Pashudhan Dec-10

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Pashudhan is India's No. 1 Veterinary monthly journal dedicated to animal health care.

Glimpse on December 2010 issue:
1. Rehabilitation in veterinary patients
2. Fish net hook retrieval from Esophagus of turtle
3. Query fever
4. Krishi Vigyan Kendra
5. Aflatoxicosis in poultry
6. SUMUL: Focus on breed improvement
7. Research spotlight
8. Doping in race horse: a menace
9. National & international news
10. Published articles of 2010
11. Leukocyte adhesion molecules role in bovine mastitis
12. Pneumocarditis in a buffalo- necropsy
13. Snapshots

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Pashudhan Dec-10

  1. 1. 12 DECEMBER 2010 Dedicated to Animal Health CareREHABILITATION b)Promoting post-operative recovery c)Co n s e r vat i ve m a n a g e m e nt o f orthopedic or neurological patients. d)Treating severely debilitated patients. e)Aiding weight loss in obese patients We will now go through the various treatment modalities of physical rehabilitation. Physical rehabilitationin Veterinary Patients can be classified into: 1. Cryotherapy/hypothermia: Cold therapy is used to manage acute phase of tissue injury.Cryotherapy is used to treat post operative inflammation, musculo skeletal trauma, muscle spasm, and to minimize secondary inflam- mation following therapeutic exercise. Tripathi S.D, Lokhande D.U, Adsul P.B, Jodumoni Kachari, Satyawan Agivale, Zenobia Chinoy Ice packs, ice massage with homemade popsicles, running cold water overThe field of veterinary surgery has had a as cattle, goats, sheep etc. It is primarily affected tissue, cold water immersion ortremendous progress in the last quarter used to treat orthopedic and cold compression can be used. Howeverof 20th century. Procedures like neurological diseases and encompasses a towel should be applied over theor thopedic implants and spinal the use of physical or mechanical agents affected site to protect the skin. Thesesurgeries are increasingly becoming such as applications can be done for 15-20common. Ideally post-operative minutes and repeated every 4 hours a) Lightorthopedic care has consisted of 6-12 upto 72 hoursweeks of cage rest. While most surgeons b) Thermotherapy 2. Heat therapy/hyperthermia: It ishave felt the outcome of fracture c) Waterhealing or other procedure as used in management of chronic injuries d) Electricity such as in reducing joint stiffness andacceptable; with recent interest in e) Massage increasing connective tissue elasticityrehabilitation; it has become obviousthat a lot needs to be done to enhance f) Exercise and before stretching or exercise. Anthe functional mobility of the veterinary g) Provision of appropriate bedding insulating layer is applied to thepatient as well (Fossum, 2002). People material. affected area. Then commerciallyare now keeping pets not just for fad or Advances in veterinary medicine have available packs or hot towel are securedsocietal show off, but they consider led to a longer life expectancy for most to the affected part by means of strapsthem to be a part of their family. It is not domestic pets. This in turn has resulted for 15-20 minutes every 4 hours. Itinfrequent to find owners ready to move in increased number of animals with should not be used in acuteheaven and earth for the welfare of their chronic discomfort such as dege- inflammation or in animals withpets. This has also led to development of Fig.1: A great Dane undergoing NMES nerative joint disease, arthritis etc. decreased or absent sensation, poorcertain lifestyle diseases such as obesity thermoregulation or bleeding disorders There are a lot of owners who do notin pets. Owners now demand a similar such as in animals with DIC, deficiency What is rehabilitation? rehabilitation, physical therapy or want to euthanize their pets or evenlevel of physical therapy as is available of von will brands factor etc. Derived from the Latin word rehabilitor, physiotherapy. their sheep or goat due to emotional orfor humans. It is now more than ever the it simply means to restore ability. Some religious reasons; because of such 3. Therapeutic ultrasound: It is usedveterinary teams duty to use all the However, it is not just restricted to pet conditions. The application of physical for treatment of chronic tendonitis,modalities at their disposal to return the of the other colloquial terms which are a n i m a l s b u t a l s o i nvo l ve s t h e rehabilitation modalities can provide anpets to their former level of activity now being used are canine or feline rehabilitation of domestic animals such limited range of motions secondary to excellent option for treatment and symptomatic relief of such patients; tissue contractions, Myositis, Bicipital especially