates COBSWhen remembered present matches – brain rewardsImplication – don’t want to deviate from remembered present much – self-regulationProjects into the future with if – then scenarios based on adapting prior experiencesSocial system:We are social beings – relating to others is vitalHow learners believe others will respond provides a powerful signal to the Exec SystemThe projection of “what will others think of me” is significantExecutive System:Asks for input based on “What are we reasoning about?”Makes choices and vetos options If we make choices that connect to prior experiences (with an analogy) it is more likely to stick – happens through the reasoning process – experience it first, reason about it laterPeople need to choose to engage with autonomy – minimize veto/rationalization process
  • Create (or design a process) the structure and environment for the “Surprise” to occurEngage people in an inquiry process with a high likelihood of a surprise or new experienceProcess the informationNeed to start from the mental structure that they are inMake the environment social and supportiveA laboratory of practice – Safe experimentationPeople still choose – Safe incremental step – Invitation to look more deeply into the ideaFocus activities and people to ensure they reason about what we want them to learnRepeat the patterns over timeMake learning experiential, then process it
  • Improving the performance of under-performing teachers: Research says . . . nder performing teachers

    1. 1. Improving the Performance of Under-PerformingTeachers: Research Says . . . Andy Hegedus Sr. Manager, PD Data Analytics June 2012
    2. 2. The policy world is shifting . . .Our nation has moved from a model ofeducation reform that focused on fixingschools to a model that is focused onfixing the teaching profession
    3. 3. . . . and we were curious• We champion being evidence based, so we wanted to walk our talk• MAP data being used more in teacher evaluations• New, expanded, research based PD services• Desire to continue to support, not punish, teachers
    4. 4. We found a few things, none of which are simple or surprising . . .• You need to identify which teachers are under-performing• You need to identify why this is so . . . case by case• You need to remedy the cause – Sustained and individualized professional learning may be the path
    5. 5. How can we reliably judge a teacher’s performance anyway? Let’s dive in a step at a timeMET Project, Gathering Feedback for Teaching, Policy and Practice Brief, Bill and Melinda GatesFoundation, 2012
    6. 6. Defining expectations for teachers - Singapore style• Defined “Competency” – Patterns of thinking, feeling, acting, or speaking — that cause a person to be successful in a specific job or role• Conducted formal research to identify patterns – Characterized the differences between the responses of typical and top performers – Used primarily for a formative purpose of increasing teacher competence rather than solely for the summative purpose of categorizing teachers• Results are broad in scope and have strong emphasis on whole child Steiner, L., Using Competency-Based Evaluation to Drive Teacher Excellence: Lessons from Singapore, Public Impact, NC, 2010
    7. 7. Singapore example Competency All Teachers Master TeachersSubject Mastery • Active interest in subject • Apply knowledge of trends matter • Get feedback to determine • Take initiative to keep effectiveness abreast of education • Develop innovative trends in subject approaches • Provide thought leadershipPartnering with • Keep parents informed • Work collaboratively withParents about activities, student parents progress and policies • Build and nurture long- • Treat parents as partners term relationships with • Encourage parental parents involvement
    8. 8. A wide variety of constructs are in use here• Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project studies five instruments – Requires a common vision of effective instruction – Non-trivial aspects of practices – Requires understanding and judgment• Some instruments correlated strongly with each other, some didn’t• Couldn’t tease out higher leverage competencies
    9. 9. Attention must be paid to ensuring accuracy of observers• Create a standard for accuracy• Train observers – Skilled in identifying each competency at each performance level• Require a performance demonstration – Observe and meet the pre-defined standard• Refresh periodically – Judgment of cost vs. rating integrity
    10. 10. Reliable results can be elusive• Two biggest obstacles are: – Teacher variation lesson to lesson – Observer variation in watching the same lesson• In MET study and their unique circumstances, – One lesson with one observer – Poor reliability – Four lessons with four different observers – teacher was ~66% of variation
    11. 11. Some practical ideas might be . . .• Need multiple observations and multiple people – Need independent sampling to ensure fairness• How can you deal with this? – Train more people to be observers – Tier the number of observations – Tier the type and duration
    12. 12. Use multiple measures to determine your reliable conclusion• Student achievement alone is a poor judge of teacher effectiveness• Combining observations with student perceptions and student academic growth is a much better indicator of teacher performance – A plug for Friday
    13. 13. Some things to consider as rating process is finalized• What is “far below” a district’s expectation is subjective• What about • Obligation to help teachers improve? • Quality and quantity of replacement teachers?
    14. 14. How to approach improving performance starts with “Why”?• Many factors can contribute significantly to low levels of performance – Curriculum: Design and implementation – Instruction: Methods, materials, and resources – Teachers: Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions – Students: Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions – Infrastructure: Schedules, Programming, Resources• Gather data across classrooms to help focusLipton, L. and Wellman, B., Got Data? Now What? Creating and leading cultures of inquiry, Solution Tree Press, IN,2012
    15. 15. Although we default to PD often, it may not be a solution There are many reasons why some teachers are not effective. The continuum of inadequate performance includes a wide range of pedagogical deficiencies and behavioral anomalies. It requires time and effort to understand why a teacher is not effective, whether professional development is a potential remedy, and how to organize a set of learning experiences that may significantly improve the teachers performance.Mizel, H., PD not a quick fix for under-performing teachers, Learning Forward LearningBlog, 5/2010, http://www.nsdc.org/learningBlog/post.cfm/pd-not-a-quick-fix-for-low-performing-teachers accessed 6/2012
    16. 16. If learning is the answer, let’s consider how the brain works Database Error DetectionSystems of Social System System the brain Me We Executive System Where the results of learning Behaviors become visibleSheckley, B., The Brain, Experience, and Adult Learning: A Tribute to the Life and Work of David Justice, Pre-publication draft, obtained fromauthor 5/2012
    17. 17. Professional learning needs to create learning efficiently1. Create the structure and environment that allows for the “Surprise” to occur2. Make the environment social and supportive3. Focus environment, activities, and people to ensure they reason about what we want them to learn
    18. 18. Two main options One on one coaching Teacher Learning Communities • Trust • Learning intentions and • Competence as a Coach success criteria • Providing feedback • How’s it going? respectfully and with • New ideas (lowest priority) specificity • Personal Action Planning • Don’t make assumptions • Review of learning about individual’s abilities intentions and assessing • Consider learning styles success • Meaningful opportunity for input • Quality of the relationshipWise & Sundstrom, Power of Coaching: Teachers and Teaching, OR, Thompson & Wiliam, Tight but Loose: A Conceptual Framework for2011 Scaling Up School Reforms, AERA, Vol 9, Chicago, 2007
    19. 19. Several key final thoughts• Focus teacher learning on areas shown to have a substantial impact on student learning• Key coaching attributes, along with the learner’s safety needs, may be best served with independent support• Educating children is complex, difficult work – there are no quick and easy ways to help all teachers perform at high levels all the timeHattie, J., Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement, Taylor & Francis, 2009Childress, Doyle, & Thomas, Leading for Equity The Pursuit of Excellence in the Montgomery County Public Schools, HarvardEducation Press, 2009MCPS Teacher Professional Growth System Handbook, 2011, obtained 6/2012 fromhttp://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/departments/development

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