Lc ms 2003


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Lc ms 2003

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. PRESENTED BYNilesh S. Jawalkar (T.Y.B.PHARM) 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. The combination of these two powerful techniques gives the chemical analyst the ability to analyze virtually any molecular species; including, thermally labile, non-volatile, and high molecular weight species. It has been said that over 80% of known organic species are amenable to separation with liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry is capable of providing structure, molecular weight, empirical formula, and quantitative information about a specific analyte so, LCMS in recent years, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become one of the most powerful analytical techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis . 3
  4. 4. AIMS To identify the different proteins, peptides drugs in various samples also to study the bioequivalence in future. 4
  5. 5. ADVANTAGES OF LC-MSProvides compound identity.Provides sensitive response to most analytes .Provides compound class information.Provides compound structure.Provides sequence information.Provides molecular weight information.Provides the five 5s Speed Selectivity Specificity Sensitivity $...Low Cost per Information Content. 5
  6. 6. SAMPLE CONCIDERATION FOR LC-MSThe analyte must have ionizable groups such as Amines, Carboxylic Acids, Ketones and Aldehydes.For best sensitivity, work at a pH where the analyte is ionized.i.e. for acid, Neutral to basic pH (7-9) and Acidic pH (3-4) for bases` 6
  7. 7. FLOW CHART OF LC-MSSample Column Detector EluentPort collector Ionization Source Mass analyzer Vacuum Detector Read out device 7
  8. 8. LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Liquid chromatography is type of chromatography in which analyte molecule get partitioned between moving mobile phase and stationary phase In liquid chromatography mobile phase is always liquid while stationary phase is either liquid or solid. Liquid chromatography includes following chromatographic techniques: Paper chromatography Thin layer chromatography Adsorption column chromatography High performance liquid chromatography Ion exchange chromatography Liquid-liquid chromatography 8
  9. 9. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUIDCHROMATOGRAPHYHigh performance (pressure) liquid chromatography is a of column chromatography used frequently in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to separate, identify, and quantify compounds. HPLC utilizes a column that holds chromatographic packing material (stationary phase), a pump that moves the mobile phase(s) through the column, and a detector that shows the retention times of the molecules.Retention time varies depending on the interactions between the stationary phase, the molecules being analyzed, and the solvent(s) used . 9
  10. 10. TERMS RELATED TO LC: 1) Retention time 2)Isocratic flow 3)Gradient elutionTYPES OF HPLC: 1) Partition chromatography 2) Normal phase chromatography 3) Displacement chromatography 4)Reverse phase chromatography 5) Size exclusion chromatography 6) Ion exchange chromatography 7) Bioaffinity chromatography 10
  11. 11. Parameters: 1. Internal diameter 2. Particle size 3. Pore size 4. Pump pressureInstrumentation of HPLC: 1. Detectors 2. Pumps 4. Column heaters 5. Auto samplersApplications of LC: 1. Separation 2. Purification 3. Quantification 11
  12. 12. MASS SPECTROSCOPY: Mass spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge-ratio of ions . It is most generally used to find the composition of a physical sample by generating a mass spectrum representing the masses of sample components.Sample Ionization Mass Read Detector Inlet source Analyzer out Vacuum The stages within the mass spectrometer are: 1. Producing ions from the sample. 2. Separating ions of differing masses. 3. Detecting the number of ions of each mass produced. 4. Collecting the data and generating the mass spectrum. 12
  13. 13. APPLICATION OF MS:1. Identifying unknown compounds by the mass of thecompound molecules or their fragments.2. Determining the isotopic composition of elements in acompound.3. Determining the structure of a compound by observingits fragmentation.4. Quantifying the amount of a compound in a sampleusing carefully designed methods.5. Determining other physical, chemical, or even biologicalproperties of compounds with a variety of otherapproaches. 13
  14. 14. INTERFACES USED IN LC-MS:1. Direct Liquid Introduction – The first attempts to introduce a liquid into an MS using the classic electron impact ionization (EI)/chemical ionization (CI) source were based on the simple principle that by minimizing the amount of liquid, the vacuum system would remove the solvent leaving the analyte in the gas phase for ionization. 14
  15. 15. 2. Moving belt/wire interface- The moving-belt interface separates the condensed liquid-phase side of the LC from the high vacuum of the MS and uses a belt to transport the analytes from one to the other. The mobile phase of the LC is deposited on a band and evaporated. The analytes remain on the continuously cycling belt and are transported from atmospheric pressure into the vacuum of the ion source through two differentially pumped vacuum locks. A heater in the ion source evaporates the sample from the belt allowing MS analysis. 15
