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WORK WITH MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEMS

WORK WITH MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEMS

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  • 1. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 1. INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS VIRTUALIZATION? We are familiar with the concept of multiple processes runningsimultaneously and sharing the resources of a single computer. This is achieved byoperating system acting as a single point of contact interfacing with the hardwareresources, and there by controlling the access to hardware resources by multipleprocesses. Virtualization can be thought of as an extension of this concept,where in multiple operating systems are allowed to share the hardware simultaneously bymeans of virtualization software. An OS directly interacts with hardware in normal non-virtualizedcase. Now if we want to run multiple operating systems simultaneously, we need to havean abstraction layer between the OS and the actual hardware. This hardware abstractionlayer fools the operating system into thinking that it is directly interacting with thehardware. It is the one which enables the user to run more one than operating systemsimultaneously. On machines with single operating system the resources of that machineare set under that OS. Here in case of virtualization there is a hardware abstraction layercalled hypervisor or virtual machine monitor between the hardware and the operatingsystem. With the help of this virtual machine monitor we can install and run more than onoperating system. This hardware abstraction layer creates an illusion that each of the OSrunning is having its own resources, but actually they are sharing the same resources.M.L.Engineering College 1
  • 2. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 2. TYPES OF VIRTUALIZATION2.1 PARA VIRTUALISATION: Here the virtualization provides an abstraction, which is very similar,but not completely identical to the underlying hardware. Xen Virtual Machine andVMware ESX server are examples of this technique. Instead of completely emulating theunderlying hardware architecture by the virtualization software, the virtualized guestscollaborate with the hypervisor to achieve optimal performance. Para virtualization offerssignificantly improved performance; however, it requires modification to guest operatingsystem. The guest OS is modified at low time to include Para Virtualization extensions.Hence it requires cooperation from the OS vendor. Ex: sun xVM virtual box2.2 FULL VIRTUALIZATION: Here the virtualization software provides a complete emulation ofthe underlying hardware. All software that can run on the underlying hardware can run asis, on the virtual machine. The operating system does not need any modifications to berun as a guest OS instance. The guest OS instance can be any operating system supportedby the underlying hardware. Ex: VMware workstations, Virtual PC, QEMU.M.L.Engineering College 2
  • 3. Platform Virtualization Department of IT With virtualization we can bea) able to dynamically move resourcesb) able to share resourcesc) making better use of the resourcesd) driving up utilization After installing and running sun xVM virtual box it looks like thisM.L.Engineering College 3
  • 4. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 3.HOW DOES VIRTUALIZATION WORK? A virtual machine is a tightly isolated software container that can run its ownoperating systems and applications as if it were a physical computer. A virtual machinebehaves exactly like a physical computer and contains it own virtual (i.e., software-based)CPU,RAM hard disk. An operating system can‘t tell the difference between a virtualmachine and a physical machine, nor can applications or other computers on a network.Even the virtual machine thinks it is a ―real‖ computer. Nevertheless, a virtual machine iscomposed entirely of software and contains no hardware components whatsoever. As aresult, virtual machines offer a number of distinct advantages over physical hardware. The VMware virtualization platform is built on a business-ready architecture. Usesoftware such as VMware Infrastructure and VMware ESXi to transform or ―virtualize‖the hardware resources of an x86-based computer—including the CPU, RAM, hard diskand network controller—to create a fully functional virtual machinehat can run its ownoperating system and applications just like a ―real‖ computer. VMware virtualizationworks by inserting a thin layer of software directly on the computer hardware or on a hostoperating system. This contains a virtual machine monitor or ―hypervisor‖ that allocateshardware resources dynamically and transparently. Multiple operating systems runconcurrently on a single physical computer and share hardware resources with each other.By encapsulating an entire machine, including CPU, memory, operating system, andnetwork devices, a virtual machine is completely compatible with all standard x86operating systems, applications, and device drivers. You can safely run several operatingsystems and applications at the same time on a single computerM.L.Engineering College 4
