Pashudhan OCT 2010


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Pashudhan is India's No. 1 Veterinary monthly journal dedicated to animal health care.

Glimpse on October 2010 issue:
1. Augmenting Forensics
2. Hemothorax in a Doberman
3. Nipah Virus infection-an emerging zoonosis
4. Ultrasonography in reproductive physiology
5. Nutritional Care for Pups
6. Research spotlight
7. National & International News
8. Case study report on Ancylostomiasis in a PUP

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Pashudhan OCT 2010

  1. 1. Volume 36 | Issue 10 | OCTOBER 2010 Dedicated to Animal Health Care Pages 8 I Rs 10 Distinguishing Animal and Human bones and teeth I Khaja Mohteshamuddin‘, Baseer M. A.’ Identifying isolated or fragmentary bones can be difficult in archaeological and forensic contexts. Numerous non— osseous materials such as wood, pottery, plastics, stones can be mistaken for fragmented human bone. Human remains can often become mixed with those of animals. Identification can be further complicated by modifying factorssuch as burningorwarping. There are 3 levels of identification that can be utilized to distinguish between human and animal bones; gross skeletal anatomy, bone macrostructure, and bonemicrostructure. Basics of skeletal structures Cranial morphology differsdramatically between humans and animals due to uniquely large brains that humans have compared to body mass. Humans have small faces compared to our large, bulbouscranialvaultand this minimizes facial projection compared to animals. Human vault musculature is less well developed than in anima| s,which often have developed sagittal and occipital crests. Sinceanimals havemuch smaller brains, their cranial bones are generally more curved and individually smaller. The interior surface of animal vault bones usually have more complex surface morphology than humans, whose interior vault surfaces are relatively smooth occasionally embedded with grooves from meningeal vessels. Animal mandibles are often "V" shaped in inferiorview and singular construction of the human mandible. Human crania are oriented on a vertical axis and theorbitsare located in front and above the nasal aperture. Animal crania are oriented on a horizontal axis, orbits are located behind and lateral to the nasal aperture. These orientations also cause the position ofthe foramen magnum to be located inferiorly in humans and posteriorly in animals. Basic differences in human and animal cranial anatomy are defined inTablel: Dentition varies greatly between humans and animals, and between different species of animals. Human teeth reflect a generalized design, including a mix of slicing lincisorslr puncturing (canines), and grinding (molars) teeth. They are more rounded than animal teeth. Animal teeth reflect specialized dietary adaptations. Grazing animals have more grinding teeth with specialized ridges and carnivores have Whale separate at the midline as opposed to the ”U” shaped Lion more shearing teeth with sharp ridges. Many animals have different dental formulas compared to humans. Dental formulasareannotated withthenumber of each tooth type for a quadrant ofthe mouth. Adult humans have a compliment of 32 teeth, eight in each quadrant‘, this includes two incisors, one canine, two premolars, and three molars (2:i. -2:3). Although highly variably, many placentalmammalsexhibitageneralized dental formula that includes three incisors, one canine, four premolars, and three molars (3:i. -4:3). Differences in human and animal dentitions are definedlnTab| e2: Radiographic differences between human and bovine teeth Contd page 4 HEMOTHORAX in a Doberman I Dake S L, Gangane G. R, Kapse S. U Kulkarni G. B, Musale V. B Rathod P. R, Kondre B. M A four year old Doberman police dog was submitted to the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Parbhani, for conduct of Post mortem examination with the history of violent and consistent barking and sudden death. On Post Mortem examination ofcarcass, the thoracic cavity was abundant with clotted blood as depicted in photograph (Plate 2, 3). The roundening of heart was found and completely empty on opening, indicating evacuation of blood. All visceral organs were found to be pale. Considering the gross lesions noted, the dog might have died due to hypovolumic shock as evidenced by hemothorax. Plate ‘I. Carcass of Doberman dog Plate 2. Roundening of heart Plate 3.Thoracic cavity was with clotted blood Plate 4. Note the pale visceral organs pt. ul Vety Pathology. College or Vety la Animal Sciences. Parbhan‘ 431402. Regd. No. 50488/87 . Postal Regls Registered News Pa Bat Bird ululilary Teeth N, ‘ central incisor Lateral M61301 Permanent Illlldlbulll YIIIII mm molar Fig. 1. A comparison ‘ 1’ —/ Second molar between forelimbs & _ _ I J ; .,s, ,,. °., of different species / of animals ‘r I / second "Wow Flrslpremolar ‘k, U’ / canine Fig.2 Permanent / Laterallnclsol teeth in humans ‘ ‘S 5 , ’ / cmmmsm Table 1 . Differential Skeletal Anatomy of Humans and Animals: Cranium Human Animal Large bulbous vault, small face Small vault, large face Vault relatively smooth Pronounced muscle markings, sagitta| crest Inferior inferior Foramen Magnum Posterior Foramen Magnum Chin present Chin absent Orbits at front, a bove nasal a perture Orbits at sides, posterior to nasal aperture M‘ imal nasal and midface projection Significant nasal and midface projection "U"-shaped mandible (no midline separation) "f'~shaped mandible (separates at midline) Table 2. Differential Skeletal Anatomy of Humans and Animals: Dentition Human Animal omnivorous Carnivorous; Herbivorous; Omnivorous Dental formula 2:1:2:3 Basic dental formula 3:1 :4:3 lncisors (maxillary) are larger than other mammals Horse maxillary incisors are largerthan human incisors Canines small Carnivores have large conical canines: Herbivores have small or missing canines Premolars and molars have low, rounded cusps divided by distinct grooves Carnivores have sharp, pointed cheek teeth; Herbivores have broad, f|at cheek teeth with parallel furrows and ridges For Ultimate Care to Secure D Den for sra To be used on poultry manure, garbage, sewage, fi| th, dumping areas etc. Mix io. o grams of Di-Den in 5 litres of water and spray over 10 sq. mtr. area. ii kgi Atwflfloaaflifilotmalllwrblléiflrg lcenced to Post Without Prepaymen . Licence No. WP BGPSO, 6th
  2. 2. October 2ll1ll I Page 2 <>o % Ruminations Stray dogs Menace - Handle with care Men should love not only men but, just because they have dominated the earth through their tulditional facilities, it should not mean that they ignore their fellow creatures that sustain environmentally out faunal balance on the earth. Dogs are the first animal that comes to our mind in this respect; not only are they considered to be man's best friend but, at times, are also treated as man's enemy because some of them get rabid and account for the loss of human life, particularly children. India is reported having the world's highest rate of human rabies because of stray dogs. If one examines dispassitmately, as to how afriend turns afoe it is once again only d u e callousness. We don't care for them, leave them to fend for themselves and let them contract all diseases. The brutal killing of these creatures is not the fair solution to tackle the menace. The city municipalities successfully captured many stray dogs with the help of expect dag catchers, but were criticized for their cruel treatment and killing of the captive dogs by PETA and other animal rights activists. to our own This can be prevented, if only we can bestow some sane thinking about them. There are ways to handle this- effectively and scientifically. Sterilizirlg and vaccinating them will go a long way to counter check the increasing population stray dog and further prevent the spread of rabies. The govemmenl should ensure the sufficient availability of vaccines to the municipal health centers. The pet owners should be responsible towards their pets immunize their pets on a regular basis. We owe this much to those hapless creatures as much as we do to our human mendicants and the old and the sick. There lies humanity. When you can do something to your fellow creatures that is the hall-mark of our cormpassitm. They have as much of right to live as we do. Save the dog, even if it is not your own; it will alert you from the street when intruders trespass your area. J‘/ L Q45 (Mridusmita Das) Please send me 12 issues of PASHUDHAM. I am enclosing MO/ DD No. . on. .for Rs.120/» (Rupees One Hundred and Twenty only) made in favour of Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd. towards one year‘s subscription. Name (BLOCK LETTERS) Address (BLOCK LETTERS) Pin Code Subscription for 5 years: R5500 (60 Issues) — Save Rs.10U + getan attractive gift. Syears: Rs.300 (36Issues)—Save Rs.60. 1 year : Rs.12U (12Issues). Why walt then, subscribe and be a winner! Pashudhan is an exclusive journal on Animal Health Care, offering consolidated packet of information on all you need to know in - Dairy farming, Pig and Sheep rearing, Poultry, Pets, etc. Catch up with the latest! Help us to Help you 1 On the address slip of every copy of Pashudhan sent to you, is a Malling Llst Number. Please note this number. In case of non-receipt of Pashudhan, change in mailing address or renewal, write to us quoting your malllng listnunlher. This will enable usto take quick action. PASHUDHAN, 5B, Veerasandra Industrial Area, Electronic City Post, Bangalore 560100, Karnataka. India Ph: 4020 9999, 2783 2265 E-mail: pashudhan@natura| remedy. com -<3‘ ("l"l‘- (7 -. /iv) III ifl. T: I,i.1. <3l.1.1.<I-Li. ‘ mg 7: <Il. ’l. <II sis I Pradeep Kumar' Borkar P. L.’ Vijay Kumar’ Nipah virus (Nl'V) is an emerging zoonoticvirus. /AlthoughNipahvirushas caused only a few outbreaks, it infects a wide range of animals and causes severe disease and death in people, making it a public health concern. In infected people, Nipah virus causes severe illness characterized by encephalitis or respiratory diseases. It canalsocauseseverediseaseinanimals such as pigs, resulting in significant economiclossesforfarmers. Etiology : Nipah virus is closely related to Hendra virus. Both are members of the genus Henipavirus, a genus under Paramyxoviridae family. Henipaviruses are pleomorphic and range in size from 40 to 600 mm in diameter. They are naturally harboured by Pteropid fruit bats (flying foxes). Epidemiology Fruit bats of the family Pteropodidae — particularly species belonging to the Pteropus genus — are the reservoir hosts for Nipah virus. There is no apparent disease in fruit bats. The geographic distribution of Henipaviruses overlaps with that of Pteropus category. This hypothesis is supported bythe isolation of Henipavirus in Pteropus bats from Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China. India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia. Papua New Guinea, Thai| and andTimor— Leste. Nipahvi ndomesticanimals Nipah virus is highly contagious in pigs. Pigs are infectious during the incubation period, which lasts from 4to 14 days. It can also affect animals like horses, goats, sheep, cats and dogs. Nipah virus outbreaks in pigs and other domestic animals were first reported during the initial Malaysian outbreak in 1999. Symptoms observed in pigs were acute feverish illness, laboured breathing, neurologicalsyrrlptoms such as trembling, twitching and muscle spasms. Generally, mortality was low except in young piglets. These symptoms are not dramatically different from other respiratory and neurological illnesses of pigs. Nipah virus infection should be suspected if pigs havean unusualbarkingcough. Transmission During the initial outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore, most human infections resulted from direct contact with sick pigs or their contaminated tissues. Transmission is thought to have occurred via respiratory droplets. contact with throat or nasal secretions from the pigs, or contact with the tissue ’ EDITOR * Ms. Mrldusmlta Das — ASSOCIATE EDITORS — Dr. V. Raghavan (Assoc. Ed. — Forelgn Desk) Doctor of Vet. Med. (Bangladesh) PhD. Ani. Nutri. (Hannover, Germany) Dr. (Capt) Tanweer Alam B. V.SC & A. H., MBA. * DESIGN Br CIRCULATION * Mr. Sameev Rae J. Bengley ' PRINTED & PUBLISHED Mr. Ravinder Kumar Agarwal, for Natural Remedles Pvt. Ltd. , Bangalore at Srl Range Prlnters Pvt. Ltd. , Bangalore. EDITORIAL OFFICE 53, Veerasandra lrld. Area, Electronic Clly Post, Bangalore 560100, Karnataka. Indla Ph: DBD 4020 9999, 2733 2265 EMAIL pashudhan@natura| remedy. oom All material published at the discretion of the Editorial Board. Views expressed by the authors are not necessarily that of the editor. Matter can be reproduced with due creditto the source. Table 1.The report of Nipah virus infection outbreaks Vear Country Cases Case fatality 1998/1999 Malaysia 265 40% 1999 Singapore 11 9% 2001 India 66 74% 2001 Bangladesh I3 69% 2003 Bangladesh 12 67% 2004 Bangladesh 29 76% 2004 Bangladesh 36 75% 2005 Bangladesh 12 92% 2007 Bangladesh 7 43% 2007 Bangladesh 8 63% 2007 India 5 100% 2008 Bangladesh 3 100% 2008 Bangladesh 8 38% ofa sickanimalln Bangladesh and India outbreaks, consumption offruits orfruit products contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats was the mostIikelysourceofinfection. During the later outbreaks in Bangladesh and India, Nipah virus spread directly from human—to—hurrlan through close contact with people‘s secretions and excretions. In Siliguri, |ndia, transmission of the virus was also reported within a health-care setting, where 75% of cases occurred among hospital staff or visitors. From 2001 to 2008, around half of reported cases in Bangladesh were due to human—to— humantransmission. Report oloulbreaks Nipah virus was first recognized in 1999 during an outbreak among pig farmers in Ma| aysia. Since then, there have been another 12 outbreaks, all in South Asia (Table I). Nipah virus as a biological weapon Nipah virus is a potential biological weaponforthefollowing reasons: - Even a small outbreak in pigs could result in mass culling of affected herds, thereby causing substantial economicloss. - Nipahviruscaninfecthumansandthe case—fata| ity rate may be as high as 50%. - There is no effective treatment or vaccine for the disease in either pigs or humans (although ribavirin may reduce mortality in humans with encephalitis). . Little is known about Nipah virus, so an outbreak in animals or humans could cause substantial fear and socialdisruption. Clinical Signsand symptoms The incubation period of this viral infection in humans varies from 4-45 days. The infections range from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Infected people initially develop influenza-like symptoms of fevenheadaches, mya| gia, vomiting and sore throat. This can be followed by dizziness, drowsiness, altered consciousness, and neurological signs that indicate acute encephalitis. Some people can also experience a typical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems, including acute respiratory distre5s. Encepha| itis and seizures occur in severe cases, progressing to coma within24to48hours. Most people who survive acute encephalitis make a full recovery, but around 20% are left with residual neurological consequences such as persistent convulsions and personality changes. A small number of people who recover subsequently relapse or develop delayed onset encephalitis. In the long term, persistent neurological dysfunctions are observed in more than 15% of people. The average mortality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%. Nipah virus disease in pigs is also known as porcine respiratory and neurologic syndrome as well as barking pig syndrome based on clinical observation. Diagnosis The different tests used for the diagnosisofNipahvirusinfectionare: - Serum neutralization . Enzyme-linkedimmunosorbentassay (ELISA) (IgGandIgM) - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay: (RT—PCR) - Immunofluorescenceassay . Virus isolation by cell culture (kidney, liveuerebrospinalfluid). The clinical samples to be collected are serum, the cerebrospinal fluid ICSF) or throatswabs. Treatment Currently, there are no effective drugs or vaccines to treat Nipah virus infection, although the drug ribavirin has been shown to be effective against the viruses in vitro. Intensive supportive care with treatment of symptoms is the main approach to managing the infection in people. Prevention Controlling Nipah virus in domestic animals There is no vaccine against Nipah virus. Routinecleaningand disinfection ofpig farms with sodium hypochlorite or other detergents is expected to be effective in preventing infection. If an outbreak is suspected, the animal premises should be quarantined immediately. Culling of infected animals — with close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses — may be necessary to reduce the risk of transmission to people and other animals. Restricting or banning the movement ofanimals from infected farms to other areas can reduce the spreadofthedisease. Since the virus is zoonotic in nature, establishing an animal health surveillance system to detect new cases is essential in providing early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities. Reducing the risk of infection in people Sincethereisnovaccine, theon| ywayto reduce infection is by raising awareness ofthe risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduceexposuretothevirus. - Public health professionals should educatepeopleaboutthefollowing . Reducing the risk of bat-to-human transmission. Fruits should be thoroughly washed and peeled beforeconsumption. - Reducing the risk of human—to— human transmission. Close physical contact with Nipah virus-infected people should be avoided. G|oves and protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill people. Regular hand washing should be carried out after caring for or visiting sickpeople. o Reducingtheriskofanimal-to-human transmission. Gloves and other protective clothing should be worn while handling sick animals or their (issues, and during slaughtering and culling procedures. Controlling infection in health-care settings Health-care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Nipah virus infection, or handling specimens from them, shou| d implement standard infection control precautions. Samplestaken from peopleand animals with suspected Nipah virus infection should be handled by trained staff working in suitably equipped laboratories. 1,2. Asst. Prof. Dept. of Vety. Public Health, 3. Asst. Prof. Dept. of Vety. Pharmacology & Toxicology, Vety. Col| ege, KVAFSU, Bidar5s54oI. KA
  3. 3. V”- J l l Qigfililtrtr-r1ll. ir xii, -xnrxixxxujn. llr: loIrer 2010 | Page II3 A it l_1i. (il. <'. Z£': l.'l‘}{. <I, l.’J. <1 f Ulxi‘; ra, c<1i. i.<1 g rap liy I in. lf<3l; l lf<1lDT. .TI. <'5'l3l). V<3: i; ii, r: :i. <1l. <1 gy Ultrasonography has added a new horizon in reproductive physiology to study ovarian follicular dynamics, fetal well being and management of reproductive disorders which in turn has a direct bearing on animal production and reproduction. It provides an excellent method for evaluating reproductive tract of animal to gather a significant amount of information and thus help to maximize the reproductive efficiency. Forthis, the modality has been used to its fullest extent in study of animal reproduction. Ultrasonography has several advantages over other imaging modalities. It is non-invasive, free from radiation hazards, provides instant diagnosis, and determines shape, size, location and internal consistency of a structure. Repetitive examinations can bedoneandiswelltoleratedbyanimals. Principle: Sound waves of frequencies greater than audible to human ear (greuterthan 20,000 Hz) are called ultrasound. Frequencies between 2 to 10 MHz are used in diagnostic ultrasound. Selection of frequency is inversely related to depth of tissue from scan surface. Diagnostic ultrasound works on pulse- echo princip| e.A pulse is generated by one or more piezoelectric crystal in an ultrasound transducer. As the transducer is placed in close contract with body surfaces through a coupling medium(ge/ ). a portion of ultrasound beam reflected backtowards the source in the form ofecho which are converted intovisualimagebythecomputerofthe ultrasound machine. Instrumentation: Ultrasound machines in the market are Scanner 200 Vet (Pie Medicals, Netherlands), Aloka 500 (Takoyo, Japan), Ausonics VFI (CA, USA). There are three main types of transducer available viz. linear array, convex and sector. The linear-array transducer is the most commonly used in reproductive ultrasound. Linear-array transducer I‘. l Krishna Mohan‘, Sudipta Ghosh’, O. P consists of multiple crystals aligned in a row and produces a rectangular image on the screen. The transducer is usually long and has a flat surface that requires contact along the entire length of the surface to be examined. The visual display may be of A, B, and M modes. when the images displayed in B-mode scan are formed rapidly and presented in sequence, the movements of organs are viewed in real time. ln orderto form these sequential images, it is necessary to sweep the sound beam over the tissue by either mechanical or electronic means. The image formed on the scan screen is actually a mixture of images of different echoes depending on the area scanned. B-mode real-time ultrasonography is the ultrasound mode of choice for reproductive evaluation ofcattleand buffaloes. Recording ofimages: Thereareseveraloptionsavailablenow to record the freeze-frame ultrasound images. They include: Polaroid cameras, thermal printers, multiformat cameras and videotape recorders. A thermal printer connects to the ultrasound machine's video output and prints an ultrasound image electronically on heat-sensitive paper stored in the printer. The thermal printer has the advantage of producing high-quality images at very low cost. Interpretation: The proportion of sound waves reflected is represented on the ultrasound image by shades of gray ranging from blackto white. The density of the tissue determines the shade of gray visualized on the screen. Gas and bone are barrier to ultrasound beam and appear white (hyperechoic) on screen; ultrasound passes un- interrupted through fluid and appears black (anechoic) on screen; images of soft tissues appear as shades of gray (hypoechoic) depending upon their proportion of fat, fibrous tissue and fluid. Normal sonographic anatomy of the subject is a prerequisite for image interpretation. A sonologist should be aware of the common artifacts viz. reverberation, mirror image, comet tail toavoiderrorsinimageinterpretation. Preparationoftheanilnal: Animalsare preferably fasted for 12-24 hrs but shouldhaveaccesstowateradlibitum. Imaging approaches: Transrectal scanning-Rectal transducer is used. Resolution is good and very commonly used in largeanimals usingalineararray transducer of 6-8 MHz. Rectum should be cleaned off faecal material and the probe is taken per rectum under a rubbersleeve. sonographic features of normal ovariesand uterus: Urinarybladderiseasilyrecognized and served as an anatomical landmark for reproductive sonography. The uterus lies anterior and ventral to the urinary bladder and then the ovaries are | ocated. Some sonologists prefer to start the scanning from the ovaries directly. The ovary lends itselfwell to ultrasound imaging and can be scanned in a longitudinal or cross-sectional manner. Since the ovary is mobile in nature, the examiner may need to reposition the ovary to obtain a clear image. Follicles, corpora haemorrhagica, corpora lutea and several ovarian abnormalities are readily accessible for ultrasonographic evaluation. The size of the follicles should be recorded by measuring the distance between the widest points. An irregularly shaped follicle should be measured at its greatest height and width. Theage ofthecorpusluteum can be evaluated by the amount of gray or white. Normal non-gravid uterus is difficult to scan and hard to distinguish from intestinal loop. Fortunately, the increased uterine size (pregnancy or disease) allows sonographic imaging. The uterus appears as a well- defined tubular structure, with a hypoechoic to anechoic lumen. Far enhancement may appear suggesting the fluid nature of the uterine contents. The lackofan echo genic center and peristalsis during real time scanning help differentiate the uterusfrom