so in countries like India tendonitis, Muscle spasms. It can also be used in wounds of upto 2 weeks afterFish Net Hook Retrieval From where religious/emotional fervor far out-weighs logical or economic injury or chronic wound or also for decisions. Physical rehabilitation used in phonophoresis is which is nothing but conjunction with standard medical and enhanced delivery of topically applied surgical treatment with proper pain drugs by means of ultrasound. AfterEsophagus management can facilitate early and clipping of the hairs and application of more complete recovery from surgery coupling gel frequencies of 1 MHz for and trauma. It can also prolong the lives, depths upto 2-5 cms and 3 MHz for reduce pain and improve the quality of superficial lesions can be used for 5 life of patients suffering chronic, minutes daily upto 10 days. Therapeutic incurable orthopedic, musculoskeletal,of Turtle neuromuscular conditions. USG should not to be used in cases of tumors, acute inflammation, infection or It can be used for painful areas. a)Treating patients with chronic osteoarthritis. Contd in page 4 Tripathi S.D, Lokhande D.U, Adsul P.B, Jodumoni Kachari, Satyawan Agivale, Zenobia Chinoy & Cooper J.K. Fig.No.1: Fish net hook after removal Fishing activity has played a very significant role in endangering the existence of turtles in the world. This is especially true in fresh water turtles which get entangled in the fish hook nets lowered in brackish water lagoons or fresh water lakes or ponds. Case history and presentation: An adult fresh water turtle was presented to the B.S.D.P.H. for animals at Parel, with a nylon string protruding from its mouth. The person who had brought it to the hospital said that he had found it near a lake in a very sedate condition. The turtle was sent for X-ray which revealed a J- shaped hook in the esophagus close to its entry at the thoracic region. The turtle was immediately anaesthetized with ketamine @32 mg/kg Fig.No.2: D.V.X-ray showing fish net hook body weight intramuscularly. After induction of anaesthesia US Patent No : US 6, 984, 406 B2 the neck was extended. A slight pressure towards the thoracic mannanase : 800,000 U/kg (minimum) EU Patent No : EP1292669 end of the esophagus caused a protrusion of the fish hook. A small incision was made on the protrusion and the fish hook was retrieved. The skin and sub-cutis was sutured together by In Broilers: 500 gms. per ton of feed means of 2-0 nylon. The turtle was administered injection Benefits - Better performance, enhanced availability of SBM, 3% (ME) ampicillin and cloxacillin at the dose rate of 25 mg/kg down specification (reduction). intramuscular b.i.d for 5 days. The turtle recovered Decreased fecal viscosity : 20 kg pack uneventfully and resumed its normal life In Layers: 400 gms. per ton of feed Benefits - Improved egg production and Summary: egg weight, 2% (ME) down Retrieval of fish net hook from the esophagus of a turtle is specification (reduction). described in the present paper. Department of surgery and radiology, Bombay veterinary college, Parel-Mumbai Fig. No.3: Turtle after complete recovery Regd. No. 50488/87 : Postal Registration No. CPMG/KA/BGGPO-126/2009-11 Registered News Paper : Licenced to Post Without Prepayment. Licence No. WPP-11:BGPSO, 6th
  2. 2. December 2010 | Page 02 Man, let not thy ‘superiority be misused Q fever Query Fever an abortion. Placental retention for 2 to 5 days and agalactia have also been reported. Clinical signs including fever, anorexia, mild coughing, rhinitis and God seems to have drawn a line, keeping man on one side and Asif iqbal, N.M.Kamili humans, and is used to distinguish acute increased respiratory rates occur in all animals on the other. As a lay man understands, it is not from chronic infections. Q fever has experimentally infected sheep but have merely motor faculty or superior intelligence, or, intelligence that Introduction been found worldwide, except in New not been reported in natural infections. could be transmuted into practical intellect or what may be called Q fever is a highly contagious zoonotic Zealand. Experimentally infected cats develop disease caused by the intracellular Transmission fever, lethargy and anorexia that last for wisdom that has given man an edge in this world. An explanation pathogen Coxiella burnetii. This C.burnetii can be transmitted by several days. Experimentally infected by a sage that MAN stands for Maya, Atmic vision and organism is an obligate intracellular mice may have pneumonia, hepatitis or aerosols or direct contact; it is also Nirvana, perhaps, could make the point more clear. Maya pathogen and has been traditionally splenomegaly, depending on the route spread by ingestion. Infections in enables man to change