Fostering Inclusive Leadership Development Among College and High School Students (Part 1)


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This workshop explores the challenges encountered in developing culturally competent leaders at predominantly white institutions of higher education. The presenter will address the non-cognitive challenges encountered by underrepresented students when enrolling at predominantly white colleges and universities. There will be ample time for audience participation and dialogue.

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Fostering Inclusive Leadership Development Among College and High School Students (Part 1)

  1. 1. Fostering Inclusive Leadership Among College and High School Students<br />Rolando Arroyo-Sucre<br />Chief Officer For Diversity and Equity<br />Bucknell University<br />2011 National Partnership for Educational Access Annual Conference<br />
  2. 2. Multi-Goal Shared Learning Experiences:<br />Engaging College and High School Students in mutually beneficial interactions to become Culturally Competent<br />Outline for this session:<br />Personal and Institutional Cultural Competency:<br />Is your institution Culturally Competent?<br />How Culturally Competent are you?<br />Developing America’s Future Leaders While Addressing the Cultural Competency Needs ofMajority and Underrepresented Students<br />A Framework: The American Association of Colleges and Universities Intercultural Knowledge Rubric<br />Program Development and Implementation:<br />Leadership Definition in the context of this program: Predominantly White College students, Underrepresented High School Students<br />Lessons Learned: About the High Schools and CBOs, about the participating students, about the parents, Service vs. Sustained Engagement<br />Q& A<br />
  3. 3. The Greatest American Adventure:The Pursuit of Social Justice and Equity;Integration, Access and Opportunity<br /><ul><li> In the mid 60’s there were no blueprints for incorporating culturally/racially diverse groups of learners.
  4. 4. There were assumptions about perceived “needs” that have changed through fifty years of trial and error and research, but we are still learning and the inequities remain pretty much constant.
  5. 5. Most of our efforts have focused on services for the underrepresented students: academic preparedness and social adjustment to the institutions. Very little is aimed at changing institutionsor the values and beliefs of the majority.
  6. 6. Would things be different today if, during the past fifty years, we had invested more energy in educating majority students to understand issues of difference and transforming our institutions to be culturally competent and welcoming for all?</li></li></ul><li>Cultural competency is defined as the capacity for an individual, an organization, or an institution, to respond to the unique needs of populations whose cultures are different from that which might be referred to as “dominant.”<br />What is Cultural Competency?<br />It involves a developmental process that goes beyond “cultural awareness” (the knowledge about a group gained through media resources and workshops) and “cultural sensitivity” (knowledge as well at some level of direct experience with a cultural group other than one’s own). This process is an engaging, life-long journey of expanding one’s horizons, thinking critically about power and oppression, and behaving appropriately.<br />
  7. 7. Individual Level<br /><ul><li> Beliefs and attitudes that demonstrate:</li></ul>- Awareness and sensitivity to personal heritage<br /><ul><li> Respect and value of different heritages
  8. 8. Awareness of personal values and biases and how they may affect the perception of other cultures
  9. 9. Comfort with differences that exist between personal culture and other cultures’ values and beliefs
  10. 10. Knowledge and experience that demonstrate:
  11. 11. A good understanding of the power structure in society
  12. 12. Specific efforts made to acquire knowledge and information about other groups
  13. 13. Recognition of Institutional Barriers
  14. 14. Skills that demonstrate:
  15. 15. Ability to send verbal and non-verbal messages accurately and appropriately
  16. 16. Ability to intervene and advocate appropriately on behalf of individuals from a different culture</li></ul>Institutional Level<br /><ul><li> Promote a diverse and inclusive campus
  17. 17. Assessment of campus climate
  18. 18. Explicit & disseminated inclusive policies</li></ul>- Cultural competency as skill required from new hires and part of performance evaluation<br /><ul><li>Professional Development for cultural competency
  19. 19. Inclusive physical environments
  20. 20. Visual markers/aesthetics of various cultures
  21. 21. Culturally diverse food offerings
  22. 22. Periodic review of campus publications for cultural sensitivity and inclusiveness
  23. 23. Intentional and structured opportunities for interaction across differences
  24. 24. Acknowledgement of cultural differences beyond ethnic celebrations
  25. 25. Opportunities to explore the “other” with an understanding of power imbalances</li></ul>Culturally Competent Individuals & Institutions<br />Based on the cultural competency framework of the American College Health Association (ACHA)<br />
  26. 26. Is your institution/campusCulturally Competent? Please Rank on a 1 to 10 scale(1 = no, 10 = completely)<br />Yes? No? Why?<br />What markers inform your assessment?<br />Can you give an example to support your ranking?<br />What would need to change?<br />
  27. 27. Challenges in creating truly inclusive learning places:<br /><ul><li>Lack of an agreed upon framework
  28. 28. Lack of understanding diversity work as a professional/academic field
  29. 29. Competing agendas of stakeholders
  30. 30. Fear of acknowledging the need to learn and/or change</li></ul>For Many People Diversity is a Chore or a Dirty Word . . .<br />
  31. 31. Sometimes, indirect strategies and external validation work best:- Inclusive Leadership is a lesser loaded label than Diversity Leadership- Moving from “social justice” to “indispensable for professional success” increases the perceived value and removes some biases- An effective program requires a “credible” yet flexible conceptual framework- Almost everyone in education likes to be cutting edge as long as it is “safe”AAC&U Rubrics come to the rescue<br />
  32. 32. Intercultural Knowledge and Competence Value Rubric Modified from the American Association of Colleges and Universities Rubric (AAC&U)<br />
  33. 33. Challenges posed by the AAC&U Rubric:<br />Institutional<br /><ul><li>How do you implement it at predominantly White institutions?
