The Jackson Era (1816 To 1853)Presentation Transcript
The Jackson Era (1816 to 1853) By : Shauntel Jones , Rainer Crandall , Tranija Colley , Gary Strickland , Lexi Wilson
What political, economic and social changes occurred during Jackson's presidency?
A veteran of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson was popularly known as "Old Hickory" for his ruggedness. He gained national fame when he ran the British out of New Orleans in 1815, and he governed the Florida territory from 1821-23. Elected to the U.S. Senate by the Tennessee legislature in 1823, he was sent to Washington as a presidential contender on the strength of his image as a hero of the wild frontier. The confusion of the 1824 election led to the House of Representatives electing John Quincy Adams over Jackson, but Jackson won the 1828 election and denied Adams a second term. Jackson was re-elected in 1832, then followed the example of George Washington and chose not to seek a third term. Jackson, in ill health, returned to his estate in Tennessee, the Hermitage, and continued to play a role in party politics after handpicking Martin Van Buren as the Democratic party's nominee in 1836 (Van Buren won and succeeded Jackson). Jackson's efforts to limit the power of the affluent elite led to his reputation for "Jacksonian Democracy," but his administration was known for a heavy hand when it came to the power of the executive branch. He was a staunch champion of states' rights against federalism, and his administration was marked by expansion in Texas, wars with the Indians and his rejection of the Bank of the United States.
Jackson's wife Rachel died on 22 December 1828, just weeks after his election to the presidency... Harvard College conferred an honorary degree on President Jackson in 1833, much to the disapproval of Harvard alumnus John Quincy Adams , who called Jackson "a barbarian who could not write a sentence of grammar and hardly could spell his own name."... Both North Carolina and South Carolina have claimed Jackson as a native son, as his hometown of Waxhaw was in border territory... Jackson was a notorious brawler and duelist; in 1806 he killed a man named Charles Dickinson in a duel (with pistols) over Mrs. Jackson's honor.
Andrew Jackson (born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, S.C. — died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.) Seventh president of the U.S. (1829 – 37). He fought briefly in the American Revolution near his frontier home, where his family was killed in the conflict. In 1788 he was appointed prosecuting attorney for western North Carolina. When the region became the state of Tennessee, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1796 – 97) and the Senate (1797 – 98). He served on the state supreme court (1798 – 1804) and in 1802 was elected major general of the Tennessee militia. When the War of 1812 began, he offered the U.S. the services of his 50,000-man volunteer militia. Sent to the Mississippi Territory to fight the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, he defeated them after a short campaign (1813 – 14) at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. After capturing Pensacola, Fla., from the British-allied Spanish, he marched overland to engage the British in Louisiana. A decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero; he was dubbed "Old Hickory" by the press. After the U.S. acquired Florida, Jackson was named governor of the territory (1821). One of four candidates in the 1824 presidential election, he won an electoral-vote plurality, but the House of Representative instead selected John Quincy Adams as president. Jackson's victory over Adams in the 1828 presidential election is commonly regarded as a turning point in U.S. history. Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachian Mountains, the first to be born in poverty, and the first to be elected through a direct appeal to the mass of voters rather than through the support of a recognized political organization. The era of his presidency has come to be known as "Jacksonian Democracy." Upon taking office he replaced many federal officials with his political supporters, a practice that became known as the spoils system . His administration acquiesced in the illegal seizure of Cherokee land in Georgia and then forcibly expelled the Indians who refused to leave ( see Trail of Tears ). When South Carolina claimed a right to nullify a federally imposed tariff, Jackson asked for and received Congressional authority to use the military to enforce federal laws in the state ( see nullification ). His reelection in 1832 was partially the result of his controversial veto of a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States , which was unpopular with many of his supporters ( see Bank War ). The intensity of the political struggles during his tenure led to the strengthening of the Democratic Party and to the further development of the two-party system.
The way Andrew Jackson explored the world
Andrew vs. The Indians
The first place Jackson explored
(1767–1845), War of 1812 general and seventh president of the United States Jackson first experienced war at thirteen, fighting in the Battle of Hanging Rock, South Carolina (6 August 1780). Subsequently captured, he remained uncooperative and was slashed by a British officer, creating an antipathy as permanent as the scar on his face. Jackson's entire family perished in the Revolutionary War . In 1788, Jackson moved to western North Carolina (now Tennessee ), where he served as a field‐grade officer in the Tennessee militia and was elected, 1802, as major general—a post considered second only to that of the governor. In 1813, he commanded the Tennessee troops sent to subdue the Creeks in present‐day Alabama . After several minor victories that significantly weakened the Indians, Jackson delivered a devastating blow at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, 27–28 March 1814. Thereafter, Jackson was given a major generalship in the U.S. Army and put in charge of the Gulf Coast region. He seized Spanish Pensacola in the fall of 1814 and then marched to New Orleans to counter a British invasion. After a series of largely successful preliminary engagements, on 8 January 1815 he and his troops won the main Battle of New Orleans , one of the severest defeats ever suffered by a British army. Jackson emerged a national hero. Retaining his major generalship after the war, Jackson in 1818 pursued Indians into Spanish Florida and again occupied Pensacola . The Monroe administration reluctantly supported him, using the conquest to force Spain to sell the Floridas to the United States. Jackson resigned his commission in 1821. Except while acting as commander in chief during his presidency, he never held another command. Jackson was a superb general. Although unschooled in theory, he was a competent tactician and strategist . He thoroughly prepared for battle and acted quickly and resourcefully to take the war to the enemy and to catch him by surprise. Among his greatest assets as a leader was an indomitable will, which earned him the nickname “Old Hickory” in 1813 when he continued to campaign despite a nearly crippling case of dysentery. He expected the same devotion to duty from others. During the War of 1812, he sanctioned the hanging of seven militiamen for disobedience or desertion, and jailed several New Orleans officials (including a federal judge) who challenged his decision to continue martial law after the British had left. Jackson often inspired fierce loyalty in officers and enlisted men alike; even his critics followed him into battle, if only because they feared him more than the enemy. Jackson was the first westerner to become a national military hero. Like few of his contemporaries, he demonstrated a talent for commanding militia and volunteers no less than regulars, and showed equal skill in conducting conventional operations against European regulars and unconventional warfare against Indians.
Rachel Jackson’s Death
wife of U.S. Army general and president-elect Andrew Jackson , who became the seventh president of the United States (1829–37). She died less than three months before his inauguration.
Rachel, the daughter of Colonel John Donelson, a surveyor, and Rachel Stockley Donelson, enjoyed an excellent education for a woman living on the frontier. As a member of a prominent Virginia family, she met during her youth the future presidents of the United States George Washington and Thomas Jefferson . When Rachel was 13 she ... (100 of 737 words) .
The children Andrew Jackson
Jackson had two adopted sons, Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of his wife's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan. He was the guardian of eight more: John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson, Andrew Jackson Donelson, Andrew Jackson Hutchings, Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, Anthony Butler.