from the raw entity he is, when he is born, placed in the family Rickettsiaceae; of inoculation. Large numbers of animals can persist for several years and however, recent phylogenetic studies organisms are found in the placenta, to one of a reformed individual through his logical interpretation, possibly lifelong. Organisms localize in have demonstrated that C. burnetii is fetal fluids, aborted fetus, milk, urine and education and distinction between what is good and what is not; the mammary glands, supramammary more closely related to Legionella, feces. Asymptomatic seropositive and lymph nodes, uterus, placenta and fetus Atmic vision enables Francisella and Rickettsiella. This in animals; bacteria can be shed in milk, seronegative animals, as well as man to know about his organism is now classified in the family the placenta and reproduc tive symptomatic animals, may shed Coxiellaceae and order Legionellales in limited role in this world discharges during subsequent organisms. the gamma subdivision of Pro- and the responsibility he pregnancies and lactations. C. burnetii Post Mortem Lesions teobacteria.The disease is also known as can also be found in the feces and urine, has for other creatures; Coxiellosis or Abattoir Fever. Although and in the semen of bulls. Sexual Placentitis is a characteristic sign in and Nirvana enables this infection was first described in the ruminants. The placenta is typically transmission has been demonstrated in 1930s, it is still poorly understood. Many leathery and thickened, and may the self or atma of man domesticated and wild animals mice. Ticks may be important in contain large quantities of white-yellow, to prepare mentally to transmission among wildlife, and can including mammals, birds, reptiles and creamy exudate at the edges of the also spread infections to domesticated lose his earthly identity arthropods can carry C. burnetii. In most ruminants. In addition, C. burnetii has cotyledons and in the inter- and merge painlessly cases, the infection is asymptomatic, but cotyledonary areas. In some cases, the been found in lice, mites and parasitic abortions or stillbirths can occur in exudate may be reddish-brown and with the universe. ruminants. In sheep, 5-50% of the flock flies. Most human infections are fluid. Severe vasculitis is uncommon, but associated with cattle, sheep and goats, The mighty lord of may be affected. Both symptomatic and and often occur when the animal gives thrombi and some degree of vascular the jungle, before man asymptomatic animals shed C. burnetii inflammation may be noted. Fetal birth and are usually infected via in large quantities at parturition. pneumonia has been seen in goats and could, perhaps, even take shape, the burly elephant, in front of Shedding can also occur in feces, milk aerosols, but transmission may also cattle and may occur in sheep; however, which man is puny in size, and the intelligent and loyal dog, no occur by the ingestion of unpasteurized and urine. These organisms persist in the lesions in aborted fetuses are milk or other contaminated material. In doubt have their own strengths which man cannot match. But it the environment for long periods and addition, transmission has been usually non-specific. is the distinct trinity of Maya, Atmic vision and Nirvana that can be spread long distances by the Diagnostic Tests documented in blood transfusions and wind. Human outbreaks can result from have, perhaps, given the unassailable edge to man. Does it mean the inhalation of aerosolized organisms. can probably occur by sexual contact. C. burnetii can be detected in vaginal that man can do what he wants and be a law unto himself. His Persistent (dormant) infections can discharges, the placenta, placental fluids More often, sporadic cases occur in occur in humans; these organisms may and aborted fetuses (liver, lung or code of ethics, vis-à-vis all other living creatures in the world, people who are occupationally be reactivated by immunosuppression stomach contents), as well as milk, urine including the floral element, dictate that he just have to live a life exposed. These cases tend to result from or other factors. C. burnetii is highly and feces. Organisms are not shed exposure to parturient ruminants; of humility and follow the path of live-and-let-live. When a man however, cats, dogs, rabbits and other resistant to environmental conditions continuously in milk and colostrum. In deviates himself from this path, he called being “worse than an and is easily spread by aerosols; the placenta, organisms can be species have also been implicated. infectious airborne particles can travel identified in exudates or areas of animal”, meaning that he goes down in the hierarchical order of Although Q fever is usually