  34. 34. How do you implement it in the middle of a small, predominantly White rural community?
  35. 35. Class imparted knowledge is not enough
  36. 36. Service learning programs may have negative effects reinforcing stereotypes
  37. 37. Financial sustainability
  38. 38. engaging Faculty for out-of–the-classroom learning experiences</li></ul>Individual<br /><ul><li>Comfort level interacting across cultural differences
  39. 39. Motivation for sustained training
  40. 40. Safe space to make mistakes
  41. 41. Time commitment for sustained interaction
  42. 42. Time required for introspection
  43. 43. Opportunities to discuss and self-assess cultural competency learning
  44. 44. Ability to address the intellectual challenges resulting from dealing with culturally different others with comparable intellectual potential</li></li></ul><li>A Non-Controversial Approach:Leadership Development<br />Providing all participating students with opportunities to become culturally competent leaders<br />Exposing Urban High School Students (mostly Underrepresented) with opportunities for college learning, understanding of college cultures and academic expectations<br />Development of teamwork and multi-level communication skills for all participating students<br />College Faculty: active engagement in selecting materials for and teaching diverse groups of high school students<br />Intentional, structured and sustained interactions across differences to provide opportunities for acknowledging and experiencing cultural differences<br />“Safe” context for learning.<br />
  45. 45. Strategic Choice: Making it Cool to Explore and Develop Cultural Competency Skills<br />Challenges:<br /><ul><li> It cannot be learned in the classroom
  46. 46. It’s a leveling of the playing field: minorities need it too
  47. 47. It needs to be devoid of the “diversity/multiculturalism” stigma
  48. 48. It requires faculty engagement
  49. 49. It needs to bring the fun into learning about others
  50. 50. It cannot be learned in situations with major power imbalances</li></ul>On Campus Approaches:<br /><ul><li> Engage faculty in developing an effective pedagogic framework
  51. 51. Identify and attract a “cool” pool of students:
  52. 52. Presidential Scholars
  53. 53. Greek System
  54. 54. Academically achieving Underrepresented Students
  55. 55. Promote the experience as a co-curricular academic enrichment /social justice experience
  56. 56. Make participation voluntary but with significant time commitment</li></li></ul><li>Technology as a Solution forDeveloping Cultural Competency Skills<br /><ul><li> Build collaborations with urban CBO’s and High Schools
  57. 57. Ideally, HS students need to be at similar levels of academic achievement as their college peers
  58. 58. Develop a pedagogic context where all students learn
  59. 59. Training for College Students
  60. 60. Cultural Competency
  61. 61. Mentoring-teaching-learning across differences
  62. 62. Training for High School Students
  63. 63. Thinking like a college student
  64. 64. Learning to read complex texts
  65. 65. Developing critical thinking skills
  66. 66. Developing communications skills
  67. 67. Combine virtual and face-to-face interactions
  68. 68. Regularly scheduled (bi-weekly) debriefing conversations to internalize learning</li></li></ul><li>The Ideas Become a Program:New Frontiers of KnowledgeA collaboration with Chicago inner city high performing high schools serving low-income students<br />
  69. 69. Program Design and Implementation:<br /><ul><li> Work with faculty to design pedagogic approach and program content (readings, audio/visual materials, learning strategies, etc.) to reflect college-level liberal arts learning.