bowel. Ovarianfolliculardynamicsz It is established sonographically that follicular growth during bovine oestrous cycle occurs in wave-like patterns. Even though there are reports indicating the appearance of two, three and sometimes, even fourwaves during each cycle, a two-wave pattern in cows and a three-wave pattern in heifers appear to be the norm. A follicular wave involves the synchronous growth of a groupoffollicles(4ro6mm)from which one attains dominance over the others to become the dominant follicle. Each dominant follicle has a growing phase and a static phase, each lasting about 5 to 6 days. The first wave dominant follicle is anovulatory. It remains dominant for 4 to 5 days, and generally by day 11 or 12 of the cycle it loses its dominance and begins to regress. |n the mean time, the second wave of follicles has been recruited and selection ofthe second - wave dominant follicle has taken place. In a two- wave cycle, the follicle goes on to ovulate, while in a three-wave cyc| e,the second dominant follicle also regresses making wayforyet another cohort of follicles, the third wave. The dominant ovulatory follicle grew slower than the dominant anovulatory fo| |ic| e.The diameter ofthe ovulatory follicle on the day before ovulation (16.2 : 0.4mm) was not much different from the diameters of the dominant anovu| atoryfo| |ic| e(l5.8 10.5 mm)duringthestatic phase. Sonographic features in reproductivedisorders Diseasesofovaries: Ultrasonography has been a very useful tool to diagnose cystic ovarian conditions in bovine, Follicular cysts revealed as large (25-55 mm) non-echo genic areas with very thin walls. Leuteal cysts on the contrary appeared as non- echogenic areas surrounded by echo genic tissue of varying thickness (2-5 mm). Parovarian cysts can be diagnosed from its typical location and anechoic consistency. Ovarian hypoplasia is diagnosed from small, narrow and functionless image of ovary. Ovarian tumor can be recognized sono- graphically as a mass lesion in the locationofoneorbothovaries. Diseasesofuterus: Sonography can also detect common uterine pathological conditions such as endomertitis, pyometra, mucometra, mummified and macerated foetuses. The infected uterus appears as a well- defined tubular structure with a hypoechoic to anechoic image. In mummifiedfoetus, theuterinefluidsare absent and the foetal mummy appears asapoorlydefinedechogenicrnass. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a potential armament in the hands of expert clinicians for understanding reproductive physiology to utilize the reproductiveperformanceofanimalsto its fullest extent. It also aids in precise diagnosis as well as effective management of infertility in animals. However, the examination takes skill and training to perform and to interpret. It is essential to produce an image of diagnostic quality that will allow the sonologist to differentiate between artifacts and real image. The sonologist must have a through understanding of instrumentation ofultrasound machine and knowledge of reproductive anatomyand physiology. 1) Asst. Prof, Dept. of Vety. Physiology, B. V.C. , Patna I4. 1) Asst. Prof. Dept. of LPM, Vety. College, Rewa. MP. 3) Prof 5. Head, Dept. of very. Physiology, College of Vety Sci. 8. A. H., Anjora, Durg (I': .G. ) l. ?.i. .s'i‘; i.<: lf%. l.i. <1i1T. <3 Isi. :a, ii. i3T. . . <3<1T. (. lf+‘, U.¥. ) I I K. Rawi Kumarr Introduction The breed originated from the cross between "Bahma or Langshaw"and the Chittagong and the common fowls of Rhode Island. This is the best dual purpose breed possessing both table as well as egg laying abilities. It originated some half a century ago, Rhode Island, the most extensive of the group of Isles situatedinthefamousNarragansettBay, The present day RIR is the result of fifty years of out- crossing. RIR was a local race of poultry found exclusively in Rhode Island. RIR has for many years flourished in America and spread through out the world. Developed in Rhode Island in the 18305, various breeds were used in their makeup, including Malays, Cochins and Brown Leghorns. The single combed variety was admitted to the APA’s Standard of Perfection in 1904 and the rose combed birdsayearlater. The Rhode Island Red has a long rectangular body. The plumage color of this breed is rich brownish red, which should be as even as possible over the entiresurface. This is a dual type breed. Several breeders have tried to develop egg laying strains out of these breeds. The loss of popularity ofthis breed has been due to slow feathering character. Rhode island Reds are a good choice for the small flock owner. Relatively hardy, they are probably the best egg layers of the dual purpose breeds. Reds handle marginal diets and poor housing conditions betterthan otherbreedsand stillcontinuetoproduceeggs. They are one of the breeds where exhibition qualities and production ability can be successfully combined in asinglestrain. Some"Red"ma| esmaybe quite aggressive. The standard body weight of RIR Cock is 3.8kg and Hen is 3.0kg. the skin color is yellow and it lays Brown shelled eggs. They start laying at about twenty four weeks ofage and on an average they lay 180-200 eggs in one laying cycle in scavenging system. Popularcrosses One of the crosses became commercially important is Rohde white. It is a dual purpose including White Leghorn female and RIR male. Both sexes are nearly white with just occasional black tinge on feathers and tinted eggs are produced. RIR males are mated with Barred Plymouth Rock females to produce Red Rock Cross. Femaleprogenyare blackand malesare barred and sold readilyforbroiler. The main advantage of these popular crosses is that they perform better as compared to their parents because of heterotic effect in them. White Rhode, Rhode White and RIR crosses are performing better in rustic rural condition throughout the world even in semi-scavenging conditions. Distinct qualities of rir 0 One ofthe best known breeds, the RIR is a good layer of large brown eggs and asa dual purpose breed also can supplyafair-sized roaster. 0 The hens will rarely go broody and can produce around 200 eggs per yeah 0 RIR is most suitable for upgrading of indigenous stock. 0 RIR is a dual purpose breed having both meatproductionandegg laying qualities. Success story of rir Zaida Bibi lives in a kutchha hut in Amdanga village with her husband and 3 children. They are landless and source of livelihood is through farm labour on dailywages. Emp| oymentis availablefor 15-Zodaysin a month. Zaida supplements income through rearing goat and poultry. She is a member of SHG and recipient of 12 RIR chicks from Government Scheme. Zaida has always reared Desi birds and presently uses them to hatch RIR eggs. Zaida sold 9 RIR birds (weighing 700 gm each) at Eid for Rs. 700/- since she needed money to meet expenses related to the festival. Eggs laid by two RIR hens were hatched by Desi hen resultinginllchicks. She is happy that while RIR hens are good layers, Desi hens are good brooders and she is able to increase her flock of chicken. Now she has a steady sourceofsmallincomefromsaleofeggs and chicken that helps her to take care of educational expenses of her school going children. Moreover, with the availabilityofeggs, house hold nutrition hasalsoimproved. Conclusion The robustness of the RIR stock has been enhanced by the selection of 25 generation in CPDOKER) Bhubaneswar and RIR stock available in all CPDO'S (North, South Easrand West). This dual purpose has now become a major instrument for providing additional income and as a source of chief animal protein in rural sector for better | iving. R|R is a popular breed with both backyard poultry keepers and serious exhibitors. This is based not only on their excellent commercial qualities but also their docile personalities, hardiness, and great beauty. Rhode Island Red significantly contributes genetically to develop any rural bird throughouttheworld Rhode Island Red Hen Details of programme cost (one time) and benefits (annual) per benelicary household () Item ‘ Per 12 RIR Chick Birds 108.00 Vaccination 18.00 Packaging 18.00 Transporting 12.00 Brooding 24.00 Feed 69.60 Total Cost 249.60 Eggs/ Poultry Meat(Home Consumption) I 15.00 Cash Income from Poultry 510.00 Cost/ Benefit Ratio 2.50 Source: Government ofWest Bengal, Memorandum No. 3/82- AR & AH/4A-I 8/2005 AND 316/28—AR/2G-497/2005 rvl. (Poultry Science), PhD Director, Central Poultry Development Organisation (NorthernRegion)Industria| Area, Phase-IChandigarh-160002
  4. 4. Seulemlrer 2010 I Page 04 Could from page 1 Animal teeth have been used in several in vitro studies. Bovine teeth are common option chosen by researchers, as they are easily obtained and because the ethics committees are encouraging their use as an alternative for human teeth. (Fonseca RB, Halter-Nero F, Fernandes-Nero A], Barbasa GAS, Soares CJ. Radiodensityofenamel and dentin of human, bovine and swine teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 2004,'49(ll):9l9-22.) Human dentin is composed of 70% of inorganic material, 13% of organic material and 12% of water. Its structural unit includes peri-andintertubularmineralized matrix, content of dentin tubules (odontoblastic prolongatiorls) and organic material of periodontoblastic space. The dentin mass ofyoung teeth has a quite uniform degree of mineralization. However, the enamel-dentin surface, the interglobular dentin and pulpal dentin are less mineralized. More than 90% of organic material ofdentin isco| |agen, distributed in a uniform pattern over the dentin. Neverthe| ess, the mantle dentin and pre- dentin seem to contain more organic components than the body of dentin. The main mass of organic material is uniformly distributed in the intertubular matrix. (Mjor IA. Human coronal dentin: structure and reactions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Purim/ . l972,'33{5):8 10-23.) Structurally, bovine teeth have a higher number of dentin tubules next to the pulp, as occurs with human teeth. However, human teeth have a smaller number of dentin tubules next to the enamel, whereas the density of tubules next to the enamel in bovine teeth is almost the same as that found on layers next to the pulp. The diameter of the dentin tubules is narrower on the layers next to the enamel and wider on the layers next to the pu| p.3,4 (Bonfim MDC, AnauateNerroCYoussefMN, KuchinskiFB. Estudo micromorfologico comparative dos denrinas: humana ebovina. Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2000,14 (suplemento):32 [restrmo 1157]) The distribution of the intertubulardentin is notuniform on the sulroundingsofthepulpinbovineteeth. Basictypes oftooth: Den n Much of the difference in long bone anatomy between animals and humans is the result of pattern oflocomotion. As quadrupeds (expect for birds), animals have dual axes of orientation and their functional anatomy reflects structures of locomotion in all four limbs, lacks spinal curvature, has a long and narrow pelvis, and is additionally reflected in the posterior position of the foramen llllliMEll'I'Illlil FIIIIENSIIIS Distinguishing Animal and Human bones and teeth magnum and bony development of posterior of the cranium due to musculature. Animal forelimbs are generally more robust and the radius and ulna may be fused to give more strength and flexibility in weight hearing. The tibia and fibula are also often fused, sometimes with diminished or completely lacking a fibula. Humans on the other hand, as bipeds, have a singular, central vertical axis of orientation that distributes all of the individual's weight through a series of bony mechanisms designed to soften the impact of bipedal locomotion. As a result, human crania are centrally placed ontheverticalaxis, the spinal column has four slight opposing curves, the pelvis is broad and short, the femora are angled, the tibiae have thicker proximal surfaces for greaterweight bearing, the feet have dual arch structures, and the upper limbs have less pronouncedmusculatureanda greater range of motion. A|though birds are also bipedal, bird bones are very different in shape from human bones, but they are additionally very light in weight. Bird long bones have very thin walls and only minimal trabecular structure in the ends. Basic differences in animal and human post-cranial skeletal anatomyaredef‘inedinTab| e3: The most common human bones to be mistaken for animal bones are the bones of infants. They are sufficiently different from adult and even older children bones that they can cause considerable confusion. With unformed or unfused epiphyses, singular bones are separated by ossification segments and have indistinct edges. Multiple ossification centers and epiphyses increase the number of bones associated with an infant and many are not identifiable to a specific bone. Long bone diaphyses are thin and lack the trabecula of adults. Cranial bones easily disarticulate and lackthediploestructureandvault bones are same thickness and very often confused withturtleortortoisecarapace. The petrousportionisseparateininfants and, being a particularly dense bone, it often survives burial better than others. Ribs ofyoung infants lookvery muchlike sma| |anima| .