up to 11 miles. Viable organisms can be asymptomatic or mild in humans, a few inflammation with a modified achievement, physically and mentally, falling below the level of found for up to 30 days in dried sputum, Ziehl–Neelsen, Gimenez, Stamp, Giemsa people develop serious disease. animals. Pneumonia or hepatitis may occur in 120 days in dust, 49 days in dried urine or modified Koster stain; C. burnetii is an from infected guinea pigs, and for at acid-fast, pleomorphic, small coccoid or In fact, no animal is the enemy of man, including a snake; it is acute cases, and chronic infections can least 19 months in tick feces. At 4-6°C result in endocarditis or a wide variety of filamentous organism. This organism is defensively ruffled only when it feels threatened. May be, (39-43°F), organisms can survive for 42 not usually detected by Gram stains.The other diseases. C. burnetii forms unusual animals like crocks seek a prey of man, like it treats any other spore-like structures that are highly months in milk and 12 to 16 months in presence of organisms, together with moving creature, with no extra venom harboured towards man. wool. serological tests and clinical findings resistant to environmental conditions. It is for the wisdom of man to decide and accordingly arrange for This organism also has two distinct C. burnetii is highly resistant to physical may be adequate for a diagnosis at the antigenic phases, phase I and phase II. a n d c h e m i c a l a g e n t s . Va r i a b l e flock or herd level. Bacterial identity can what form of interaction he would have with what category of susceptibility has been reported for be confirmed by immunohisto- Phase I and II cells are morphologically animals. Man has already evolved the rules of the game since identical, but differ in some biochemical hypochlorite, formalin and phenolic chemistry or capture ELISA. PCR time immemorial. Is it for him not to trespass into the arena of characteristics including their disinfectants; 0.05% hypochlorite, 5% techniques are also available in some greed and destroy his other friendly player – not an adversary – lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition. peroxide or a 1:100 solution of Lysol® laboratories. Fresh, frozen or paraffin- Organisms isolated from infected may be effective. C. burnetii is also embedded samples of blood, milk, feces, the animal. susceptible to glutaraldehyde, ethanol, vaginal exudates, placenta, fetal tissue animals or humans express phase I antigens and are very infectious. g a s e o u s fo r m a l d e hyd e, g a m m a and other tissues can be tested by PCR. Organisms expressing phase II antigens irradiation or temperatures of 130°C Serology may be more helpful in are less infectious and are recovered (266°F) for 60 minutes. High screening herds than in individual after the bacteria are passaged temperature pasteurization destroys animals. Some animals do not seem to repeatedly in cell cultures or eggs. the organism. seroconvert, and others shed organisms Experimentally infected animals first Infections in Animals before they develop antibodies. produce antibodies to phase II antigens Animals can also remain seropositive for Species Affected several years after an acute infection. and later produce antibodies to phase I C. burnetii can infect many species of Cross–reactions have been seen antigens. A similar response occurs in domesticated animals and wildlife; in between some strains of C. burnetii and many species, the infection appears to Chlamydia in ELISA and immunoblot be asymptomatic. Its reservoirs may be assays. C. burnetii can be isolated in cell only partially known. Sheep, goats and cultures, embryonated chicken eggs or cattle seem to be the most common laboratory animals including mice and domesticated animal reservoirs. Wild guinea pigs; however, isolation is rodents may be important reservoirs in dangerous to laboratory personnel and some areas, and cats are suspected in is rarely used for diagnosis. urban outbreaks. C. burnetii has also Treatment been isolated from dogs, rabbits, horses, pigs, camels, buffalo, deer, pigeons, Little is known about the efficacy of swallows, parrots, crows, geese and antibiotic treatment in ruminants or other mammals and birds. Antibodies other domestic animals. Prophylactic have been found in coyotes, raccoons, treatment is sometimes recommended opossums, badgers, jackrabbits, black to reduce the risk of abor tion. bears, musk ox and other species. There Antibiotics may suppress rather than are also reports of C. burnetii in fish and eliminate infections. snakes. Prevention Clinical Signs In a C. burnetii-free flock, introduction of new stock should be minimized, and The incubation period is variable; contact with wildlife should be