School-wide Positive Behavior Support:What, Why, How Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org
Goals What: Define the core features of SWPBS Why: Define if SWPBS is appropriate for your school How: Define the process for implementing SWPBS
Main Messages Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains. Invest in building a positive school-wide social culture School-wide PBS is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success. Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.
Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Never stop doing what already works Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect Avoid defining a large number of goals Do a small number of things well Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Collect and use data for decision-making Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context. Families Students Faculty Fiscal-political structure Establish policy clarity before investing in implementation
Establish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
Context Problem behavior continues to be the primary reason why individuals in our society are excluded from school, home, recreation, community, and work.
Problem Behaviors Insubordination, noncompliance, defiance, late to class, nonattendance, truancy, fighting, aggression, inappropriate language, social withdrawal, excessive crying, stealing, vandalism, property destruction, tobacco, drugs, alcohol, unresponsive, not following directions, inappropriate use of school materials, weapons, harassment 1, harassment 2, harassment 3, unprepared to learn, parking lot violation, irresponsible, trespassing, disrespectful, disrupting teaching, uncooperative, violent behavior, disruptive, verbal abuse, physical abuse, dress code, other, etc., etc., etc. Vary in intensity Exist in every school, home and community context Place individuals at risk physically, emotionally, academically and socially
School-wide PBS Build a continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.
What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? School-wide PBS is: A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students. Evidence-based features of SW-PBS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
Establishing a Social Culture Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students 27
Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and Safety School-wide PBS OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making PRACTICES DATA SYSTEMS Supporting Staff Behavior
School-wide PBS Braiding proven practices with practical systems: Policies, Team meetings, Data Systems
Define School-wide Expectationsfor Social Behavior Identify 3-5 Expectations Short statements Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing) Memorable Examples: Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
Teach Behavioral Expectations Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors. Use the Expectations by Settings Matrix Teach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occur Teach (a) the words, and (b) the actions. Build a social culture that is predictable, and focused on student success.
Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________Displayed the Cougar Trait of: RespectResponsibilityCaringCitizenship(Circle the trait you observed)Signature _____________________________________________If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
To build staff moral we began recognizing the positive things we were seeing among the adults in our building.
“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”
2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly
3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention
5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve
6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”
7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important
8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job
9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)
10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
WHY CONSIDER SWPBS SWPBS possible? SWPBS is needed in our school? SWPBS benefits our students, staff, families? Reduction in problem behavior Increased attendance and academic engagement Improve academic performance Reduction in referrals to special education Improve family involvement in school Improved perception of school as a “safe environment” Improved perception of teacher efficacy
States Implementing SWPBS10,000+ schools in 48 states California Illinois Number of Schools States
Scott Spaulding, Claudia Vincent Pbis.org/evaluation/evaluation briefs California Hawaii
Current Research School-wide PBS is “evidence-based” Reduction in problem behavior Increases in academic outcomes Horner et al., 2009 Bradshaw et al., 2006; in press Behavioral and Academic gains are linked Amanda Sanford, 2006 Jorge Preciado, 2006 Kent McIntosh School-wide PBS has benefits for teachers and staff as well as students. Scott Ross, 2006 Sustaining School-wide PBS efforts Jennifer Doolittle, 2006
North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative February 2009 Heather R. Reynolds NC Department of Public Instruction Bob Algozzine Behavior and Reading Improvement Center http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/positivebehavior/
North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative State PBS Coordinator Heather R Reynolds Dr. Bob Algozzine
North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative Dr. Bob Algozzine Non-PBS Comparison Levels of behavior risk in schools implementing PBS were comparable to widely-accepted expectations and better than those in comparison schools not systematically implementing PBS.
Dr. Bob Algozzine North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative Schools with Low ODRs and High Academic Outcomes Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students
Steve Goodman email@example.com www.cenmi.org/miblsi
2000 Model Demonstration Schools (5) 2004 Schools (21) 2005 Schools (31) 2006 Schools (50) 2007 Schools (165) Participating Schools The strategies and organization for initial implementation need to change to meet the needs of larger scale implementation. 2008 Schools (95) 2009 Schools (150*) Total of 512 schools in collaboration with 45 of 57 ISDs (79%)
Average Major Discipline Referral per 100 Students by Cohort
Percent of Students meeting DIBELS Spring Benchmark for Cohorts 1 - 4 (Combined Grades) Spring ’09: 62,608 students assessed in cohorts 1 - 4 5,943 students assessed 32,257 students assessed 8,330 students assessed 16,078 students assessed
Percent of Students at DIBELS Intensive Level across year by Cohort
Participating School Example: Fourth Grade Reading MEAP Results Began MiBLSi Implementation
I write to you today as a former Jackson Elementary school student who wishes to convey her fondest of gratitude toward a fantastic school. As I grow older and move from state to state, I never forget my roots and where my future began…. Though I had only attended Jackson for roughly four years during kindergarten, first, second, and third grade, I realize now that those years were just as important as any other and I am proud to say that I was once a Jaguar. Without further ado, I would like to state that nine years later I still remember your kindness, your positivity, and most of all the three R's: Respect yourself, Respect others, and Respect property.Those three lessons have stuck with me throughout the years, from age eight to seventeen, and have bettered me as a human being. In essence, I simply dropped by to express my thanks, and to reassure the staff of Jackson Elementary that their hard work does not go to waste, and that even the simplest of actions or words can spur on a revolution.Thank you very much for giving me the opportunity to live my life to its fullest.Sincerely, High School Student writing to her grade school principal
HOW IS SWPBS Implemented? Nine Implementation Steps Build commitment Establish implementation team Self-Assess for local adaptation of SWPBS Define and teach expectations Establish system for recognizing positive behavior Establish consequences for problem behavior Establish classroom management structure Collect and use data for decision-making Establish function-based support for students with more severe support needs.
Visibility Political Support Funding Policy Leadership Team Active Coordination Training Coaching Evaluation Behavioral Expertise Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations
2 – 4 Years Implementation Stages Implementation occurs in stages: Exploration Installation Initial Implementation Full Implementation Innovation Sustainability Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005
Two Major Messages Work smarter not harder Provide the organizational systems to support effective practices Training Coaching Collaboration (meeting time) Data
Working Smarter Eliminate all initiatives that do NOT have a defined purpose and outcome measure. 2. Combine initiatives that have the same outcome measure and same target group 3. Combine initiatives that have 75% of the same staff 4. Eliminate initiatives that are not tied to School Improvement Goals.
Organizational Systems Policy and commitment Administrative Leadership Team-based implementation Team training Team time to meet and plan Access to data systems that are useful for decision-making(office discipline referrals) Universal screening Progress monitoring Coaching
Coaching Defined Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior. Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s) Coaching is done on-site, in real time Coaching is done after initial training Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly) Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach returns from leave Coach goes on leave
Summary School-wide PBIS is an approach for investing in making the school a more effective social and educational setting for all students. Core features of RTI are an effective framework for improving Behavior and Academic Support