|tcan be difficulttotell the difference between a very young animal andahuman infant.0veral| ,care must be taken when the material appears that it could possiblybeinfantbone. Macrostructure of bone Animal bones have a greater density relative to size; they are less porous and are thicker in cross section than the bones of humans. In humans, humeral andfemoral cortical thickness isabout‘/4 Research Spotlight Man's best friend keeps children on the move Children whose families own dogs are more active than those without, according to new research. Researchers from st George‘s, University of London studied 2,065 children aged nine to ten, and found that children from dog- owning families have higher levels of physical activity compared to children without. The team says owning a dog could encourage more children to be active, and help combat rising childhood obesity. The researchers led by Dr Christopher Owen, senior lecturer in epidemiology at St George‘s, used activity monitors to record the children's daily movement levels over seven days. They studied children aged nine and ten in78schoo| s in London, Birminghamand Leicester. Of the total participants, 202 (around ten per cent) owned dogs. The results -- published in the American Journal of Public Health -- showed that children with dogs spent an average of 325 minutes doing physical activity per day, 11 more than those without dogs. This included time spent in light, moderate, moderate to vigorous, and vigorous activity. Dog owners also spent 11 minutes less (552 altogether) in sedentary behaviour each day. Theywere found to take 350 more steps (four per cent) than others. Dr Owen said: “The more active lifestyles of children from dog-owning families is really interesting lsltthatowningadog makesyou more -Internet findings suggest the oppos e. If HIV is thousands of years. is research team , ,r. ,,, ., active or that more active families chooseto havea dog? Long-term studies are needed to answer it, but it may be a bitof both. " "Previous studies have compared adult activity levels before and after getting a dog, and found that they do become more active afterwards. This study is novel in showing that children who have a dog are more active, but, long term studies are needed to see if the effect is seen beforeand afterowning a dog. " Adults who own dogs take 1,700 more steps a day on average than non-dog owners —— a 25 per cent difference. The latest study says that the smaller difference in children with dogs compared to adults with dogs is 'unsurprising', and suggests that the physical activity they take with their dogs probably makes up less of their overall level of activity than adults’. Dr Owen added that furtherwork is needed to determine how much of dog-owning children's physical activity is actu lly undertaken with their pet. He said If children are going for walk with their dog, this may be one way to encourage more kids to be active. " The study was carried out as part ofthe Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE), a St George'sprojectexaminingthe health of about 5,000 primary school children Ii riginLondoriandtheMid| ands. Table 3. Differential Skeletal Anatomy of Humans and Animals: Post-cranium Human Upper limbs less robust Radius and unla are separate bones Large, flat and broad vertebral bodies with short spinous processes Sacrum with 5 fused vertebrae. short and broad Pelvis is broad and short, bowl-shaped Femur is longest bone in body, linea aspera is singular feature Separate tibia and fibula Foot is long and narrow, weight borne on heel and toes Animal Robust upper limbs Radius and ulna often fused Small vertebrtal bodies with conveid concave surfaces and long spinous processes Sacrum with 3 or4fused vertebrae. long and narrow Pelvis is long and narrow, bladeshaped Femur is similar length to other limb bones, linea aspera double or plateau Tibia and fibula are often fused Foot is broad, weight borne mainly on toes Table 4. Differential Bone Macrostructure of Humans and Animals Human More porouscortical bone 1/4thicknessofdiameteroflong bone Diaphyseal trabecula present Thickdiploe in cranial vault bones ofthetotaldiametercomparedtoabout ‘/2 of the total diameter in animal proximal limb bones. Trabecu| a is largely absent from the interior of animal leg bone diaphyses, resulting in a very smooth medullary surface compared to the web of trabecula covering the medullary surface in human long bones. Fig.5a: Skull ofa Human Animal Less porous cortical bone 1/2 thicknessofdiameteroflong bone Diaphysealtrabecula absent More compact cranial vault bones ANIMAL HUMAN K. ‘ . Nd Human cranial vault bones have thick diploe relative to cortical (tabular) bone compared to the thin, more compact vault bones of animals. Some basic differences in animal and human bone macrostructurearedefinedinTable4. Microstructure of bone (Histology) The microscopic structure of cortical bone is often diagnostic between humans and animals, although not practical in a field setting. Osteons in human cortical bone are scattered and evenly spaced whereas in many animals osteons tend to align in rows (osteon banding) orform rectanguloid structures (plexiform bone). Although osteon banding or plexiform bone indicate animal bone, Ubelaker (I999) cautions that considerable variety exists between species and between bones ofthe same animal which therefore makes the identification of scattered osteon distributioninconclusive. Biomolecular Analyses Identification of badly burnt fragments of bone, their origin may be impossible by gross morphology alone and other techniques have to be employed. To determine whether histological methods were redundant and should be superseded by Biomolecular analyses, small fragments ofartificially burnt bone (human andnon—human) were examined by quantitative and standard light microscopy, and the findings compared with newer biomolecularanalyses based on identifying specific human albumin by ELISA and amplifying human mitochondrial DNA by PCR (Cattaneo at ali999). Fig.5b: Skull of a Lion BVSc & AH, MVSc (Gynecology). Dept. of Vety Gynecology & Obstetrics. Vety College, Bidar, Karnataka. ans, MDS (Community Dentistry). Lecturer, Dept. of Preventive & Community Dentistry, Riyadh College or Dentistry & Pharmacy, Saudi Arabia. Aids virus lineage much older than previously thought An ancestor of HIV that infects monkeys is thousands of years older than previously thought, suggesting that HIV, which causes AIDS, is not likely to stop killing humans anytime soon, finds a study by University of Arizona and TulaneUniversityresearchers. The simian immunodeficiency virus, or S| V,isat least 32,000 to 75,000 years old, and likely much older, according to a genetic analysis of unique SIV strains found in monkeys on Bioko Island, a former peninsula that separated from mainland Africa afterthe Ice Age more than 10,000 years ago. The research, calls into question previous DNA sequencing data thatestimatedthevirus‘ageatonlyafew hundred years. The study results have implications for H| V.S| V, unlike HlV, does not cause AIDS in most of its primate hosts. Ifittookthousands ofyearsforS| V to evolve into a primarily non-lethal state, it would likelytakea very long time for HIV to naturally follow the same trajectory. "HIV is the odd man out because, by and large, all the other species of immuno-deficiency viruses impose a much lower mortality on their host species, “ said Michael Worobey, a professor in the UA's department of ecology and evolutionary biology, who led the study in conjunction with virologist Preston Marx of Tulane UTIIVETSIY)/ ."50, if SIV entered the picture relatively recently as was previously thought, we would think it achieved a much lower virulence over a short timescale, " Worobey said. ”But our going to evolve to lower virulence, it is unlikely to happen anytime soon. " The study also raises a question about the origin of HIV, which scientists believe evolved from SIV. )f humans have been exposed to SIV-infected monkeys for thousands of years, why did the HIV epidemiconlybegininthe20thcentury? "Something happened in the 20th century to change this relatively benign monkey virus into something that was much more potent and could start the epidemic. We don't know what that flashpoint was, but there had to be one, " Marx said. Finding these Virus strains trapped on Bioko Island settles a long- standing debate, Worobey said. "|t's like finding a fossilized piece of virus evolution, " he said. "We now have this little island that is revealing clues about SIV. and it says, ‘It's old. ‘ Now we know that humans were almost certainly exposed to SIV for a long time, probably hundredsofthousandsofyears. " According to Worobey, SIV was distributed across the African continent before Bioko Island separated from the continentabout10,000yearsago. "When that happened, whatever viruses were circulating at the time became isolated from the virus populations on mainland Africa, " hesaid. Marx, a virologist at the Tulane National Primate Research Center, tested his theory that siv had ancient origins by seeking out DNA samples from monkey populations that had been isolated for collected bush meat samples from Bioko Drills (Mandrillus / eucophaeus). The scientists found four different strains of SIV that were highly genetically divergent from those found on the main| and. Worobey then compared DNA sequences of the viruses with the assumption that the island strains evolved in isolation formore than 10,000 years. The computer modeling showed the rate of mutation to be much slower than previously thought, indicating that the virus is between 32,000 and 75,000 years old. These dates set a new minimum age for SlV, a|though it is likely to be even o| der, Marx said. Worobey said the study has implications for a lot of rapidlyevolving pathogens. "Our methods are great to describe and predict the short-term changes of viruses like the flu or HIV. but we need to be skeptical of inferences in deep time, We found there is a big disconnect between the rapid evolution for which those pathogens are famous and the incredible degree of conservation we‘ve found. " ”Being able to study these viruses in an isolated setting is a unique opportunity, “ he added. “As far as we know, there is no other place like Bioko Island, “ Worobey said. “Nowhereelsecouldwedothis kind of deep time calibration. Some of the primatespecieson Biokoonly haveafew hundred individuals left and might go extinct in the not-too-distant future. We might not have been able to do this research 10or20yearsfrom now "