reproductive failure is usually the only prevented as much as possible. Good symptom. Abortions generally occur tick control should also be practiced. late in pregnancy. Many species are Prevention may be difficult, as this susceptible to infection, but most organism can also be introduced on species seem to be infected fomites or in aerosols over long asymptomatically. Abortion, stillbirth, distances. In an infected flock, isolating retained placenta, endometritis, infected pregnant animals and burning infertility and small or weak offspring or burying the reproductive me- can be seen in sheep, goats and cattle. mbranes and placenta can decrease Most abortions occur near term. Several transmission. The amount of C. burnetii abor tions may be followed by in the environment can also be reduced uncomplicated recovery, particularly in by regular cleaning, particularly of areas where animals give birth. Cleaning can small ruminants; in other cases, the be followed by disinfection with 10% disease may recur yearly. In dogs and bleach. Antibiotics may be given cats, infections have been associated prophylactically before animals give with stillbirths and weak offspring. birth. Vaccines are not available for Abortions and perinatal death occur domesticated ruminants in the United after experimental (intraperitoneal) States but are used in some countries. infection of pregnant mice. With the Vaccines may prevent infections in exception of reproductive disease, calves, decrease shedding of organisms animals are usually asymptomatic. and improve fertility in infected animals. Goats sometimes have a poor appetite They do not eliminate shedding of the and are depressed for 1 to 2 days before organism.
  3. 3. December 2010 | Page 03Krishi Vigyan KendraThe knowledge hub for rural farmer essential and quite helpful for effective and efficient transfer of the technology. Front Line demonstration:Krishi vigyan Kendra is a noble concept Narendra kumar, Anu Kuntal, Krishna Mohan first and foremost factor to bedeveloped by ICAR (Indian council of considered before conducting any Front Line Demonstration (FLD) is theagriculture research) which is based on training programme. Depending upon field demonstration conducted under technologies have to be assessed and (f ) To prepare different extension the close supervision of the scientiststheme of transfer of technology from models and verify these models in the need and categories of trainees, KVK refined before their transfer and (ii) a because the technologies arelaboratory to farmers field with respect the farmers field with their imparts mainly following three types of programmed approach involving demonstrated for the first time by theto agriculture, animal husbandry training: various technology components participation to create confidence scientist themselves before being fedfloriculture, Bee keeping poultry among them. (a) Training to the practicing farmers relevant to the farmers in varying into the main extension system of thefarming and allied subject. and farm women: farming situations will be required for a To achieve the above mentioned state department of Agriculture in thatThe transfer of new technology will perceptible change. The concept of objectives KVK. undertake following Training on different subjects were particular area. In this method newlyuplift the economic condition of rural technology assessment and refinement conducted by the scientists of the KVK released crop produc tion and types of activities in the adoptedfarmer. So that agriculture and allied is based on participatory mode as per the need of the local farmers of a protection technologies and its villages:activates become more profitable. As ensuring greater scientists-farmer particular area as well as the types of management practices are adopted inper the recommendations of Mohan (1) Farm Advisory Service linkage and access to agricultural trainees and different audio visual aids a block of two to four hectares in theSingh Mehta committee during 1974, (2) Training programme for different are used to increase the efficiency of the technologies generated by research farmers field. Only critical inputs andKVK were established in each district. categories of people. training. As the trainees are practicing systems to the farming community. For training for this demonstration areGradually working guidelines are (3) Training programme for the farmers and farmwomen, more provided by Krishi Vigyan Kendra. In this, the role of KVKs is of immenseprepared to make KVK more efficient extension functionaries. emphasis was given on the practical FLD both farmers and extension importance for overall agricultural andand know KVK emerged as knowledge (4) Front Line Demonstration than theory to improve