  16. 16. 3.Thermospray Interface- As the name thermospray implies, heating the liquid flow leaving an LC system creates a spray of superheated mist containing small liquid droplets. The most successful method involves directing the liquid flow through an electrically heated capillary, which can be directly introduced into the MS ion source. The droplets are further vaporized as they collide against the walls of the heated ion source. 16
  17. 17. 4. Particle Beam Interface (MAGIC)-MAGIC, an acronym for monodisperse aerosol generationinterface for chromatography. The LC eluent is forced through asmall nebulizer using a He gas flow to form a stream of uniformdroplets. These droplets move through a desolvation chamber andevaporate to a solid particle. These particles are separated from thegas and transported into the MS source using a differentially pumpedmomentum separator. 17
  18. 18. 5.Atmospheric Pressure Ionization (API)-Widely used, sensitive and rugged technique.Ions are formed at atmosphericpressure.5.1 Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI): The "corona effect" term describes the partial discharge around a conductor placed at a high potential. This leads to ionisation and electrical breakdown of the atmosphere immediately surrounding the conductor. This effect is known as corona discharge. 18
  19. 19. 5.2 Electrospray Ionization (ESI):The analyte solution flow passes through the electrospray needle thathas a high potential difference (with respect to the counter electrode)applied to it. This forces the spraying of charged droplets from theneedle with a surface charge of the same polarity to the charge on theneedle. The droplets are repelled from the needle towards the sourcesampling cone on the counter electrode. As the droplets traverse thespace between the needle tip and the cone and solvent evaporationoccurs. 19
  20. 20. 5.3 Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI)- The use of a matrix (a small organic molecule) in LD to circumvent the mass limitation. The matrix had a strong absorbance at the laser wavelength and was highly sublimable . A low concentration of the analyte was mixed with this matrix onto a probe or metal plate and introduced into a pulsed laser beam. The mechanism of MALDI is believed to consist of three basic steps : (i) Formation of a Solid Solution: (ii) Matrix Excitation: (iii) Analyte Ionisation: 20
  21. 21. 5.4 Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption /ionization (SELDI)-Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization - time of flight (SELDI-TOF) system is an extremely versatile and convenient proteomic toolthat facilitates the screening of tissue or body fluids. It rapidlyidentifies proteins that alter as a consequence of a particular disease,toxin or treatment. It is very complementary to genomic studies.A whole series of samples and a ELISA-plate holding device (the"Bioprosessor") facilitates the analysis of 96 samplessimultaneously. 21
  22. 22. APPLICATIONS:LC-MS USED IN FOLLOWING AREASDrug Discovery.Clinical Analysis.Proteomics.Forensic ChemistryDrug Metabolism study.Environmental chemistry.Diagnostic studies. 22
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONThe study has been shown that the LC-MS is the valuable tool for analysis of various biological samples. The LCMS provides accuracy, specificity, selectivity & rapid less time consuming.Instrumentation of LC-MS is quite complicated but very efficient for their accuracy, sensitivity.It is mostly useful in pharmaceutical industries finds application in pharmcokinetic study, proteomics, drug development, radiopharmaceutics and clinical analysis & in toxicological studies. 23
  24. 24. FUTURE SCOPELC-MS is the technique which have application in future in bioequivalence study.It can be use for blood analysis, for detection of drugs whose identity is not known till now. 24
  25. 25. REFERENCES1. Willard, Merritt, Dean, Settle ‘Instrumental methods of analysis’Seventh edition, CBS Publishers & Distributers New Delhi 110002.2. Ning Ma, Bi-Kui hang, Huan-De Li et. al . Journal of Clinica Chimica Acta. 1-2, 380, 2007, 100-105.3. Hiren N. Mistri, Arvind G. Jangid, Mallika Sanyal Journal of Chromatography B, 1-2, 850, 2007, 318- 326.4. Willard H.H, Lyne L.M, John A.D, Fran S, Instrumenal methods of analysis, CBS publication, Ed 7th , p 608-610.5. Ardrey, R. E.; Ardrey, Robert (2003). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an introduction. London: J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-49801-7.6. McMaster, Marvin C. (2005). LC/MS: a practical users guide. New York: John Wiley. ISBN 0-471- 65531-77. Wilfried M.A. Niessen, Wilfried M. Niessen (2006). Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition (Chromatographic Science). Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 0-8247-4082-3. 25
  26. 26. 1. Yergey, Alfred L. (1990). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: techniques and a Displacement Chromatography 101. [1] Sachem, Inc. Austin, TX 787372. Xiang, Y.; Liu Y. and Lee M.L. (2006)."Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography using elevated temperature". Journal of Chromatography A 1104 (1-2): 198–202. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.11.118. 26
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