Creativity & Concept
Generation:
Structured Methods
Outline
 Concept Development in NPD
 Structured Methods for Concept Generation
 Brainstorming
 Collaborative Sketching...
Draw no more than 4 straight lines
(without lifting the pencil from the paper)
which will cross through all 9 dots.
Sustainable Product
Development Process:
• Concept Generation
• Product Architectures/ Platforms
• Dematerialization Strat...
Concept Development
Funnel
concept generation
concept screening
concept scoring
concept testing
Ideation Process
Ongoing
Process
Generate AnalyzeAssess Decide
Assemble illustrated
profiles of drivers for
new product st...
Concept Generation
 Preparation
 Gather and study information about the problem
 Define and understand the problem, the...
Concept Generation
Process
 Step 1: Clarify the problem
 Decompose a complex problem
into simpler subproblems
 Focus in...
Fast Company, 2003
Other Approaches:
IDEO Method Cards
 Unfocus group: Assemble a diverse collection of
people to talk ab...
Brainstorming –
Organization
 Form a diversified group.
 Build an environment for creativity and risk
taking.
 Use game...
Brainstorming Rules
 Make sure each participant has a
chance to express ideas.
 Listen to everyone.
 Do not allow judgm...
Brainstorming
Techniques
 Have participants generate ideas prior to
brainstorming meeting.
 Use a “round robin” where ev...
Collaborative
Sketching
 Five participants collaborate on the incremental development of
ideas.
 No direct communication...
Innovation Workshop
Thought Question
What are the relative
advantages and
disadvantages of involving
actual customers in the
concept generatio...
Methods that Focus
on Function
 Functional Decomposition
 Formulate overall product function
 Split up overall function...
Morphological Matrix
Morphological Matrix
 Search for solution principles to
fulfill sub-functions
 Identify as many sol...
Example: Coffee
Maker
Mix Coffee
and Water
Heat
Coffee
Heat
Water
Store
Water
Electricity
Water
Ground
Coffee
Brewed
Coffe...
Morphological Matrix - Coffee Maker
Heat
Coffee
Heat
Water
Store
Water
Store
Grounds
MixCoffee
andWater
Store
Coffee
Brew
...
These ideas are all in: Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A
Handbook of Business Creativity for the 90s.
Concept Expansion
Te...
TRIZ:
The Theory of Inventive
Problem Solving
 TRIZ research began with the hypothesis that there
are universal principle...
Without you moving the glass
Example: Remove
Water from the glass
How many ways does the world know to
move a liquid?
Acoustic Cavitation
Acoustic Vibrations
Archimedes’ Principle
Bernoull...
function.creax.com
TRIZ Looks for
Contradictions and
Conflicts
“I want my table Strong but I want it to be light”
“I want my table to
be strong AND I
want it to be light”
I want to improve: Strength
without increasing the: Weight
INVENT...
TRIZ - The 40 Inventive Principles
1. Segmentation
2. Extraction
3. Local Quality
4. Asymmetry
5. Combination
6. Universal...
These ideas are all in: Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A
Handbook of Business Creativity for the 90s.
Concept Expansion
Te...
Conceptual
Blockbusting
 Perceptual Blocks
 Emotional Blocks
 Cultural Blocks
 Organizational Blocks
Jim Adams
Stanfor...
Jim Adams
Stanford University
Conceptual
Blockbusting
 Conceptual blocks are mental walls that
block the problem solver f...
Perceptual Blocks
 Perceptual blocks are obstacles that prevent the
problem-solver from clearly perceiving either the
pro...
Draw no more than 4 straight lines
(without lifting the pencil from the paper)
which will cross through all 9 dots.
9 Dot Exercise
9 Dot Exercise
Problem
Statement:
Dealing
with
plastic
beverage
containers
Framing
Stakeholders
 Water Bottle Companies
 Municipal Waste Collectors
 Local Residents
 Local Businesses that sell Water Bo...
Exercise
 Divide into groups that represent the
different stakeholders
 Brainstorm on ways to fix the problem of
water b...
… One solution from
a young innovator…
More potential
solutions…
More potential
solutions…
TerraCycle: Worm
Poop
From Terracycle.net
1,223,180 bottles collected and reused
Contextual Inquiry
Exercise
 Homework Assignment: Contextual Inquiry
 Go out in the field and perform a “contextual inqu...