their skill to functionaries are target audience. rural development through its varioushub and light house for rural people. A change their attitude and increase their From the FLD, it is possible to generate research and technology transfer (5) On Farm Testing (OFT)lot of technology was generated knowledge for that particular topic. s o m e d a t a re l a te d to f a c to r sthrough constant efforts of scientist to mechanisms. As per mandate of the Farm Advisory Services: ICAR, KVK will operate under (b) Training to the rural Youth: contributing to higher yield and alsoboost up the production of milk, meat, Krishi Vigyan Kendra also known as constraints of production underegg and crops. But technologies so administrative control of State Farm Science Center. It provides This type of training was imparted to the agricultural university, NGO or central rural youth (Both male and female) various farming situations. Front Linegenerated in the research field are not solution to any problems related to Demonstration is conducted in at ra n s fe r re d t h ro u g h ex te n s i o n institute in the particular area. Different agriculture and allied subjects as and mostly those are left their education in scientist from different discipline as per midway i.e. school dropouts. The main par ticular area after thoroughagencies of different state government. when faced by farmers of that particular discussion and consultation with theIt is observed that a lot of technologies the specific requirement of that locality. Interested farmers /persons can objective of this training is to provide particular area is posted in the KVK as sufficient knowledge and skill regarding farmers of that locality. Dependingcould not reach the farmer due to high get proper advices regarding the upon the requirement of that areacost of adoption and lack of interest of subject Matter Specialist. Programme establishment of new entrepreneurship a new entrepreneurship so that they can Co-coordinator head of the KVK Co- start their own business singly or highly efficient new provenextension personnel / agencies. Hence on non traditional sector. The main technology with higher potentialitiesthe transfer of technology was not ordinates the work of all scientist for function of advisory service center is to collectively and generate some income smooth functioning of the KVK as well for their livelihood. The main thrust is selected for this programme.complete and effective. Later on KVK provide continuous and constructive Generally a field day is observed in thewere established for easy and active for benefit of the rural people of that advice along with sound theory and areas of this type of training are par ticular area. Programme co- mushroom cultivation, bee keeping, demon-stration field when the crop isparticipation of farmer through practical knowledge to the contact at maturity stage and interactiontraining, demonstration and farm coordinator is also liaisoning with other villagers regarding agriculture and its preservation of fruits and vegetables, broiler farming, goat rearing, tailoring, between the scientists, farmers andtesting. The KVKs, thus are the down-to- line department for co-ordinating and allied subjects for their cultural and wool knitting, hand crafts and exotic extension functionaries takes place inearth institutions committed to effective implementation of different economical improvement. vegetable cultivation etc. for more the field. The crop is harvested in thevocational training, transfer of latest programme of the KVK in adopted The objectives of the Farm Advisory profit. In this training more emphasis presence of the interested group oftechnologies, on farm research and village. Center is as follows: farmers so that they can visualize-thethus, serving as the light house for was given on the practical aspects and The objectives of all the activities (a) To study the socio economic status importance of new technology easilyoverall rural development in the trainees were do the prac tical undertaken by KVKs : of the villagers. themselves to get more confidence. The and effectively.district.The activities of the KVK include (a) To demonstrate the new improvedtechnology assessment, refinement (b) To keep close relationship between scientists of the KVK provide knowledge On Farm Testing (O.F.T): technology to the farmers as well as KVK. and villagers. regarding the availability of the raw Testing of any improved technologyand transfer, aiming to bridge the gap to the extension agencies directly in (c) To prepare individual farm model for materials as well as the marketing of along with the farmers practice in thebetween the technology developed at the farmers field with their active farmers field with active