  • 5. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 4. VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE A virtual infrastructure lets you share your physical resources ofmultiple machines across your entire infrastructure. A virtual machine lets you share theresources of a single physical computer across multiple virtual machines for maximumefficiency. Resources are shared across multiple virtual machines and applications. Yourbusiness needs are the driving force behind dynamically mapping the physical resourcesof your infrastructure to applications—even as those needs evolve and change. Aggregateyour x86 servers along with network and storage into a unified pool of IT resources thatcan be utilized by the applications when and where they‘re needed. This resourceoptimization drives greater flexibility in the organization and results in lower capital andoperational costs.A virtual infrastructure consists of the following components:  Bare-metal hypervisors to enable full virtualization of each x86 computer.  Virtual infrastructure services such as resource management and consolidated backup to optimize available resources among virtual machines  Automation solutions that provide special capabilities to optimize a particular IT process such as provisioning or disaster recovery. Decouple your software environment from its underlying hardware infrastructure so you can aggregate multiple servers, storage infrastructure and networks into shared pools of resources. Then dynamically deliver those resources, securelyM.L.Engineering College 5
  • 6. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 5. VIRTUAL MACHINES BENEFITS In general, VMware virtual machines possess four key characteristics thatbenefit the user:5.1 Compatibility: Just like a physical computer, a virtual machine hosts its own guest operatingsystem and applications, and has all the components found in a physical computer(motherboard, VGA card, network card controller, etc). As a result, virtual machines arecompletely compatible with all standards x86 operating systems, applications and devicedrivers, so you can use a virtual machine to run all the same software that you would runon a physical x86 computer.5.2 Isolation: While virtual machines can share the physical resources of a single computer,they remain completely isolated from each other as if they were separate physicalmachines. If, for example, there are four virtual machines on a single physical server andone of the virtual machines crashes, the other three virtual machines remain available.Isolation is an important reason why the availability and security of applications runningin a virtual environment is far superior to applications running in a traditional, non-virtualized system.5.3 Encapsulation: A virtual machine is essentially a software container that bundles or encapsulatesa complete set of virtual hardware resources, as well as an operating system and all itsapplications, inside a software package. Encapsulation makes virtual machines incrediblyportable and easy to manage. For example, you can move and copy a virtual machinefrom one location to another just like any other software file, or save a virtual machine onany standard data storage medium, from a pocket-sized USB flash memory card to anenterprise storage area networks .M.L.Engineering College 6
  • 7. Platform Virtualization Department of IT5.4 Hardware Independence: Virtual machines are completely independent from their underlying physicalhardware. For example, you can configure a virtual machine with virtual components(e.g., CPU, network card, SCSI controller) that are completely different from the physicalcomponents that are present on the underlying hardware. Virtual machines on the samephysical server can even run different kinds of operating systems (Windows, Linux, etc).5.5 SUN xVM Virtual Box SUN Microsystems developed a virtual box. This Virtual Box allowsthe guest code to run unmodified, directly on the host computer, and the guest operatingsystem "thinks" its running on real machine.The techniques and features that Virtual Box provides are useful for several scenarios:Operating system support. With Virtual Box, one can run software written for oneoperating system on another (for example, Windows software on Linux) without havingto reboot to use it. You can even install in a virtual machine an old operating system suchas DOS or OS/2 if your real computers hardware is no longer supported.Infrastructure consolidation. Virtualization can significantly reduce hardware andelectricity costs. The full performance provided by todays powerful hardware is onlyrarely really needed, and typical servers have an average load of only a fraction of theirtheoretical power.Testing and disaster recovery. Once installed, a virtual box and its virtual hard disk canbe considered a "container" that can be arbitrarily frozen, woken up, copied, backed up,and transported between hosts. On top of that, with the use of another Virtual Box featurecalled snapshots, one can save a particular state of a virtual machine and revert back tothat state, if necessary.Host key: Right control is the default host key. When we press the right ctrl we movefrom one OS to another OS.M.L.Engineering College 7
  • 8. Platform Virtualization Department of ITVirtualization Approaches While virtualization has been a part of the IT landscape for decades, it is onlyrecently (in 1998) that VMware delivered the benefits of virtualization to industry-standard x86-based platforms, which now form the majority of desktop, laptop and servershipments. A key benefit of virtualization is the ability to run multiple operating systemson a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources – known aspartitioning. Today, virtualization can apply to a range of system layers, includinghardware-level virtualization, operating systemlevel virtualization, and high-levellanguage virtual machines. Hardware-level virtualization was pioneered on IBMmainframes in the 1970s, and then more recently Unix/RISC system vendors began withhardware-based partitioning capabilities before moving on to software-basedpartitioning.For Unix/RISC and industry-standard x86 systems, the two approachestypically used with software-based partitioning are hosted and hypervisor architectures(See Figure 2). A hosted approach provides partitioning services on top of a standard operatingsystem and supports the broadest range of hardware configurations. In contrast, ahypervisor architecture is the first layer of software installed on a clean x86-based system(hence it is often referred to as a ―bare metal‖ approach). Since it has direct access to theM.L.Engineering College 8
