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  • 1. School-wide Positive Behavior Support:What, Why, How
    Rob Horner
    University of Oregon www.pbis.org
  • 2. Goals
    What: Define the core features of SWPBS
    Why: Define if SWPBS is appropriate for your school
    How: Define the process for implementing SWPBS
  • 3. Main Messages
    Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains.
    Invest in building a positive school-wide social culture
    School-wide PBS is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success.
    Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.
  • 4. Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS
    Never stop doing what already works
    Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect
    Avoid defining a large number of goals
    Do a small number of things well
    Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
  • 5. Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS
    Collect and use data for decision-making
    Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context.
    Families
    Students
    Faculty
    Fiscal-political structure
    Establish policy clarity before investing in implementation
  • 6. WHAT IS SWPBS
    Logic
    Core Features
  • 7. Logic for School-wide PBS
    • Schools face a set of difficult challenges today
    • 8. Multiple expectations (Academic accomplishment, Social competence, Safety)
    • 9. Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable.
    • 10. Traditional “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient.
    • 11. Faculty come with divergent visions of effective discipline
    • 12. Individual student interventions
    • 13. Effective, but can’t meet need
    • 14. School-wide discipline systems
    • 15. Establish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
  • Context
    Problem behavior continues to be the primary reason why individuals in our society are excluded from school, home, recreation, community, and work.
  • 16. Problem Behaviors
    Insubordination, noncompliance, defiance, late to class, nonattendance, truancy, fighting, aggression, inappropriate language, social withdrawal, excessive crying, stealing, vandalism, property destruction, tobacco, drugs, alcohol, unresponsive, not following directions, inappropriate use of school materials, weapons, harassment 1, harassment 2, harassment 3, unprepared to learn, parking lot violation, irresponsible, trespassing, disrespectful, disrupting teaching, uncooperative, violent behavior, disruptive, verbal abuse, physical abuse, dress code, other, etc., etc., etc.
    Vary in intensity
    Exist in every school, home and community context
    Place individuals at risk physically, emotionally, academically and socially
  • 17. School-wide PBS
    Build a continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.
  • 18. What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support?
    School-wide PBS is:
    A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students.
    Evidence-based features of SW-PBS
    Prevention
    Define and teach positive social expectations
    Acknowledge positive behavior
    Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior
    On-going collection and use of data for decision-making
    Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.
    Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
  • 19. Establishing a Social Culture
    Common Language
    MEMBERSHIP
    Common Experience
    Common Vision/Values
  • 20. Assess the social culture in your school
  • 21. Tertiary Prevention:
    Specialized
    Individualized
    Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior
    SCHOOL-WIDE
    POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
    SUPPORT
    ~5%
    Secondary Prevention:
    Specialized Group
    Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior
    ~15%
    Primary Prevention:
    School-/Classroom-
    Wide Systems for
    All Students,
    Staff, & Settings
    ~80% of Students
    27
  • 22. Supporting Social Competence,
    Academic Achievement and Safety
    School-wide PBS
    OUTCOMES
    Supporting
    Student
    Behavior
    Supporting
    Decision
    Making
    PRACTICES
    DATA
    SYSTEMS
    Supporting
    Staff Behavior
  • 23. School-wide PBS
    Braiding proven practices with practical systems:
    Policies, Team meetings, Data Systems
  • 24. Predictable
    Consistent
    Positive
    Safe
    Create Effective Learning Environments
  • 25. Define School-wide Expectationsfor Social Behavior
    Identify 3-5 Expectations
    Short statements
    Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing)
    Memorable
    Examples:
    Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
  • 26. Teach Behavioral Expectations
    Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors.
    Use the Expectations by Settings Matrix
    Teach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occur
    Teach (a) the words, and (b) the actions.
    Build a social culture that is predictable, and focused on student success.
  • 27. On-going Reward of Appropriate Behavior
    • Every faculty and staff member acknowledges appropriate behavior.
    • 28. 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative contacts
    • 29. System that makes acknowledgement easy and simple for students and staff.
