Grade 8 | Unit 8.3 | Page 8
CHANCE, RANDOM PROCESSES, PROBABILITY AND
• What are some examples of games of chance and games of skill?
• What makes a game of chance different from a game of skill?
• Coin tossing and dice are games of chance - you cannot know what the
outcome will be beforehand, no matter how “skilled” you think you may be.
• In games of chance, the outcomes are uncertain because the outcomes of
the games are based on random processes. That means that you cannot
control the process in order to bring about a desired outcome. The
outcomes of fair coin tossing, fair dice throwing (i.e. with a coin or die that
isn't “loaded” or weighted), slot machines and the Lotto are all based on
• A random process means one in which there is no pattern or system.
By calculating probabilities we can understand why some events happen
frequently and others almost never happen.
• What is the difference between high-risk behaviour and low-risk
behaviour? Can you think of examples of each?
• The notion of probability can be applied not only to gambling, but to
everyday life occurrences as well.
• In random processes like games of chance the outcomes are
independent of the previous ones. This means that any particular
outcome is not connected or dependent on what the previous outcomes
were, nor does it influence the probability of any outcomes in the future.
• If you have thrown a 5 with one die three times in a row, does it affect the
probability of throwing a 5 again for the fourth time?