  • 9. Platform Virtualization Department of IThardware resources, a hypervisor is more efficient than hosted architectures, enablinggreater scalability, robustness and performance.Hosted Architecture• Installs and runs as an application• Relies on host OS for device supportand physical resource managementBare-Metal (Hypervisor) Architecture• Lean virtualization-centric kernel• Service Console for agents and helper Hypervisors can be designed to be tightly coupled with operating systems or canbe agnostic to operating systems. The latter approach provides customers with thecapability to implement an OS-neutral management paradigm, thereby providing furtherM.L.Engineering College 9
  • 10. Platform Virtualization Department of ITrationalization of the data center. Application-level partitioning is another approach,whereby many applications share a single operating system, but this offers less isolation(and higher risk) than hardware or software partitioning, and limited support for legacyapplications or heterogeneous environments. However, various partitioning techniquescan be combined, albeit with increased complexity. Hence, virtualization is a broad ITinitiative, of which partitioning is just one facet. Other benefits include the isolation ofvirtual machines and the hardware-independence that results from the virtualizationprocess. Virtual machines are highly portable, and can be moved or copied to anyindustry-standard (x86- based) hardware platform, regardless of the make or model. Thus,virtualization facilitates adaptive IT resource management, and greater responsiveness tochanging business conditions. To provide advantages beyond partitioning, several system resources must bevirtualized and managed, including CPUs, main memory, and I/O, in addition to havingan inter-partition resource management capability. While partitioning is a usefulcapability for IT organizations, true virtual infrastructure delivers business value wellbeyond that.M.L.Engineering College 10
  • 11. Platform Virtualization Department of ITHOW VIRTUALIZATION COMPLEMENTS NEW-GENERATIONHARDWARE Extensive ‗scale-out‘ and multi-tier application architectures are becomingincreasingly common, and the adoption of smaller form-factor blade servers is growingdramatically. Since the transition to blade architectures is generally driven by a desire forphysical consolidation of IT resources, virtualization is an ideal complement for bladeservers, delivering benefits such asresource optimization, operational efficiency and rapid provisioning. The latestgeneration of x86-based systems feature processors with 64-bit extensions supportingvery large memory capacities. This enhances their ability to host large, memory-intensiveapplications, as well as allowing many more virtual machines to be hosted by aphysical server deployed within a virtual infrastructure. The continual decrease inmemory costs will further accelerate this trend. Likewise, the forthcoming dual-coreprocessor technology significantly benefits IT organizations by dramatically lowering thecosts of increased performance. Compared to traditional single-core systems, systemsutilizing dual-core processors will be less expensive, since only half the number ofsockets will be required for the same number of CPUs. By significantly lowering the costof multi-processor systems, dual-core technology will accelerate data center consolidationand virtual infrastructure projects, Beyond these enhancements, VMware is also workingcloselywith both Intel and AMD to ensure that new processor technology features are exploitedby virtual infrastructure to the fullest extent. In particular, the new virtualizationhardware assist enhancements (Intel‘s ―VT‖ and AMD‘s ―Pacifica‖) will enable robustvirtualization of the CPU functionality. Such hardware virtualization support does notreplace virtual infrastructure, but allows it to run more efficiently.M.L.Engineering College 11
  • 12. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 6. VIRTUALIZATION FOR SERVER CONSOLIDATION AND CONTAINMENT Virtual infrastructure initiatives often spring from data center server consolidationprojects, which focus on reducing existing infrastructure ―box count‖, retiring olderhardware or life-extending legacy applications. Server consolidation benefits result froma reduction in the overall number of systems and related recurring costs (power, cooling,rack space, etc.) While server consolidation addresses the reduction of existinginfrastructure, server containment takes a more strategic view, leading to a goal ofinfrastructure unification. Server containment uses an incremental approach to workloadvirtualization, whereby new projects are provisioned with virtual machines rather thanphysical servers, thus deferring hardware purchases. It is important to note that neitherconsolidation nor containment should be viewed as standalone exercise. In either case, themost significant benefits result from adopting a total costof- ownership (TCO)perspective, with a focus on the ongoing, recurring support and management costs, inaddition to onetime, up-front costs. Data center environments are becoming morecomplex and heterogeneous, with correspondingly higher management costs. Virtualinfrastructure enables more effective optimization of IT resources, through thestandardization of data center elements that need to be managed.M.L.Engineering College 12
  • 13. Platform Virtualization Department of IT Partitioning alone does not deliver server consolidation or containment, and inturn consolidation does not equate to full virtual infrastructure management. Beyondpartitioning and basic component-level resource management, a core set of systemsmanagement capabilities are required to effectively implement realistic data centersolutions (see Figure 6). These management capabilities should include comprehensivesystem resource monitoring (of metrics such as CPU activity, disk access, memoryutilization and network bandwidth), automated provisioning, high availability andworkload migration support.M.L.Engineering College 13