    • 30. Different strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior (small frequent rewards more effective)
    • 31. Beginning of class recognition
    • 32. Raffles
    • 33. Open gym
    • 34. Social acknowledgement
  • Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________Displayed the Cougar Trait of: RespectResponsibilityCaringCitizenship(Circle the trait you observed)Signature _____________________________________________If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
  • 35. To build staff moral we began recognizing the positive things we were seeing among the adults in our building.
  • 36. Are Rewards Dangerous?
    • “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”
    • 37. Judy Cameron, 2002
    • 38. Cameron, 2002
    • 39. Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002
    • 40. Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001
    • 41. “The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven”
    • 42. Steven Reiss, 2005
    • 43. Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practices. School Psychology Review, 33, 344-362
    Use of rewards in
    Education
  • 44. “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, GallupInterviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.
    • Create working environments where employees:
    • 45. 1. Know what is expected
    • 46. 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly
    • 47. 3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
    • 48. 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention
    • 49. 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve
    • 50. 6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”
    • 51. 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important
    • 52. 8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job
    • 53. 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)
    • 54. 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
  • “What the Worlds Greatest Administrators Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, GallupInterviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.
    • Create working environments where Faculty:
    • 55. 1. Know what is expected
    • 56. 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly
    • 57. 3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
    • 58. 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention
    • 59. 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve
    • 60. 6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”
    • 61. 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important
    • 62. 8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job
    • 63. 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)
    • 64. 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
  • “What the Worlds Greatest Teachers Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, GallupInterviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.
    • Create working environments where students:
    • 65. 1. Know what is expected
    • 66. 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly
    • 67. 3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
    • 68. 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention
    • 69. 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve
    • 70. 6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”
    • 71. 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important
    • 72. 8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job
    • 73. 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)
    • 74. 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
  • WHY CONSIDER SWPBS
    SWPBS possible?
    SWPBS is needed in our school?
    SWPBS benefits our students, staff, families?
    Reduction in problem behavior
    Increased attendance and academic engagement
    Improve academic performance
    Reduction in referrals to special education
    Improve family involvement in school
    Improved perception of school as a “safe environment”
    Improved perception of teacher efficacy
  • 75. States Implementing SWPBS10,000+ schools in 48 states
    California
    Illinois
    Number of Schools
    States
  • 76. Scott Spaulding, Claudia Vincent
    Pbis.org/evaluation/evaluation briefs
    California
    Hawaii
  • 77. Current Research
    School-wide PBS is “evidence-based”
    Reduction in problem behavior
    Increases in academic outcomes
    Horner et al., 2009
    Bradshaw et al., 2006; in press
    Behavioral and Academic gains are linked
    Amanda Sanford, 2006
    Jorge Preciado, 2006
    Kent McIntosh
    School-wide PBS has benefits for teachers and staff as well as students.
    Scott Ross, 2006
    Sustaining School-wide PBS efforts
    Jennifer Doolittle, 2006
  • 78. North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative
    February 2009
    Heather R. Reynolds
    NC Department of Public Instruction
    Bob Algozzine
    Behavior and Reading Improvement Center
    http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/positivebehavior/
  • 79. North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative
    State PBS Coordinator
    Heather R Reynolds
    Dr. Bob Algozzine
  • 80. North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative
    Dr. Bob Algozzine
    Non-PBS Comparison
    Levels of behavior risk in schools implementing PBS were comparable to widely-accepted expectations and better than those in comparison schools not systematically implementing PBS.
  • 81. Dr. Bob Algozzine
    North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative
    Schools with Low ODRs and High Academic Outcomes
    Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard
    Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students
  • 82. Steve Goodman
    sgoodman@oaisd.org
    www.cenmi.org/miblsi
  • 83. 2000 Model Demonstration Schools (5)
    2004 Schools (21)
    2005 Schools (31)
    2006 Schools (50)
    2007 Schools (165)
    Participating Schools
    The strategies and organization for initial implementation need to change to meet the needs of larger scale implementation.