participationthe research institutions and its uplift of rural people. different product in that particular participation. locality for the interested participants. of both the scientists and farmers isadoption at the field level by the (d) To provide training and advice to the known as OFT. In this method two tofarmers through demonstration of (b) To identify the important problems rural people so as to enable them to (c)Training programme for the of that area as per the need of the three improved varieties or two totechnology/ products etc. and training take part in the agricultural extension functionaries: In this group three improved technologies areof farmers, rural youths and extension farmers and prioritization of the planning of the village, blocks as mostly government employees of tested in the same field so as topersonnel. identified problems as per their well as district. agriculture along with extension compare the results of these importance. (e) Formation of farm club farm center functionaries of line department and treatments. As per the suggestions ofIn view of continuous increase in thenumber of districts, it is agreed to have © To collect feed back from the farmers or village committee for easy members of different NGOs operated in the farmers as well as local soil and and extension agencies and to transfer of new information related that locality are trained in different climatic conditions the improvedone KVK in each district by the end of communicate these massage to to agriculture to the villagers in aspects. The main objective of this type technology may slightly be modifiedXth plan. Realizing the importance of of training is to refresh the memory and by the scientists of KVK to gettechnology assessment, refinement research scientists for modification short time. of technology. up grade the knowledge and skill of the maximum return. All these activities ofand transfer, the Planning Commission Training programme for different extension functionaries by providing the KVK are undertaken as per thehas allocated Rs. 500 crores specifically (d) To impart training on different categories of people: suggestion and approval of the topics to different group of the recent and new information regardingfor the establishment of new KVKs Training is one of the most important new techniques as well as new Scientific Advisory Committee. Thisduring Xth plan period. The DDG (AE) villagers. activities of Krishi Vigyan Kendra. committee consists of representative approach of solving different problemsduring the 11th EFC meeting of Xth (e) To provide new and important Training is planned and systematic faced by farmers of that locality. As the from the Vice-chancellor of Stateplan, held in New Delhi on 30th Sept. information to the extension effort to increase the knowledge, extension functionaries of different Agricultural University or Director of2003 out lined the importance of two agencies and NGOs for wider improves the skill and change the the Institute, representative from the department act like a bridge between Indian Council of Agriculturalissues in the context of the present circulation in that locality to improve attitude of a person towards a particular the scientists and villagers, thescenario of agriculture in India- (i) the their economic condition. subject. Training need assessment is the refinement of the knowledge is highly Contd in page 4Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Kshemankar shrman range of 8 to 12% in feed grains quantity of aflatoxin B1 can produce Diagnosis of Aflatoxicosis Antifungal compounds such as salts of Anil Giri encourages fungal growth. Poor morbidity and mortality; 500-1,000 ppb The clinical histor y, gross and acetic acid, propionic acid, formic acid, harvesting practices, improper storage reduce weight gain, feed efficiency; and microscopic lesions are important in benzoic acid and gentian violet can beIntroduction and less than optimal conditions during 200-500 ppb can cause immune cases of aflatoxicosis. use to prevent the growth of fungi.Aflatoxicosis is responsible for huge transport and marketing also depression. The disease course can be Gross pathological findings included Mould inhibitors like aluminosilicatesfinancial losses to poultry industry contributes to mycotoxin production. acute to chronic, depending upon dose, enlarged necrotic liver with pale bind with inactive aflatoxin and preventevery year. It represents one of the duration of exposure and age of the necrotic lesions and distended gall They usually appear on cereals (maize, its absorption in the GIT. Such aflatoxin-serious diseases of poultry, livestock and bird. Acute disease is seen if young ones b l a d d e r. O t h e r l e s i o n s i n c l u d e