  • 14. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 7. WHY VIRTUALIZATION? Virtualization dramatically improves the efficiency and availability ofresources and applications in your organization. Internal resources are underutilized underthe old ―one server, one application‖ model and IT admins spend too much timemanaging servers rather than innovatingHere are the key benefits of server virtualization for small and medium businesses:7.1. Reduce Costs By consolidating multiple applications onto one or a few servers,virtualization lowers the number of servers required to handle a given workload. Fewerservers mean reduced space, power consumption, cooling and maintenance costs,licensing fees and environmental impact. In brief, virtualization allows businesses to getmore from their current configuration so they can improve their return on assets. Sinceserver administration is greatly simplified, virtualization can also reduce IT staff costs.7.2. Improve asset utilization In the traditional one-application-per-server model, the averagecompany uses only 10% of its available server power. As a result, substantial computingpower sits dormant at any given moment. With virtualization, applications areconsolidated onto fewer servers so usage becomes significantly more efficient — as muchas 90% for peak loads. Virtualization also can improve server resilience and business continuity. Becauseapplications are partitioned on a virtual machine, they can fail "in isolation" withoutbringing down other servers or your network. In the event of an equipment failure, dataand virtual machines automatically switch to unharmed devices, which allow you torecover quickly from business interruptions. Likewise, you can test new applications in avirtual environment and deploy them automatically, meaning that backup and migrationmaintenance outages can become a thing of the past.M.L.Engineering College 14
  • 15. Platform Virtualization Department of IT7.3. Enhance management Virtualization improves server management in two major ways. First,since applications are consolidated, there is less hardware to manage. Perhaps moreimportantly, virtualization software comes with management tools that simplify serveradministration, such as intuitive "click and drag" interfaces. Since your staff can managetwo or three times as many servers as before, you may be able to reduce personnel andtraining expenses.7.4. Increase flexibility Adding resources to support high-demand applications in a traditionalenvironment requires new servers and storage arrays to be wired into the system. In avirtualized environment, additional resources are provided to that application on the fly,and data placement is optimized to maximize performance and utilization of disk spacewithout having to re-provision or install a new server. As a result, your criticalapplications always get the resources they need and save you the cost of "peak time"hardware.7.5. Allow faster resource deployment When your business needs to adapt to IT changes - supportingstrategic business initiatives, managing workload changes, adding new equipment,responding to disasters and such — virtualization significantly increases deploymentspeed. In fact, you can set up new virtual machines, servers and storage in minutes.With all these benefits, its no wonder that virtualization is growing so quickly; IDCforecasts that 50% of servers will be virtualized in 2011, up from 7% in 2007. If yourbusiness hasnt virtualized its environment yet, dont worry — its easier than you think,even for small and medium businesses. Now is the perfect time to gain the benefits of thisimportant technology..M.L.Engineering College 15
  • 16. Platform Virtualization Department of IT7.6. Get more out of your existing resources: Pool common infrastructure resources and break the legacy ―oneapplication to one server‖ model with server consolidation7.7. Reduce datacenter costs by reducing your physical infrastructureand improving your server to admin ratio: Fewer servers and related IT hardware means reduced real estateand reduced power and cooling requirements. Better management tools let you improveyour server to admin ratio so personnel requirements are reduced as well.7.8. Increase availability of hardware and application for improvedbusiness logic:Securely backup and migrate entire virtual environments with no interruption in service.Eliminate planned downtime and recover immediately from unplanned issues.7.9. Gain operational flexibility: Respond to market changes with dynamic resource management,faster server provisioning and improved desktop and application deployment.7.10. Improve desktop manageability and security: Deploy, manage and monitor secure desktop environments that users can accesslocally or remotely, with or without a network connection, on almost any standarddesktop, laptop or tablet PC.M.L.Engineering College 16
  • 17. Platform Virtualization Department of IT 8. CONCLUSION  Virtualization enables us to run more than one operating system at once.  Hence it is very easy for a programmer to evaluate his program simultaneously in different operating system.  It becomes easy for various organizations to provide a new desktop for a newcomer with existing resources.  Effective utilization of resources.  Therefore download and install a virtual box  Next install different operating systems of your needs and have fun.M.L.Engineering College 17
  • 18. Platform Virtualization Department of IT BIBLOGRAPHYwww.virtualbox.orgwww.vmware.comwww.sun.comwww.sundevelopers.comwww.linuxforyou.comM.L.Engineering College 18