  5. 5. Veterinarian says natural foods not always best for pets While natural food is a rising trend among humans, pet owners should be careful before feeding similar types of food to their pets, according to a Kansas State University vet. All too often pet owners assume that because certain foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are healthyforthem, theyarealsohealthyfor their pets, said Susan Nelson, K-State assistantprofessorofclinicalservices. "Natural and veggiesbased pet foods are based more on market demand from owners, not because they are necessarily better for the pet, " she said. Natural pet food isn't necessarily unhealthy for pets, and there are good brands on the market. But cats and dogs have specific nutritional needs that some of these foods may not provide, Nelson said. For instance, anatura| dogfood mayprovide antioxidants through fruits and vegetables, but it may be deficient in other nutrients the dog needs. If pet owners opt for natural pet food, it's important to make sure pets still receive a well—balanced diet, she said. Before buying any pet food that is labeled natural, owners should make sure it comes from a reputable company. Nelson said the Association of American Feed Control Officials, or AAFCO, sets guidelines for the production, labeling and distribution of pet food and sets minimum standards for the nutritional adequacy of diets. To ensure that food contains the proper nutrients a pet needs, pet owners should only buy pet food that has at least one of the two AAFCO nutritional adequacy statements on its | abe| ,Ne| son said. The association's standards determine whethera pet food company's product is complete and balanced for a specific life stage accordingtooneoftwocriteria: thediet's formula meets the minimum nutrient requirements established by the association or the diet has undergone association feeding trials. Feeding trials, while not perfect, genera| |y give the best assessment on how well the food performs for a specific life stage, Nelson said. Owners should look closely at the feeding statement on the | abe| ,as some foods are intended for intermittent feeding or only for specific life stages, and they could be detrimental to a pet if fed long-term. Ne| son said it is important to differentiate between terms such as natura| ,organicand ho| istic. Organicand holistic currently have no specific definitions for pet foods under the Association of American Feed Control Officialsguidelines. Organicisdefined by the U. S. Department of Agriculture for human food, but the department has no definition of natural foods for humans. The feed control association defines natural products as those that don't contain any chemically synthesized ingredients except vitamins or minerals. The labels for natural products containinganyoftheseingredients must state: "Natural with added vitamins, minerals and other trace nutrients. " Consumers should be wary of any pet food company that claims to have organic or holistic food because they don't exist bythe association's definition, Nelson said. Consumers should also pay attention to food ingredients. For instance, cats and dogs should not eat onions or garlic. While flaxseed oil can providefattyacidsfordogs, catscan'tuse itforthispurpose. Anymanufacturerthat uses these ingredients should be avoided, Ne| son said. "Most reputable companies have a veterinary nutritionist on hand, “ Nelson said. "These companies also conduct nutritional research and have their own internal qualitycontrolinplace. " Because dry pet food needs pre— servatives, there is often debate about whether artificial or natural pre- servatives are better. Studies show that synthetic preservatives seem to work better and aren‘t bad for pets at the levels contained in the food. However. market demand is for using vitamins E and C because they are natural preservatives. As with any pet diet, pet owners who opt for natural pet food should keep an eye on theirpetsto make sure the food is not negatively affecting them, Nelson said. "Assuming the diet you have chosen meets AAFCO minimum standards of nutritional adequacy, and if your pet looks healthy, has good coat quality, is in good body condition, has good fecal consistency and is able to do its job, the diet is probablyadequateforhim, "shesaid. -Internet Unusual feed supplement could ease gassy cows reduce their greenhouse gas emissions Cow belches, a major source of greenhouse gases, could be decreased by an unusual feed supplement developed by a Penn State dairy scientist. In a series of laboratory experiments and a live animal test, an oregano—based supplement not only decreased methane emissions in dairy cows by 40 percent, but also improved milk production, according to Alexander Hristov, an associate professor of dairy nutrition. The natural methane- reduction supplement could lead to a cleaner environment and more productivedairyoperations. “Cattle are actually a major producer of methane gas and methane is a significant greenhouse gas, " Hristov said. ‘‘In fact, worldwide, livestock emits 37 percentofanthropogenicmethane. " Anthropegenic methane is methane produced by human activities, such as agricu| ture. Comparedtocarbondioxide, methane has 23 times the potential to create global warming, Hristov said. The Environmental Protection Agency bases the global warming potential of methane on the gas‘s absorption of infrared radiation, the spectral location of its absorbing wavelengths and the length of time methane remains in the atmosphere. Methane production is a natural part of the digestive process of cows and other ruminants, such as bison, sheep and goats. When the cow digests food, bacteria in the rumen, the largest of the four-chambered stomach, break the material down intro nutrients in a fermentation process. Two of the byproducts of this fermentation are carbon dioxide and methane. "Any cut in methane emissions would be beneficial, " Hristov said. Experiments revealed another benefit of the gas— reducing supplement. It increased daily milk production by nearly three pounds ofmilkforeach cowduringthetrials. "5ince methane production is an energy loss for the animal, this isn't really a surprise, " Hristov said. ''If you decrease energy| oss, thecowscanusethatenergy for other processes, such as making mi| k." Natural methane reduction measures are preferable to current treatments, such as feed antibiotics. Hristov first screened hundreds of essential oils, plants and various compounds in the laboratory before arriving at oregano as a possible solution. During the experiments, oregano consistently reduced methane without demonstrating any negative effects. Following the laboratory experiments, Hristov conducted an experiment to study the effects of oregano on lactating cows at Penn State's dairy barns. Hristov said that some compounds that are found in oregano, including carvacrol, geraniol and thymol, seem to play a more significant role in methane suppression. Identifying the active compounds is important because pure compounds are easier to produce commercially and more economical forfarmersto use. ''If the follow-up trials are successfu| ,we will keep trying to identify the active compoundsin oreganotoproduce purer products, " said Hristov. -intmier llnloller 010 I Page 05 I iii. iii". ,1 Sanap P. S' Deshmukh S. V' Wankllede SM’ The nutrition of pet animal is different from other productive anima| s.The main purpose offeeding productive animal is to get maximum production at the cheapest cost. Whereas nutrition of pet animal based only on emotions. Provide such type of diet that will fulfill all body requirements. Approximately 30% pup's mortality occurs during 1 st 15 days of life, and it is mostly due to inadequate nutrition. The pup's nutritional status changes from birth to maturity. However at all times during theirgrowing stage nutritional needs increase than that of mature stage. Various types of nutrients are required and their need and changes occur during developmentare desired. 1.Feeding of Pups (From Birth to Weaning)- Generally newborn pups are nursed by their mother through natural teat feeding and they learn to eat mother's food after openingeyesatabout8tol0daysofage. |nanemergencylike mother's inability to nurse their pups due to agalactia or mastisisandfororphanpupsartificialfeedingisrequiredfrom the very 1st day of life. Such pups are deprived of mother's colostrums and they are more susceptible to infection requiring more hygieniccare during feeding and watering. If there are large number of litters more than 8 pups then it should be reduced to 8 atthe end ofl stweek it is necessaryto supplement the bitch's milk with cow's milk after 3rd week. This can be done by teaching the pups to drinkfrom shallow pans. The pup's muzzle should be pushed into the milk until it learns to lap it up. For a litter off} pups, about 600ml of milk per day is sufficient for the 1st 3 days, after which they should receive 1.2 L. A milk substitute prepared by adding 200 gram cream to 800 ml cow milk along with 1 egg yolk, 6 gram steamed bone meal, 200 I U Vitamin A, 500 I U Vitamin D and 4 gram Citric acid. Newly born pups have little energy and glucose. Pup is capable of digesting and absorbing nutrients from its mother's milk the activity of digestive enzymes increases just before birth, so premature animals may experience digestive difficulties. The pups should increase their body weight by 58% each day during early neonatal period if inadequate weight gain occurs pup should be fed with milk replacers with nutrient concentration— 78% Water, 8% Protein,10% Fat, 1 .2—1 .4 kcal/ g The nutrients should be milk based (casein orwheyl for protein source, lactose for the carbohydrate and milkfat or emulsified fats for the lipid source. Newborn pups lack many enzymes and this can cause serious problems if sucrose or maltose are usedin homemade milkreplacers. An Effective Homemade Milkkeplacers Wholemilk-250 m| ,Eggyo| k-2,Corn oil-5 ml One drop of infant multiple vitamin. Iftube feeding then pups should receive 22 to 24 kca| / 100 g body weight divided into several feeding, feed 3 weeks for 5 times till they start eating solid food. 2.Feeding ofweaned Puppies Most ofthe dog breeders practice weaning at about 4, 6 or 8 weeks of age. Weaned pups are gradually shifted to artificial feeding ofmllk—based semi—so| ld or liquid diets. At5 too weeks ofagethe pups should be weaned and receive cow's milkand solid food. At this stage gastrointestinal tract of pups will be matured and allowing them to utilize solid foods. Good quality starter pup diets can be easily prepared from milk and other foods at home. It should contain 30 to 35 % protein and 30 to 35 % edible fat and carbohydrates. (Starch, lactose and sugar) sufficient quantity of minerals and vitamins added. Complete and balanced foods designed for needs of growing pups should be introduced atthe beginning of3 weeks ofage. A liquid diet (about30% DM) prepared by using cream, cereal f| our, egg yolk and milkor milk powder. This is to be fed at 15 % of body weight at different intervals during day. Feeding schedule reduced to twice a day, when pups are 4to 5 months old. Fresh water in clean bowl should be available at all times. Establish routine eating habits byfeeding a pup in same place and atthe sametime. The daily requirement calculated at 5Dto 55 g DM per kg body weight during the active growth up to 6 monthsofage. Then itshould reduceto 38to40g. Energy Requirements- Growing puppies require about 2 times as much energy per unit of body weight. Pups of small breeds have extreme energy requirements. Large and giant breed dogs need fewer Q 9 4. l I @‘ O‘. H‘ '. . , .t *~. * i I, 5:’ 34,. ‘ -—. s---v Air *-II-4a. , ’_ 'i; ".<1i: i.: ‘«i. l Cr«i. i"<3 ‘CIT. ’ Pups calories per unit body weight excess calories intake in growing pups can lead to obesity. Over consumption of calories in large and giant breed pups can promote too rapid growth leading to increase in the incidence of skeletal abnormalities. The average energy requirement for pups at this stage is between 200and 275 kcal/ kg "'5 Protein Requirements Protein serves manyfunctions in the body including e. g.