1. Designing Instruction for
Deep Learning and Diversity
February 9, 2010
2. Backward Design Model – Stage 2
1. Identify desired results
2. Determine acceptable
3. Plan learning experiences
3. Mid – 1990s Today
Topic or Theme Outcomes or Expectations
• chosen based on curriculum, personal • determined by curriculum
preference, or a favourite resource • unit is often organized by big ideas
Teaching Strategies • chosen based on their ability to
• chosen and implemented accurately measure achievement of
Assessment Strategies Teaching Strategies
• chosen and implemented • chosen based on their ability to achieve
Outcomes or Expectations Resources
• become apparent as the teacher • are chosen according to applicability
analyzes what was learned to unit goals
4. Backward Design Model – Stage 2
BIG IDEA: Valid Evidence
What we assess and how we assess
must align with the learning goals.
5. Backward Design Model – Stage 2
1. What is “valid” evidence of student
2. How can we assess ‘deep understanding’
3. How do we design “authentic”
6. Learning Intentions for Today
1. Understand what is meant by Valid Evidence
and how to align assessment with Goals.
2. Review Assessment For/As/Of Learning
3. Determine how to best “assess for understanding”
using the 6 Facets of Understanding.
4. Develop Performance Tasks using the “GRASPS”
7. Three Principles of Assessment
1. Multiple Sources of Evidence
2. Align Assessment with the Learning Goals
3. Form Follows Function
• What are we assessing?
• Why are we assessing?
• For whom are the results intended?
• How will the results be used?
8. Types of Assessment
Assessment Assessment AS Assessment OF
FOR Learning Learning Learning
Guiding instruction Students monitoring Reporting out
Improving learning their own progress Measuring learning
Descriptive feedback Goal Setting Letter grades, %s,
Continuous Continuous At the end
Formative Formative Summative
9. VALID EVIDENCE
• Ensure that what we assess and how we
assess aligns with Stage 1 Goals
• Assess only what has been taught, modeled
• Allow students to use their strengths
• Assess students’ in-depth understanding of
key concepts, knowledge, and skills (Stage 1)
10. A Quick ‘Concept Attainment’
What would be sufficient and What would be fun and
revealing evidence of learning? interesting activities on this topic?
What performance tasks must What project might students
anchor the unit and focus the wish to do on this topic?
What are the different types of What tests should I give, based
evidence required by Stage 1 on the content I taught?
Against what criteria will we How will I give students a
appropriately consider work and grade and justify it to their
assess levels of quality? parents?
Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe) p. 151
1. How well did the activities go? Were students engaged?
2. Did the assessments reveal and distinguish between
those who understood from those who only seemed
3. How did students do on the test?
4. Am I clear on the reasons behind learner mistakes?
5. Do my group assessments reveal individual students’
understanding of key concepts, skills and processes?
12. Testing for Validity
In your group, sort the assessment tasks into
columns of “valid” or “invalid”
• Could a student do well in this assessment task
without a real understanding of the goals?
• Could a student perform poorly on this
assessment task but still have a good
understanding if allowed to show
understanding in other ways?
13. The Six Facets of
“…Understanding shows its face
when people can think and act
flexibly around what they know.”
14. We want students to be able to:
• Explain why they did something
• Discuss their evidence and support for
their answer/ approach/ design
• Reflect on the results they achieved
and possible alternative ways to
• Demonstrate insight
• Explain the big idea / significant concept in their own
• Make connections
• Justify an argument with evidence
• Avoid common misunderstandings
Why are the characteristics of …
What accounts for …
How did … come about
• Requires students to make sense of something
• Read between the lines and offer plausible accounts
• Offer a meaningful account of a complex situation
What does it mean when…
How does this relate to…
Predict what might happen if…
• Using knowledge or skills in a new
How is … usable in a larger context
When can we use…
How might … help…
• See something from different
points of view
• Critique and justify a position
• Test a theory
• Understand the biases and
assumptions in an argument
Defend the …
What are the limits of…
Was it justified to…
Is this evidence reliable?
• Understand how others think and the
rationale behind the thinking
• Develop an appreciation of those who
think and act differently than us
What would it be like to….
What was the author thinking when…
How can we understand…
• Gain insight into our performance
• Helps us to question our
What are the limits of my
What strategies work for me?
How do I learn best?
21. Six Key Facets
• Help us find authentic assessment that is suitable
for our significant concept/big idea
• Guide us to an measurement that we deem
quintessential for understanding and
• Help us find a balance between factual recall and
22. on Explanation
p • Explain to the class how
a battery causes a light
I nt bulb to glow.
• Interpret a schematic • Design an electrical circuit
diagram and predict the to accomplish a specific task
• Troubleshoot a faulty
• Describe an electron’s • Why does Canada use AC
experience as is passes instead of DC current?
through a simple current. (historical perspective)
• Give a pre-test • What are the strengths of
and a post-test each type?
to assess common
pa inventory) and have
students reflect on their
23. Why Performance Tasks?
• Higher-order thinking skills
• Acquisition of content and procedural knowledge
• Differentiate content, process and product
according to students’ readiness, interests, and
24. Criteria for
A Performance Task:
• Realistically contextualized
• Judgments and innovation
• Asks the student to “do” the subject
25. Criteria for
A Performance Task:
• Knowledge and skill to negotiate a complex and
• Opportunities to rehearse, practice, consult
resources, get feedback and refine performances
Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe) p. 154
• STANDARDS and CRITERIA for SUCCESS
27. From Learning Goals to
• Use the verbs from the PLOs to determine what
students will do to reveal understanding
• Consider the verbs within the 6 Facets of
understanding when designing Performance
28. Curricular Priorities
Worth being Worth Being Familiar With
• Different conditions requiring dietary
familiar with restrictions, such as high blood
pressure, diabetes, and stomach ulcers
know and do Important to know and do
• Canada’s Food Guide recommendations
• Nutritional information on food labels
and how to interpret them
Big Ideas and
• Balanced diet
• “You are what you eat.” Your diet affects
your health, appearance, and
29. Curricular Priorities and Assessment Methods
Traditional quizzes and tests
Important to • Selected-response
know and do • Constructed response
Performance tasks and projects
Big Ideas and • Complex
Core Tasks • Open-ended
30. Where to Differentiate?
Tomlinson & McTighe (2006) Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design. p. 36 Fig 3.3
31. School Teams: Your Task
• Use the concept of Validity, the 6 Facets
of Understanding and the GRASPS
template, design a performance task for
your planned unit of instruction.
32. Next Steps…
• Complete Stage 1 and 2
of your UbD unit
• Check the Wiki page for
articles and updates
March 29th at the LUCAS Gym