References
 Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A Handbook of
Business Creativity for the 90s
 James L. Adams, Conceptual Blo...
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06 spd conceptgeneration (1)

  1. 1. Creativity & Concept Generation: Structured Methods
  2. 2. Outline  Concept Development in NPD  Structured Methods for Concept Generation  Brainstorming  Collaborative Sketching  IDEO Idea Cards  Innovation Workshop  Functional Decomposition  Concept Expansion  Triz/Creax  Conceptual Blockbusting  Conceptual Design Exercise
  3. 3. Draw no more than 4 straight lines (without lifting the pencil from the paper) which will cross through all 9 dots.
  4. 4. Sustainable Product Development Process: • Concept Generation • Product Architectures/ Platforms • Dematerialization Strategy • Concept Selection Reuse/ End of Life Planning: Opportunity Strategy Customers Users Concept Generation, Evaluation & Selection Detailed Development & Design Prototyping, Testing And Refinement Launch: Sustainable Product & Business Model • Clarify the problem • Search externally • Search internally • Explore systematically • Brainstorming
  5. 5. Concept Development Funnel concept generation concept screening concept scoring concept testing
  6. 6. Ideation Process Ongoing Process Generate AnalyzeAssess Decide Assemble illustrated profiles of drivers for new product strategy, for use in generating ideas and stimulating brainstorms: • Technology • Macro Trends • Competition • Potential Partners • Potential Channels • Specific user behavior Techniques will include: • Customer follow-me’ • “Store” visits • Focus Groups • Online intelligence Brainstorm massive volume of product, service and partnership ideas, followed by prioritization Brainstorms with groups, Interns, Internal Visionaries Series of meetings with Core, Stakeholders, Partners & Outsiders (2 hrs on 3 Thurs) 1. Kick-off & Context 2. Brainstorm 3. Prioritization Research customer reactions Evaluate commercial, and user feasibility based on established criteria. Narrow ideas to a handful of strong candidates: Take filtered ideas through feasability analysis. Brainstorm as necessary to break through perceived barriers & constraints Produce decision-ready profile of the top, feasible ideas. Choose products based on opportunity size and implementation restraints: Fast-track 2-3 ideas with small (<$1mm/yr) but immediate revenue-generating potential and limited implementation reqs. Fully analyze 1-2 large (>$1mm/yr) ideas with longer and larger implementation reqs. Table or reject other ideas. Measure ideation process, refine and establish ongoing process for collection and evaluation • Process Post Mortem • Measure • Refine for reuse Establish ongoing idea collection process, including: • Publicize collection • DB workflow • Incentives • Recognition • Status updates Business Case▶Process▶ People▶ Timeline 100 Ideas 400 Ideas 50 Ideas 5 Ideas
  7. 7. Concept Generation  Preparation  Gather and study information about the problem  Define and understand the problem, the needs  Observations, interviews, scenarios, benchmarking  Generation is a Divergent Process  Focus on creativity  Go for quantity  structured (intuition & logical) methods  Stepping Back  Cluster concepts  Insight may be triggered by some apparently unrelated stimulus
  8. 8. Concept Generation Process  Step 1: Clarify the problem  Decompose a complex problem into simpler subproblems  Focus initial efforts on critical subproblems  Step 2: Search externally  Interview lead users  Consult experts  Search patents  Search published literature  Benchmark related products  Step 3: Search internally  Individual and group search  Make analogies, wish and wonder, use related stimuli, use unrelated stimuli, set quantitative goals, use gallery method  Step 4: Explore systematically  Concept classification tree  Concept combination table  Managing the exploration process  Step 5: Reflect on the results and the process Ulrich and Eppinger, 2003
  9. 9. Fast Company, 2003 Other Approaches: IDEO Method Cards  Unfocus group: Assemble a diverse collection of people to talk about product  Experience prototype: Construct something and test it  Empathy tools: Simulate someone else’s experience (e.g., heavy gloves)  Emotional dimension: Personal histories of objects  A day in the life: How people actually spend time  Behavioral sampling: Give subjects pages and check in randomly throughout day  Extreme user interviews: Talk with those who occupy the edges  Foreign correspondents: Collect information from other countries
  10. 10. Brainstorming – Organization  Form a diversified group.  Build an environment for creativity and risk taking.  Use games & exercises to stimulate creative thinking & minimize conceptual blocks.  Select or bring in a facilitator.  Select or bring in a recorder to write down ideas as they are presented.  Use provocative action or stimuli if idea process slows down.  Make use of shared ideation space.