- skin and muscles, hormones, enzymes, blood cells and immune functions. Ofl7to22caloriesconsumedthedietwillmeetthe minimal protein requirement for growing puppies of all breeds, provided if a good quality protein is supplied. Excessive intake of dietary protein has been suggested as a contributingfactortoskeletaldevelopmentproblemssuchas osteochondrosis, in large breed dogs. Whi| e low protein diet reduces growth, depressed food intake or weight loss and depleted protein reserves, the hair coat will become rough and dull. Anemia and hypo-proteinemia may occur with secondaryedema. Requirement of Microe| ement- MineralRequlrementisleastbutitisessentlaltofulfillthediet. Calcium is an essential mineral with critical function. It is an important component in bone and dental structure, which contain 99 % of body's ca| cium. Calcium is having enzymatic and metabolic functions such as muscle contraction and neurotransmission. A dietary deficiency of calcium leads to poor growth rate and reduced mineralization of bone, with subsequent defects such as rickets or stress fractures. An excess of calcium is also detrimental, excess dietary calcium inhibits growth and includes bone defects such as ostechondrpsis, with lameness an excess calcium may interfere with the absorption of other nutrients, leading to secondarydeflcienciesofothernutrients. Sr. No Nutrients Recommended Level in Food (on DMB) 1 Energy Density 3.5 — 4 k. ca| M. E./ g 2 Crude Protein % 22 3 Crude Fat % 8 4 Linoleic acid % 1 5 Calcium % 1 6 Phosphorus % 0.8 7 Ca: P ratio 1.1 8 Sodium % 0.3 9 Chloride % 0.45 10 Vitamin A 5000 I U/ kq 1 1 Vitamin D 500 I U/ kg 12 Vitamin E 50 I U/ kg AAFCO (7997) developed and published practical dog nutrient profiles based on the typical ingredients used in manufacturing petfood. AAFCO l 1997) Nutrient Profile of Pet Diet All pups, regardless of breed responded well to dietary Calcium between 1 and 1.5 %. Excess calcium is also a problemingrowing puppies, especia| |ylargebreed puppies. An extremely rapid growth rate can result in an increase in skeletal problems. St. Bernard puppies fed 2.3% Calcium observed stunted growth and abnormalities in bone development. Great Dane pups fed 2.7 to 3.3 % calcium showed stunted growth and skeletal problems. It also interferes the absorption ofCalcium and leads to secondary nutrient deficiency (Zinc defi'ci'encyl. These findings calculated that the safe level ofdietary calcium is between 1 and 1.5 % calcium slightly above or below this level may be acceptabledepending onthecalorie content ofthedietand intake of puppies. So, calcium and phosphorus ratio between 1:1 and 2:1 The microelements such as Fta soluble vitaminslA, D,E&K)aswellaswatersoluble vitaminslvitamin CandBcomplex)thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid B "and biotin are essential and lack of any of these leads to subsequent deficiency or related disorders. In this way nutrition of pet animals is very importantas described earlier. _, an I . M.V. Sc Scholar, 2. Professor and Head of Department, 3. Assistant Professor Dept. or Animal Nutrition, college of Vely. at Animal Sciences. (MAFSUL Parbhani
  6. 6. Ilfllflllef 2010 I P398 06 l V‘ . . f —. . ‘ ALT; :11; Chicken killed Bannerghatta tigress Veterinarians confirmed that four—year— old tigress, Divya, of Bannerghatta Biological Park (BBP). died of diarrohea triggered by feeding on chicken infected with salmonella bacteria, even as park authorities swung into action to prevent the situation from going out of control. The authorities have quarantined ‘I0 other BBP tigers - Arya, Surya, Razia, Vinay, Shreyas, Anu, lnchara, Sindhu and Minchu (all from the safarfl and Rocky (ct Sumatran tiger from the park's Born Free Foundation centre)— which have been infected by the bacteria. However, BBP officials said that all the 10 tigers were showing signs of recovery and diarrohea had been controlled. As experts pointed outthe possibility of the salmonella bacterial infection spreading to humans, the authorities have asked the caretakers to keep off the cubs from the infected animals. l. ack of veterinarians is the bane Divya was the fourth big cat to have died. A 2l—year—o| d Siberian tiger, King, died, whi| etwo| ions, Lakshman(20)and Shankar (23), also died. The authorities, however, said these three animals died duetoo| dage. Withtestsidentifyingthe source of infection, feeding of chicken to all carnivores in the park has been stopped, The lions, tigers and leopards are now being fed beef as the alternative, mutton, could be expensive and not—so—hea| thy. Divya was suffering from salmonella of the liver, said Dr C Renukaprasad, director of the Institute of Animal Health and Veterinarian Sciences in Hebbal where experts conducted the post»mortem examination on the young tigress. She was suffering from gastroenteritis and jaundice, the autopsy report revealed. Park officials said they had asked the two contractors supplying chicken to feed of Bannerghatta Biological Park As the crisis in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (BBP) went from bad to worse, the authorities rushed expert veterinarians from Mysore to attend to the ill tigers, whose numbers continued toincrease. An emergencywas declared in the park as the numberofcritically ill tigers rose to 10. Besides getting the services of additional veterinarians, the park said it was considering expert training for its personnel. The Mysore team included Dr Prayag, veterinarian from the Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens, and four veterinary post— graduate students who have volunteered for the task. Besides this five-member Mysore team, there were two veterinarians from the wildlife SOS centre (sloth bear rescue centre), a BBP veterinarian and a consulting veterinarian stationed in the park. However, experts said the number of veterinarians in the park was not enough given the gravity of the situation and more trained professionals were needed. They felt that the situation would not have aggravated if there had been enough trained professionals in the park. According to DrThopsie Gopa| ,advisor foranimal emerging infectious diseases in the Asian Nature Conservation Foundation (ANCF). the doctors present in the park might be unable to handle the situation and more trained personnel were needed to handle such a crisis. A team of six veterinarians from the Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals (IAHVB) have been assigned the task of collecting samples, assessing the situation and guiding the BBP staff. But their task is the animals — Afgar and Mujeeb from Shivajinagar — to stop supplying the white meat immediately. From now on, ' chicken will be purchased from genuine and branded outlets, they said. They suspected that the contractors could be getting the meat from the same source which could be containingthe bacteria. Besides following the prescribed line of treatment for the salmonella infection, the park authorities were also conducting tests to ascertain whether the animals were suffering from any other bacterial or viral infection, said assistant director of Bannerghatta Biological Parkveterinary services, DrBC Chittiappa. Ruling out the chances of the salmonella bacterial infection spreading through air. Dr Chittiappa said that the focus was on avoiding any other infection. -Internet limitedtoworkingfrom outside. Dr Renukaprasad, director of IAHVB, said: "We assess the samples which cometousand guidetheofficialsonthe course of treatment to be administered to the tigers. Since we are not taking care of the animals we do not have much information. "The forest department has decided to hire more veterinarians from the IAHVB for the upkeep of the BBP zoo and also to ensure that veterinarians were trained in zoos. Speaking to DNA, the member— secretary of the Zoo Authority of Karnataka, MN Jayakumar, said that the IAHVB had been asked to get five veterinarians for the park as there were hardly any trained veterinarians available for handling the crisis in BBP. The IAHVB was in the process of choosingthefiveveterinarians, hesaid. Jayakumar also said that he had proposed a six-month internship for veterinary post-graduate students at theparkortheMysorezoo. Jntemer O A cow from Vorkshire who measures just 33inches high has been officially crowned the world's smallest cow by Guinness World Records. Swallow the cow. who hails from Rishworth, West Yorkshire, measures a titchy 0.8m (33inches) from hind to foot earning her a place in the new book of Guinness World Records 2011.Swa| |ow's delighted owner, Caro| ine Ryder, said: 'Ce| ebrity does not sit that well on Swa| |ow's shoulders. She'll spend the day where she‘s happiest, in the middle ofthe herd grazing, orin the cowshed listening to Radio 2.herstation ofchoice. ' <) A retired circus chimp with an artistic bent has drawn large crowds to a Brazilian zoo to watch him painting. Jimmy, the artistic 26-year-old chimp in question, has been producing surprisingly lovely paintings each day forthree weeks at the Niteroi Zoo, his keepers say. Jimmy'strainer, Roched Seba, saysthat Jimmydoesn't likethetoysand otheractivities thattheotherchimps in the zoo enjoy. So three weeks ago, Seba introduced him to painting after reading about animals in otherzoos that had got into art. Forat least 30 minutes a day, Jimmy will carefully dip his brush into plastic paint containers and uses broad, bold strokes to create his art. Of course, like all great artists, Jimmy can be temperamental and enjoys his privacy, and at times refuses to paint if his cage is surrounded bytoo manyonlookers. UK animal feed industry boosted The British animal feed industry has been boosted by the news that UK beef exports have risen significantly overthe past 12 months. The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB) said that 8,000 tonnes of fresh and frozen beef was exported in July — 3l°/1 more than the same time last year. Overall, 56,000 tonnes of beef is exported with Nether| ands, |re| andand France representing a large proportion ofthe ma rket. "This increase in exports is partially a result of UK production increasing by 10% in the first 7 months of this year compared with the same period in 2009," a spokesman from beef and sheep sector representatives EBLEX told. The growth in production will be welcomed by those in animal feed industry as farmers could increase their uptake of feed. The rise in exports impacted on the level of imports this year, which fell by 7% to 17,000 tonnes compared tothe same period lastyear. -rmnm V ous sources Losing wild species The world is failing to stop the alarming loss ofthe Earth's species and habitat, a UN summit was warned amid multinational bickering over who pays for the rescue. Recent reports have warned that species are disappearing at up to 1,000 times the natural rate of disappearance. UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon warned. "I urge all leaders present today to commit to reducing biodiversity loss. " UN states have missed an agreed 2010 deadline to achieve a significant reduction“ in the rate of wildlife loss, the UN chief said. The mooted organization, the Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, would list Earth's species at global and regional | eve| ,and spell out the value of them. But sources said the establishment of the group could be delayed, with developing countries holding out fora system thatwould give poor countries payments for the use of genetic "patrimony" — unique species of plants or animals that are found to have a commercialormedical use. »lnu-met nun--E. l £1 D m ath of elephants, acres‘ taken up at high level With a speeding goods train killing seven elephants in West Benga| 's Jalpaiguri district, the matter has been taken up with environment and forest ministry and efforts on to meet railway minister Mamata Banerjee. We have taken up the matter with the Union ministry of environment and forest and a high—level meeting has been scheduled next week to discuss ways to prevent such accidents, Chief wildlife warden West Bengal S B Mondol said. Subsequently, a meeting with Railway Board officials and the forest department will be held in New De| hi, hesaid. Chiefconservatorofforest (Wildlife). North Bengal 5 Patel said he would submit a report on the accident. Describing the death of seven elephantsyesterdayas nprecedented and shocking”, WWF (WB) Director Sashwati Sen said they were trying to meet railway minister Mamata Banerjee. "Unless the matter is taken up at the top level, no positive step will be taken to prevent such accidents. Ourearlierappeals have fallen on deaf ears, “ she said. Sen said the WWF had earlier asked for halting movement of night trains in the New Ja| paiguri—A| ipurduar section passing through wildlife sanctuaries and National Parks and restricting their speed. Principal chief conservator of forests Atanu Raha said accidents Kansas receives livestock grant The Kansas Department of