bajra, barley, corn, millet, oats, rice, contaminated feeds should only beother animals. Aflatoxins are group of are given high amounts (1,000 ppb of haemorrhage in the muscles, skin and sorghum, wheat), cottonseeds, peanuts used after decontaminating, usingclosely related mycotoxins that are toxic Aflatoxin B1) of aflatoxin. Chronic form intestinal tract; fluid around the heart, and soybeans. They also grow easily on of disease is seen in birds older than 5 various methods causing physicaland commonly found in poultry feed. enlarged pale kidneys and anemia. removal or chemical inactivation of cakes like ground nut cake, cottonseed weeks of age that are given low level ofAvian species especially chicks, Microscopically, the liver shows fatty toxins in feed. Moreover, dietary cake and coconut cake etc. aflatoxin for several weeks.ducklings and turkey and quail poults change, swollen hepatocytes and bile additives such as activated charcoal,are susceptible for its toxicity. In our country this problem is more Clinical signs: duct hyperplasia. phenobarbital, cysteine, glutathione, recorded in the months of rains and Basically, aflatoxins are hepato-toxicAflatoxins are produced by several Detection of aflatoxins in feed: betacarotene and selenium are found to thereafter because of easy presence of and damages to the liver, in additionfungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus favorable environmental conditions. Several methods are available for be effective in the reducing aflatoxicosisparasiticus and Penicillium puberulum. they are also immuno-suppressants, in poultry. Susceptibility: detection of aflatoxins in the feed, vizHowever, only A. flavus and A. Parasiticus and carcinogenic. They simulate All species and ages of poultry can be culture of organism on SDA media, High Treatment:are economically important. The word Chronic respiratory disease, infectious affected by this disease. Duration of performance liquid chromatography Although prevention is better than cure,Afla comes from Aspergillus flavus bursal disease (IBD), fatty liver syndrome exposure, age and level of aflatoxins in (HPLC), Enzyme linked Immunosorbant but if this disease occurs in the farm itwhere "A" represents Aspergillus and and malabsorption syndrome in birds. feed are major determinant factors. Assay (ELISA) and M ini-column can be treated by increasing vitamin (A,"fla” for flavus. The most common and Clinical signs may vary from generaltoxic aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 followed Generally younger age groups are more c h ro m a to g ra p hy. A m o n g t h e s e D, E, K and B-complex) and mineral unthriftiness to high morbidity andby B2, G1 and G2. The cause of this susceptible than mature flocks. In available methods ELISA is commonly content (particularly selenium) of feed. mortality. Aflatoxin cause economicdisease in poultry has been attributed poultry, ducks are the most sensitive to used test in the field conditions, as it is Toxic binders can also be given in the aflatoxins, followed by turkey, broiler losses to poultry industry by way ofto the ingestion of various feeds decreased feed intake, loss of weight simple, accurate and economical feed which prevent absorption of toxinscontaminated with causative fungus. and layers. According to experts, there is method for detection. in GI tract. Apart from these measures no safe level and risk depends on the gain, decreased egg production, lowerPredisposing factors: hatchability, poor carcass quality and Prevention of aflatoxins : increasing use of liver tonics and herbal amount of aflatoxins and otherHigh temperature, humidity and un- increased mortality. Because of their Effort should be made to prevent the immunomodulaters may also help in mycotoxins in the feed. The Food andseasonal rains are some of the Drug Administration (FDA) of United immunosuppressive nature they make growth of fungus in feed. Grains should alleviating the disease in the flock.contributing factors in the tropical States has set a maximum allowable bird more susceptibility to diseases like never be stored unless its moisture Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicologyregions; they encourage fungal growth level of aflatoxins at 20 ppb. Aflatoxins co c c i d i o s i s, co l i s e p t i ce m i a a n d content is less than 14 %. Fungal growth College of Veterinary Sci-ence & Animaland subsequently aflatoxin production. are immuno-depressant and salmonellosis; further the affected flock in feed can also be reduced by addition Husbandry, Jabalpur** TechnicalMoisture content exceeding the safe carcinogenic. 1.0 ppm or greater become refractory to vaccination. of antifungal compounds. Manager Uttara Feeds Ltd.

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