    2008 Schools (95)
    2009 Schools (150*)
    Total of 512 schools in collaboration with 45 of 57 ISDs (79%)
  • 84. Average Major Discipline Referral per 100 Students by Cohort
  • 85. Percent of Students meeting DIBELS Spring Benchmark
    for Cohorts 1 - 4 (Combined Grades)
    Spring ’09: 62,608 students assessed in cohorts 1 - 4
    5,943 students
    assessed
    32,257 students
    assessed
    8,330 students
    assessed
    16,078 students
    assessed
  • 86. Percent of Students at DIBELS Intensive Level across year by Cohort
  • 87. Participating School Example: Fourth Grade Reading MEAP Results
    Began MiBLSi Implementation
  • 88. I write to you today as a former Jackson Elementary school student who wishes to convey her fondest of gratitude toward a fantastic school. As I grow older and move from state to state, I never forget my roots and where my future began….           Though I had only attended Jackson for roughly four years during kindergarten, first, second, and third grade, I realize now that those years were just as important as any other and I am proud to say that I was once a Jaguar.    Without further ado, I would like to state that nine years later I still remember your kindness, your positivity, and most of all the three R's: Respect yourself, Respect others, and Respect property.Those three lessons have stuck with me throughout the years, from age eight to seventeen, and have bettered me as a human being.    In essence, I simply dropped by to express my thanks, and to reassure the staff of Jackson Elementary that their hard work does not go to waste, and that even the simplest of actions or words can spur on a revolution.Thank you very much for giving me the opportunity to live my life to its fullest.Sincerely,
    High School Student writing to her grade school principal
  • 89. HOW IS SWPBS Implemented?
    Nine Implementation Steps
    Build commitment
    Establish implementation team
    Self-Assess for local adaptation of SWPBS
    Define and teach expectations
    Establish system for recognizing positive behavior
    Establish consequences for problem behavior
    Establish classroom management structure
    Collect and use data for decision-making
    Establish function-based support for students with more severe support needs.
  • 90. Visibility
    Political
    Support
    Funding
    Policy
    Leadership Team
    Active Coordination
    Training
    Coaching
    Evaluation
    Behavioral
    Expertise
    Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations
  • 91. 2 – 4 Years
    Implementation Stages
    Implementation occurs in stages:
    Exploration
    Installation
    Initial Implementation
    Full Implementation
    Innovation
    Sustainability
    Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005
  • 92. Two Major Messages
    Work smarter not harder
    Provide the organizational systems to support effective practices
    Training
    Coaching
    Collaboration (meeting time)
    Data
  • 93. Working Smarter
    Eliminate all initiatives that do NOT have a defined purpose and outcome measure.
    2. Combine initiatives that have the same outcome measure and same target group
    3. Combine initiatives that have 75% of the same staff
    4. Eliminate initiatives that are not tied to School Improvement Goals.
  • 94. Sample Team Matrix
  • 95. Organizational Systems
    Policy and commitment
    Administrative Leadership
    Team-based implementation
    Team training
    Team time to meet and plan
    Access to data systems that are useful for decision-making(office discipline referrals)
    Universal screening
    Progress monitoring
    Coaching
  • 96. Coaching
    After initial training, a majority of participants (211 of 213) demonstrated knowledge of practices, but poor implementation.
    Decision-makers should pair training prior to implementation with on-going rehearsal and performance feedback (coaching)
    Test, et al 2008
    © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008
  • 97. Coaching Defined
    Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of:
    (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and
    (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior.
    Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s)
    Coaching is done on-site, in real time
    Coaching is done after initial training
    Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly)
    Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
  • 98. 10% 5% 0%
    30% 20% 0%
    60% 60% 5%
    95% 95% 95%
    Joyce & Showers, 2002
  • 99. Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month
    Coach returns from leave
    Coach goes on leave
  • 100. Summary
    School-wide PBIS is an approach for investing in making the school a more effective social and educational setting for all students.
    Core features of RTI are an effective framework for improving Behavior and Academic Support

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