Agriculture has been awarded a $1.1 million grant bythe U. S.Food and Drug Administration to make sure that livestock feed and pet foods are safe for animals that eat them and humans who have contact with them. t‘s a tremendous honor that Kansas is one Of 12 states selected to receive this grant, " said Kansas Secretary of Agricu| tureJosh Svaty. tspeaksveryhighlyofourdepartment and the quality of our grant proposal. " The grant will allow the department to continue its cooperative agreement with FDA to enhance livestock feed safety byensuringthattheprovisionsof FDA’s ruminant feed ban are met. The ruminant feed ban is to protect cattle from the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, orBSE. n Kansas, we have twice as many cattle as we do peop| e,and we produce nearly 20 percent of the nation's beef, " Svaty said. he grant helps us protect consumers and our beef industry by making sure that feed produced here is safe. “ Kansas agriculture inspectors locate and visit rms involved in manufacturing, distributing ortransporting animal feed or feeding livestock to verify that feed is free of ingredients banned by FDA. Another feature of the grant is an expanded focus on mycotoxins in animal feed and pet food. Mycotoxins are chemical compounds produced by molds growing on grains. Although more than 300 mycotoxins are known, only a handful are considered significant. Mycotoxins can be harmful and evenfataltoanimals, Analyzing grain—basedanima| feed and pet foods for mycotoxins is an expansion of work we already to do ensurethattheyare safefortheanimals consumingthem, "Svatysaid. We're already screening pet foods for aflatoxin, a type of mycotoxin, but this grant will allow us to broaden our scope. " Part ofthe grant will be used to pay for laboratoryinstrumentation that can be used to identify and confirm whether compounds are present in feed and quantifyto what extent. "The instrumentation is a significant investment for this grant project, and it will make our work so much easier, " Svaty said. "Currently, we can only do a preliminary analysis to determine whether there are mycotoxins in animal feed or pet food, but we have to send samples to another lab for ourfindings to be confirmed. Now we will be able to do confirmatory testing and quantification on ourown. "To address the safety ofdirect human contact feeds that are intended for feeding animals in homes, pet stores, petting zoos and fairs, for one of the grantyears the department will look for any that may be contaminated with salmonella. "There have been reports in the last few years of humans contracting salmonella aftertouching animal food or pet treats, so we're going to look atthose products to get some baseline data and identify any trends, " Svatysaid. “Based on what we find, we will repeat that part ofthe grant for another year or two. " To educate pet owners about the risk of contracting salmonella from food and treats, the project includes preparing a brochure that can be distributed through veterinarian offices. Another component of the grant will be to look for drug residue in animal feed from facilities that produce both medicated and nonmedicated feed. By analyzing samples from feed facilities that make both medicated and nonmedicated feed, the department will be able to confirmwhetherthecleanoutthattakes place between the two production cycles is adequate. The US. Food and Drug Administration awards grants to state and local regulatory agencies to boost food and feed safety initiatives among federa| ,state and local partners. The grants fund cooperative agreements in four primary areas: response, intervention, innovation and prevention. »lnt¢m| -I involving elephants had increased after conversion of tracks from meter gauge to broadgauge. Hesaid elephantsbeing intelligent knew about timings of couple of trains that passed when the tracksweremetregauge. After the tracks were converted to broad gauge and goods train began running at all times of the day it confused the pachyderms, he said. Co| S Banerjee, currently director, WPSI, Eastern region, who had filed a PIL in 2001 opposing the gauge conversion, said his apprehensions were now coming true. He said all wildlife NGOs should jointly pressurise the government to adopt measures to save elephants and other animals from trains. with various measures were being suggested by the forest department and NGOs, field director of Buxa Tiger Reserve R P Saini said the only alternative to prevent such accidents was to construct elevated tracks in that area. However, secretary of Nature Environment and Wildlife Society Biswajit Roy Chowdhury, expressed doubt whether the railways would agree to construct elevated tracks for such a long distance as it would be a costly affair. He said construction of a separate railway line might be of some help. -Internet Eat exotic meat drive launched The state Veterinary Services Department (I/ SD) will intensify its campaign to promote the consumption ofexoticmeat, The main purpose ofthe campaign is to rectify the common misconception people have that exotic meat is high in cholesterol and has poor nutritional value. The exotic meat earmarked for the campaign includes ostrich, deer, rabbit and turkey, which are generally healthierthan red meat. The department's inspection unit director. Dr Rahizad Abdul Shukor, said most people were hesitant to consume exotic meat, or any product made from "Exoticmeatishighinproteinandlowin cho| estero| .To promote healthy living, we will promote exotic meat in farmers‘ markets, " he said after launching a "Eat Exotic Meat" campaign at the Larkin farmers‘ market here. Also present was Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority (Fama) deputy director Mohd Sharizan Mansor. Sharizan said Fama would complement the efforts of the VSD in promoting the consumption of exoticmeat. Jnlcnlrt .4/ VCtjr0‘bSinii. u». ... . Indian’s i. Tcr. i‘. Vet jobs portal
  7. 7. 0I: llJllGI' 2010 I Page 07 The Big Bit The s ull ofa prehistoric tiger, measuring 32.8 cm in length and estimated to fetch between $ 40,000 and $ 60,000,is displayed at Sotheby's auction house in Paris. The auction, which will include other prehistoric finds such as the skeletons of an allosaurus and a woolly rhinoceros, wi| | be held. It's Their Dayzvisitors take a look at African Penguins resting, in cold weather, on the outskirts of Cape Town, South Africa. African Penguin Awareness Day is celebrated in zoos and aquariums around the world by the hosting of educational and awareness activities. Students look at a screech owl held by a bird handler after the release ofa five month old red tailed hawk in New York's Central Park. I‘, (_1 . “wt Farmer Joseph Walter D'Souza's son Vinay, with new born calves Ina, Meena and Deena. They were born to the cow Jyothi, which is now being termed a wonder cow due to the rarity ofa cow giving birth to triplets, at the Nanyapudu village in Mangalore. A heard of antelopes at the national zoological park in New Delhi. v. .i .5.’ Royal Bath: Mahouts giving bath to the female elephants belonging to the royal family at the palace premises, in Mysore. - allous sources ’” “'1 '”’” ('7' J. .. i.<'J. ,. . .l. <:: I. » . ..impact on livestock production systems f) InsectsIPests: Climate change would give rise to increased occurrence of vector born diseases, as it creates a beneficial breeding condition for different vector populations like mosquitoes, flies and ticks, especially in tropical areas. Many vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue in sheep, Riftvalleyfever, arealreadyontherise. glhiseases: Climate change with altered food resources could greatly hamperthe general immune status of animals as well as humans leading to more occurrence of variety of disease conditions. High hot and cold climate exerts lot of stress on animals giving way for opportunistic pathogen to take upperhand. h)Management Practices: Animal husbandry practices/ management aspectswoulddrasticallychangedue high temperature/ cold condition, coupled with availability fodder. To meet the demand of food supply, there will be more intensified farming systems with greater change in concentrate feed and other alternativemethods. Impact on llv hoods of Livestock Farmers: Globally, livestock sector accounts for 40% of agricultural GDP, employs 1.3 billion people and creates livelihoods for 1 billion of world's poor. Livestock production systems in developing countries including India are changing rapidly in response to many incriminating factors. India is home to a third of the world's poor, and climate changewillhitthissectionofsocietythe hardest. It is predicted to be the most populous nation in the world by 2045, the economic, social and ecological priceofclimatechangewill be massive. On contrary, rapid urbanization and the demand for livestock products will continue to increase significantly as populations increase and incomes rise. A poor farmer can benefit from the income generating opportunities that are presented by rises in demand for livestock products. Small holders are major players in the dairy sector; however, most of the demand in the rapidlygrowing poultry sector in Asia is being satisfied via highly intensive systems of rearing. Both livestock systems and livelihood systems change radically in response to a variety of pressures and opportunities. The livestock producers-small/ marginal or nomadic, have traditionally developed various adaptive and environmentally friendlymeasures such asopportunistic seasonal mobility/ migration, mixed crop-livestock farming, efficient water/ fodder management. However, the ever increasing human population coupled with rapid urbanization, meteoric economic growth, increased consumption of animal source foods and commercialization have rendered these mechanisms largely ineffective despitesome promising results. It is clear that poor livestock keepers are among those whose livelihoods are mostvulnerabletoclimatechange. As pests and diseases increase, the poor farmers can not afford to animal health services leading to high morbidity and mortality ofanima| s.In low lying coastal areas, poor livestock keepers have to face loss ofland due to rise in sea levels. There is an imminent need to study at national and regional level on the implications of climate change on livelihoods and vulnerability small/ marginal livestock keepers. Strategies for Reduction of GHGs from Livestock Production System: Currently, there are several strategies which have been suggested by many researchers around globe and commonly agreed on several methods that could be effectively employed to mitigatetheGHGemission. However, these mitigation methods should comp| ytothecriteria's thatthe— i)strategies need to be financially neutral, ii) Feasible atfarm level, ) Need to beacceptable bysociety, iv) should be species based mitigation strategy. However, generally accepted strategiesareasfollowsi A) Nutritional Abatement Strategies: Accumulation of hydrogen produced by microbial metabolism is avoided mainly by CH4 synthesis by rumen methanogen, which is a normal part of the fermentation process. Strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production can therefore seekto reduce the production of hydrogen, inhibit methanogenesis and redirect hydrogen into alternative products, orprovidealternativesinksfor hydrogen. Several approaches are generally based around one of these fundamental processesare asfollows; i) Diet Quality: a)Roughage replacement with concentrates: It has been found that a higher proportion of concentrate in the diet leads toa reduction in CH4 emissions as a proportion of energy intake due mainly to an increased proportion of propionateinrumina| VFA. b)Carbohydrate type: Structural carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) ferment at slower rates than nonrstructural carbohydrates (starch and sugars) and yield more CH4 per of substrate fermented due to greater acetate: propionate ratio. This indicates that cereal feed stuffs will result in lower emissions than by- product feedstuffs with higher fibre levels. So, use of more fibrous concentrates result in lower GHG emissions. c) Forages: Animals fed legume forages have been observed to