  11. 11. Brainstorming Rules  Make sure each participant has a chance to express ideas.  Listen to everyone.  Do not allow judgments or critical discussion. No idea is a bad idea.  Strive for quantity.  Let participants build spontaneously on the ideas of others.
  12. 12. Brainstorming Techniques  Have participants generate ideas prior to brainstorming meeting.  Use a “round robin” where everyone has 1 turn to introduce an idea. (Nominal group technique)  Method 6-3-5 (6 participants, 3 ideas, 5 rotations)  Generate 3 ideas  After “x” minutes rotate to neighbor  Modify, enhance or create 3 more new ideas  Repeat 5 times  Collaborative sketching
  13. 13. Collaborative Sketching  Five participants collaborate on the incremental development of ideas.  No direct communications permitted between participants.  Each participant sketches one idea/concept on sketchpad for solving problem at hand.  After x minutes each participant passes his/her sketch to the person sitting next to him/her.  Each participant modified the sketch received or develops it further in any way he/she chooses. Portions of the previous sketch can be erased, but not all of it.  The rotations continue until the originator gets his/her sketch back. Jami J. Shah Arizona State University
  14. 14. Innovation Workshop
  15. 15. Thought Question What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of involving actual customers in the concept generation process?
  16. 16. Methods that Focus on Function  Functional Decomposition  Formulate overall product function  Split up overall function into sub-functions  Identify material, energy and information flows.  Allows Access to the Functional Solutions of Others.
  17. 17. Morphological Matrix Morphological Matrix  Search for solution principles to fulfill sub-functions  Identify as many solutions for each sub-function and auxiliary functions as possible  Combine solutions to embody physical concepts  Use morphological matrix to identify combinations of solutions  Each combination of solutions will fulfill overall function  Use expertise and heuristics to eliminate infeasible solution combinations Options Functions
  18. 18. Example: Coffee Maker Mix Coffee and Water Heat Coffee Heat Water Store Water Electricity Water Ground Coffee Brewed Coffee Brew Coffee Overall Function Supporting Sub-Functions Auxiliary Functions Shut-off Heater Coffee Beans Grind Beans Store Grounds Store Coffee
  19. 19. Morphological Matrix - Coffee Maker Heat Coffee Heat Water Store Water Store Grounds MixCoffee andWater Store Coffee Brew Coffee S11 S12 • • • S1j S1m• • • • • • Si1 Si2 • • • Sij Sim• • • • • • Sn1 Sn2 • • • Snj Snm• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Filter Osmosis Dissolve Ionize • • • • • • Stir
  20. 20. These ideas are all in: Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity for the 90s. Concept Expansion Techniques  Substitute  Combine  Adapt  Modify or magnify  Put to other uses  Eliminate or minify  Reverse or rearrange
  21. 21. TRIZ: The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving  TRIZ research began with the hypothesis that there are universal principles of invention that are the basis for creative innovations that advance technology.  Over 2 million patents were examined, classified by level of inventiveness, and analyzed to look for principles of innovation. The three primary findings are:  Problems and solutions were repeated across industries and sciences  Patterns of technical evolution were repeated across industries and sciences  Innovations used scientific effects outside the field where they were developed.