  70. 70. Work with high school and CBOs to identify appropriate cohorts of high school students; determine target grades and expected levels of academic performance
  71. 71. Discuss use of technology and technology requirements
  72. 72. Interview and train peer mentors
  73. 73. Test project and make necessary adjustments
  74. 74. Begin implementation
  75. 75. Put in place assessment and oversight tools</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> High School Students apply
  76. 76. Admitted participants receive PDFs of reading materials and peer mentor assignments
  77. 77. College peers lead participants through readings and on-line discussions for three weeks
  78. 78. Participants meet college peers and continue discussing materials
  79. 79. Small groups, along with their peers, attend class sessions presented by college faculty
  80. 80. Small groups integrate in their discussion the lecture and assigned readings and the multiple points of view of liberal arts disciplines
  81. 81. Small groups prepare a presentation including what has been learned and how it was learned
  82. 82. Small groups present in a plenary session
  83. 83. Participants are assigned a book to read and discuss
  84. 84. Small group discussions continue on-line (about one chapter a month)
  85. 85. Small group selects a topic for further individual research
  86. 86. Participants share research findings with their small groups
  87. 87. Participants prepare a presentation for next year’s conference.</li></ul>Process at a glance:<br />
  88. 88. Sustained Interaction Across Differences:<br /><ul><li> Purposeful, focused.
  89. 89. College peers commit to one year of interaction
  90. 90. High school students participate in three years of the program, interacting with three college students and at least nine college faculty in various disciplines
  91. 91. During the conferences, counselors and teachers are invited to attend professional development workshops with a focus on working with at-risk and underrepresented students.</li></li></ul><li>LOGISTICS<br /><ul><li> Teachers/counselors have an overwhelming work load
  92. 92. Students have tier counselors/specialists according to grade
  93. 93. Union issues: Space is free, security and custodial expensive
  94. 94. harmonizing time between college and multiple high school schedules</li></ul>TECHNOLOGY<br /><ul><li> Public high school students have very limited access to computers
  95. 95. Email address but no experience or scheduled time to check it
  96. 96. Blackboard is blocked by many school servers
  97. 97. Teachers may not be technology savvy
  98. 98. Frequent changes in contact information</li></ul>CBOS & SCHOOLS ENGAGEMENT<br /><ul><li> Great commitment, very limited resources
  99. 99. time and performance pressures
  100. 100. Low levels of parental engagement
  101. 101. Pos-secondary counselors focused on college placement more than on college preparation
  102. 102. Staff turnover
  103. 103. Follow through </li></ul>Lessons Learned:<br />
  104. 104. <ul><li> High school students develop improved:
  105. 105. Reading skills
  106. 106. Note taking skills
  107. 107. Critical thinking
  108. 108. Writing skills
  109. 109. Inquiry skills
  110. 110. College students develop
  111. 111. Increased understanding of the interconnection between culture and values
  112. 112. Increased awareness of personal preconceptions and biases
  113. 113. Improved skills to communicate across cultural differences
  114. 114. Need-based comfort and curiosity to learn about other cultures
  115. 115. understanding of the need for self-awareness in the interaction with other cultural groups.</li></ul>Academic Gains:<br />
  116. 116. Benefits for Participants:<br /><ul><li> Through sustained interaction, all participants report getting a better understanding of the other’s culture
  117. 117. College students report that the exposure to issues of diversity and social justice expanded their knowledge beyond classroom learning
  118. 118. College students report becoming more aware of how cross-cultural communications requires additional skills
  119. 119. High school students report increased interest in attending college
  120. 120. Samples of discussion threads reveal an improvement in reading and communication skills, critical thinking, and giving/receiving feedback among high school participants
  121. 121. Communications expanded beyond the assigned tasks to include conversations about career choices, the college experience, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Academic Leadership Skills Development<br /><ul><li> Through leading discussions and projects in culturally diverse teams the college peers begin to understand differences in values, communication styles, motivation and sense of belonging
  122. 122. Through developing and presenting projects that included teamwork and public speaking high school students (overseen by their college peer) learn to work as teams, make decisions and assign responsibilities
  123. 123. Public speaking in front of audiences including college faculty and students, parents, high school personnel, and other high school students-participants develop the comfort level to present, answer questions, and share their knowledge
  124. 124. High school students assume leadership roles in small group discussions, research and development of team projects
  125. 125. Participants discover that learning can be a fun collective experience of discovery and validation that it’s cool to be smart</li></li></ul><li>Thank You! Questions?<br />Rolando Arroyo-Sucre<br /><br />2011 National Partnership for Educational Access Annual Conference<br />