emit less CH4 compared to emissions from grass~fed animals. This could be due to higher levels of intake and digestibility generally associated with legumes. ii) Pasture Management: Improving pasture quality is often considered as a means of reducing CH4 emissions, especially in less developed regions, due to a reduction in dietary fibre. It is observed that pasture improvement in dry & free—draining soils with a substantially longergrazing season supported good milk production with significant lower GHG emissionsperkg ofmilkproduced. iii) Plant Secondary Compounds and Extracts: Plant secondary compounds such as saponins and tannins are found to reduce CH4 emissions. Saponins have been shown to posses strong defaunating properties which could reduce CH4 emissions. Condensed tannins (CT) can also reduce the CH4 emissions. The plant extracts such as rhubarb and garlic could reduce the emissions. iv) Lipid addition to Diet: Increasing fat and oil supplementation in diet is found to decrease the CH4 emissions. Oils containing lauric acid and myrstic acid and particularly toxic to methanogens. Lipids cause the depressive effect on CH4 emissions by toxicity to methanogens. reduction of protozoa numbers and a reduction in fibre digestion. However, lipids are known to negatively impact the animal performance. Howevenifdietary lipid is kept below 60-70 g/ kg DM, the depressive effects could be reduced. Many factors such as type of oi| ,form of oil and cost of oils needs to be considered before using them in diet. Recently, processed linseed oil is emerging as promising candidate to add inthediet. v)0rganicAcids: Such as fumaric acid, generally fermented to propionate in the rumen and act as sink for hydrogen, thereby reducing the amount of hydrogen used in CH4 formation. However, high cost of organic acids makes their use uneconomical. vi) lonophoresz These are anti-micro-bials (e. g., Monensin), which are widely used in livestock production to improve performance by reducing the DMI, also found to reduce CH4 emission as they cause shift in rumen VFA proportions towards propionate and a reduction in ruminal protozoa numbers. Although, currently there exists multiple nutritional strategies that may reduce GHG emissions, lack of proper research for each strategies needs further analysis without compromising the overall performance of | ivestock's productivity. Moreover, the recommended nutrition-based strategies are not found to greatly reduce the GHG emissions from ruminant systems. B) Adapting newer/ mo Livestock Production Systems: Response to the challenges posed by Climate Change will requirea paradigm shift in the practice ofagriculture and in thero| eof| ivestock‘swithinthefarming system. A holistic approach, which relates to these challenges, is that farming systems should be given priorityto: iimaximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources ed iilprocessing ofthe biomass on—farm to provide food, feed and energy iii)recyc| ing ofall waste materials Compared to developed countries, the developing countries in tropical latitudes are presumed to be better placed for a future when localization will replace globalization as the basis of sustainablelife-styles. C) Developing Novel Breeding Schemes: Genetic improvement of livestock is a particularly effective technology, producing permanent and cumulative changes in performance. There are mainly three ways through which genetic improvement can help to reduce emissions per kg product. MitigationasaresuItof: - I) Breeding for improved productivityandefticiency: Selective breeding for productivity and efficiency helps to mitigate GHG production in twoways; a) higher productivitygenerally leadsto higher gross efficiency as a result of diluting the maintenance cost of the animal. I1) a given level of production can be achieved with fewer high yielding animals. It has been observed that GHG emissions are drastically reduced by lowering the number of animals. By selectivebreeding, itispossib| etoselect animals which use less feed and produce less GHG than average to achieve a given level ofperformance. ii) Breeding for reduced wastage at theherdorflocklevelz Current broader breeding goals that select on both production and fitness traits can help to mitigate GHGs from many livestock systems. Selection for fitness traits (lifespan, health, fertility) will help to reduce emissions by reducingwastageofanimals. Direct selection to reduce emissions: Direct genetic selection of animals, which emit less methane as measured by either direct or indirect emission traits, would likely to reduce the GHG emission. Overall, the future breeding strategies will be tailored to optimize production within nutrient use constraints. The integration of grass/ plant breeding and animal breeding strategieswouldinfluencethe | ivestock's production systems to evolve integrated food supply chain thatreducetheemissions. D) Utl lng the produced methane: Many of the currently available methane mitigation opportunities currently available involve the recovery and use of the methane as fuel for electricity generation, onsite uses, or offsite gas sales. Specific technologies and mitigation approaches, however, vary by emission source due to their different characteristics and emission processes. In a better farm waste utilization system, Digesters can be used (e. g., plug flow, complete mix) that compost or”digest"organic waste in the absence of oxygen, thereby generating methaneforcollectionand use. Covered anaerobic lagoons can collect and transmit lagoon-generated bio gas to a dedicated point for transmission to some type of gas use device (e. g., engine). Climate Change Risk Management Strategies: Mitigating GHG emissions and adapting livestock production systems to climate change will require a major international collaborative effort. Trade— offs between GHG emissions and animal production need to be better understood at the farm and regional scales, through a continued development o observational, experimental and modeling approaches 0 Development of improved integrated fodder management systems, conservation of natural ecosystems, and development of cultivated pastures. 0 Identification and improvement of local breeds of Livestock's (Cattle/ Buffa/ o, Sheep, Goat, Pig and Poultry), which are adapted to the local feed resources and tolerant to heat/ cold stress. Upgrading of livestock capacity, conservation of biodiversity and animal genetic resources. 0 Programmed livestock management practices 0 Establishment of livestock early warning systems in the event of natural calamities, and other forecasting and crisis preparedness systems 0 Rural financial incentives that allow livestock keepers to cope with uncertainties and adopt sustainable livestockproductionsystems. Conclusion: Despite the role that | ivestock's have been shown to play in coping with risk and providing livelihood options, there still exists a lacuna in the information that deals with impact of climate change on livestock production systems. Currently, many possible adaptation options exists, from technological changes to increase or maintain productivity, through policies and investment in specific sectors, which may increase the adaptive capacityofpoorlivestockkeepersofour nation. There is an imminent need to scientifically weigh all the available options/ methods/ tools to assess what may be appropriate to a particular geographical region. With 27.5% ofthe Indian population still below the poverty line, reducing vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is essential. Community based approaches involving ind— igenous/ traditional knowledge would likely to generate some viable options which are easy to adopt a sustainable livestock production system capable of meeting the needs of an each small/ marginalstakeholders household and food security to all in the long run. Although, India has largely focused on its vision with cleareconomic and social development imperatives, the government should simultaneously recognize the impact ofclimate change and its serious consequences in the days ahead. Moreover, a positive pragmaticapproachwith globalclimate negotiations at the international arena would be crucial to safe guard our age old livestock systems existing over thousandsofyears. l)Senior Scientist, IVRI; 2)Assistant Professors, KVAFSU; ‘Corresponding Author: Dr. S. B. Prasanna, MVSK. Ph D. Asst. Professor, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Hassan-573201, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU). VeterinaryCollege, Hassan- , KARNATAKA.
  8. 8. llctoller 2010 | Page llll RUMi| )R0® Rumenotorics with a combination of Prebiotic and Probiotic Cattle Feed Supplement / Indications Feamres o In mastitis, as a topical anti-inflammatory alongwith antibiotic therapy for speedy recovery o To reduce under inflammation and pain o To minimizethe bacterial load on udder 9 O 3 Restores rumenoreticular motility, thereby enhances digestion 3 Improves growth and multiplication of ruminal microf| ora, thereby enhances fibre digestibility m‘i°'. ..1". .’. ’S. ,l. 3 Restores the disturbed ruminal pH, thereby optimises microbial growth 1) Improves cellulose digestion. thereby resulting in efficient feed conversion To preventcross infection 3. recurrence To prevent&treat udder&teat cracks o Regular usage ofwisprec Spray minimizes the occurrence of mastitis § n -o Direction for use Recommendations I; , In clinical mastmsyafter mnking’ O Ir}; optimisinglrumirtalcontractions in animals ‘'3 . . S OWII1 rumina S BSIS. Spray Sufficlent quantity of 0 In restoriii the a etite in anorectic and 5 Wisprec Spray on whole ff‘, 9 pp Q uddergdeat o — eed animals usage a. ' O In restoring normal digestive functions after Large anima| §: 2 hon twice daily for 3 days chemical drug treatment Small animals: 1 bolus twice daily for 3 days Vertical Aerosol Spray can NATURAL Q) REMEDIES Regd. office & Factory : 5—B, Veerasandra Industrial Area. Bangalore — 560 100, Ph: 91 80 27832265, 40209999. Fax: 91 80 40209817 E-mail: sa| es@naturalrernedy. com, Website: www. natura| remedy. corn Ancylostomiasis in a Pup —necropsy I I Gangane G. R'. Khade s o ‘ Mogre K. K3.Vampure RJ ‘, Langade A. S ‘. Dange A. N ‘ Ancylostomiasis is an acute or chronic disease characterized by haemorrhagic enteritis which mostly affects dogs especially pups below the 3 months of age. Ancylotomiasis is a fatal disease in pups caused by Ancylostomum caninum which are voracious blood sucker parasitespresentinsmallintestineofhost. The department of veterinary pathology was in receipt of carcass of a pup for conduct of its necropsy to know the cause of the death with the history of persistent diarrhoea for 3—4 days . On examination grossly the carcass appeared to be emaciated having hide bound condition and soiled analopening before exposure. Santro the bear practises her yoga stretching routine at Ahtarizoo in Finland to the delight of visitors On exposure, the carcass appeared to be pallor especially all visceral organs and subcuties (plate 2). The heart was empty and rounded. Examination of the intestine showed thin deep white colored thread like parasites adhered to the mucosa of small intestine tract. Especially in middle portion at many places the parasitic attachment was with patechial haemorrhages indicating colorful leathery carpet (plate 3) describing haemorrhagic necrotic enteritis. Considering the history and lesion it is noted that the pup might have died due to hypovolumic shocks as a consequence of sever parasitic infection sever haemorrhagic necrotic enteritis. The morphology based parasitological examination of parasite revealed Ancylostomumcaninurn(plate4). Swallow. the world’s smallest cow (she’s the one on the right, obviously) has taken her place in l5thVear$tudentsOlE. lDepirtmentOlVeterinzry Pathology) CollegeOlveterinzrykndnnimal$cient: e.Parbhini. The new GUlhl’| E55 BOOK Of W0Yld RECON5 - Various sources W2[fl1EFli1?Ifq%5l%? %nTl%I$wi%m'r%, l%I11asrG%wWg; q1?-I= r@ra% 9 %1=Pifiwm'<'mafitwl§rf%aas1=I1%I= IsisrN%= :'£t%= ra? ratrI= rfiva%t ; e§qawfiIntr1%= %$t1aaBi‘9taaa%r%, l%Iaitawl%ra1=w1e‘ataa: au= il= fi = I'IHarI'Prn§aIT21%sfi1a21a111arRwl%Iasra? rafi1%1°t§aata= I11fiaI 9