  22. 22. Without you moving the glass Example: Remove Water from the glass
  23. 23. How many ways does the world know to move a liquid? Acoustic Cavitation Acoustic Vibrations Archimedes’ Principle Bernoulli’s Theorem Boiling Brush Constructions Capillary Condensation Capillary Evaporation Capillary Pressure Coanda Effect Condensation Coulomb’s Law Deformation Electrocapillary Effect Electroosmosis Electrophoresis Electrostatic Induction Ellipse Evaporation Ferromagnetism Forced Oscillations Funnel Effect Gravity Inertia Ionic Exchange Jet Flow Lorentz Force Magnetostriction Mechanocaloric Effect Osmosis Pascal Law Resonance Shock Wave Spiral Super Thermal Conductivity Superfluidity Surface Tension Thermal Expansion Thermocapillary Effect Thermomechanical Effect Ultrasonic Capillary Effect Ultrasonic Vibrations Use of foam Wetting
  24. 24. function.creax.com
  25. 25. TRIZ Looks for Contradictions and Conflicts “I want my table Strong but I want it to be light”
  26. 26. “I want my table to be strong AND I want it to be light” I want to improve: Strength without increasing the: Weight INVENTIVE PRINCIPLES
  27. 27. TRIZ - The 40 Inventive Principles 1. Segmentation 2. Extraction 3. Local Quality 4. Asymmetry 5. Combination 6. Universality 7. ‘Nested Doll’ 8. Counterweight 9. Prior Counter-Action 10. Prior Action 11. Prior Cushioning 12. Equi-potentiality 13. ‘The Other Way Round’ 14. Spheroidality 15. Dynamics 16. Partial or Excessive Action 17. Another Dimension 18. Mechanical Vibration 19. Periodic Action 20. Continuity of Useful Action 21. Skipping 22. ‘Blessing in Disguise’ 23. Feedback 24. Intermediary 25. Self-Service 26. Copying 27. Cheap/Short Living 28. Mechanics Substitution 29. Pneumatics and Hydraulics 30. Flexible Shells/Thin Films 31. Porous Materials 32. Colour Changes 33. Homogeneity 34. Discarding and Recovering 35. Parameter Changes 36. Phase Transitions 37. Thermal Expansion 38. Strong Oxidants 39. Inert Atmosphere 40. Composite Materials
  28. 28. These ideas are all in: Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity for the 90s. Concept Expansion Techniques  Substitute  Combine  Adapt  Modify or magnify  Put to other uses  Eliminate or minify  Reverse or rearrange
  29. 29. Conceptual Blockbusting  Perceptual Blocks  Emotional Blocks  Cultural Blocks  Organizational Blocks Jim Adams Stanford University
  30. 30. Jim Adams Stanford University Conceptual Blockbusting  Conceptual blocks are mental walls that block the problem solver from correctly perceiving a problem or conceiving its solution.  Everybody can be creative.  Everybody has some conceptual blocks limiting creativity.
  31. 31. Perceptual Blocks  Perceptual blocks are obstacles that prevent the problem-solver from clearly perceiving either the problem itself or the information needed to solve the problem  Seeing what you expect to see; stererotyped seeing; premature labeling  Inability to view the problem from various viewpoints  Saturation  Difficulty in isolating the problem  Tendency to delimit the problem too closely Jim Adams Stanford University
  32. 32. Draw no more than 4 straight lines (without lifting the pencil from the paper) which will cross through all 9 dots.
  33. 33. 9 Dot Exercise
  34. 34. 9 Dot Exercise
  35. 35. Problem Statement: Dealing with plastic beverage containers Framing
  36. 36. Stakeholders  Water Bottle Companies  Municipal Waste Collectors  Local Residents  Local Businesses that sell Water Bottles
  37. 37. Exercise  Divide into groups that represent the different stakeholders  Brainstorm on ways to fix the problem of water bottles waste that clutters streets. Stakeholders: • Water Bottle Companies • Municipal Waste Collectors • Local Residents • Local Businesses that sell Water Bottles
  38. 38. … One solution from a young innovator…
  39. 39. More potential solutions…
  40. 40. More potential solutions…
  41. 41. TerraCycle: Worm Poop From Terracycle.net 1,223,180 bottles collected and reused
  42. 42. Contextual Inquiry Exercise  Homework Assignment: Contextual Inquiry  Go out in the field and perform a “contextual inquiry” of water bottle use and waste.  Interview people who are water-oriented: people who drink water very regularly, people who specialize in selling water, people who are local advocates against plastic waste.  Find the “extreme users” and interview them  Observe people in context: buying water, drinking water, trying to dispose of water bottles on the street or in their homes.  What are the important user needs when it comes to consuming water? How do the different stakeholders interact with water bottles?
  43. 43. References  Michael Michalko, Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity for the 90s  James L. Adams, Conceptual Blockbusting  Jami J. Shah, “Experimental Investigation of Progressive Idea Generation Techniques in Engineering Design,” Proceedings of 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, Atlanta GA  Creax: Portal for creativity and innovation http://www.creax.net/  This website has a pretty thorough list of the things you need to do to brainstorm well http://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook2.htm
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