0
Exploring Vulnerabilities
in the
Cold Chain
Practical
Approaches
Nick Pacitti
Chicago, IL
7 Nov 2013
• Creating clear protocols and product standards
• Evaluating cold chains for trends and weaknesses
• Managing product/inf...
Description US Units
Public Blast Freezers 51,000
Private Blast Freezers 100,000
Public Refrigerated/Freezer Facilities 12...
Vulnerabilities in the Cold Chain
However, there are exceptions
Cold Chain Making National News
http://www.today.com/id/26184891/vp/44623239#44623239
http://youtu.be/0dNqUK6caAo?t=4m18s
7
Actual Examples of a Cold Chain in Action
Cumulative Average
Temperatures
Another Example of Poor Cold
Chain Performance
Adulterated
Product
Compromised
Product
Desired
Product
45 to 50+
40 to 44....
Creating Protocols and Standards
Protocols and Product Standards
An example of an actual Desired State for large shipper
• An optimal carrier base for chil...
Required Component Description
Available cold chain policy
Provides guidance and temperature thresholds on all the element...
Initiative Now Next Later Impact
Fix what is wrong
Develop Cold Chain policy and product
standards – how does product beha...
Temperature as a Quality Control Point
• Single point readings are irrelevant
• Average temperature readings are irrelevan...
Canary in the Mine
• Can’t focus on everything
• Understand sensitivities of selected
products or product families
• Use o...
Where is the Canary?
Evaluating and Assessing Trends
• There is often resistance to cold chain issues
• Once issues are identified…what to do?
• What is the cost-benefit in fi...
• Rising consumer complaints
• Need to set standards against product quality thresholds
• Need to monitor the standard
• N...
How to evaluate cold chains in
assessing trends and weaknesses
Need to look at Cold Chains in Totality
How to evaluate cold chains in
assessing trends and weaknesses
Understanding the entire cold chain doesn’t stop at delivery
How to evaluate cold chains in
assessing trends and weaknesses
Even with the best monitoring things can wrong without bein...
If you could, would you have a manager ride along the cold
chain, with a cell phone, reporting back critical operational d...
Poor cold chain management has a direct
influence on cost and product quality
Refrigerated trucks ready for loading
Refrigerated dock design
to minimize energy and
temperature loss
This is an excellent option in minimizing
energy while ma...
Raising storage temperatures to save
energy: Is it worth it in the long-run?
• Raising the holding temperature and reducin...
The focus on cold chain management improves the scientific basis for safety and control
processes. Monitoring of temperatu...
The Integrated Food Chain Research
Center
Thank You
Nick Pacitti – npacitti@sterlingsolutions.net
330-217-8005
www.ifc.scl.gatech.edu
www.sterlingsolutions.net
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Cold chain conference nov 7 2013 chicago

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How to fix your cold chain in practical ways

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Transcript of "Cold chain conference nov 7 2013 chicago"

  1. 1. Exploring Vulnerabilities in the Cold Chain Practical Approaches Nick Pacitti Chicago, IL 7 Nov 2013
  2. 2. • Creating clear protocols and product standards • Evaluating cold chains for trends and weaknesses • Managing product/information flows at transfer points • Minimizing cost while maximizing quality Vulnerabilities in the Cold Chain
  3. 3. Description US Units Public Blast Freezers 51,000 Private Blast Freezers 100,000 Public Refrigerated/Freezer Facilities 12,800 Private Refrigerated/Freezer Facilities 114,000 Public Coolers 1,600,000 Private Coolers 2,200,000 Restaurant Coolers/Freezers greater than 1K sf 4,000,000+ Public Refrigerated Trailers 30,000,000 Private Refrigerated Trailers 9,000,000 Public Refrigerated Railcars 31,000 Private Refrigerated Railcars 35,000 Sources: International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses World Logistics Organization International Refrigerated Transportation Association International Association of Cold Storage Construction Refrigerated distribution is huge…
  4. 4. Vulnerabilities in the Cold Chain
  5. 5. However, there are exceptions
  6. 6. Cold Chain Making National News http://www.today.com/id/26184891/vp/44623239#44623239 http://youtu.be/0dNqUK6caAo?t=4m18s
  7. 7. 7 Actual Examples of a Cold Chain in Action Cumulative Average Temperatures
  8. 8. Another Example of Poor Cold Chain Performance Adulterated Product Compromised Product Desired Product 45 to 50+ 40 to 44.9 < 39.9 42% 12% 46% 88% of product delivered had been compromised and based on science should have been disposed of Cumulative Average Temperatures
  9. 9. Creating Protocols and Standards
  10. 10. Protocols and Product Standards An example of an actual Desired State for large shipper • An optimal carrier base for chilled loads that properly balances service and cost • Clearly defined carrier expectations for temperature control and rigorous carrier performance management • Well defined processes, standard work and data sources for chilled product staging, loading and shipping; clear accountability at each step of the process • Systemic data gathering around temperature abused loads across all chilled product categories • Selection and application of temperature monitoring technology that expands data capture across chilled shipments
  11. 11. Required Component Description Available cold chain policy Provides guidance and temperature thresholds on all the elements from pre-loading to loading , yard mgmt/trailer staging, monitoring through to delivery Determine product limits Using real life operating environment simulate the effect of cumulative average temperatures on product stability and spoilage rates Temperature range stipulations Based on spoilage rates develop trailer temperature protocol in monitoring temps and given thresholds Defined temperature trigger points Based on defined thresholds develop stages of intervention and required decision points End to end t monitoring - Rules based control and monitoring systems Apply temperature and quality protocol in monitoring trailer temps during pre-chill, loading, staging, and delivery cycles Suitable staff training Revise cold chain (HACCP and Quality Management System based) training for associates Self and third-party audits Periodic monitoring of the system in assessing how the system is performing as planned and required A formalized validation process assuring the process works Actual monitoring, validation and quantification of how well the system works and what adjustments are needed in bringing system in line with established standards Protocols and Product Standards
  12. 12. Initiative Now Next Later Impact Fix what is wrong Develop Cold Chain policy and product standards – how does product behave in real life operating conditions – for all seasons Develop temperature performance index Design and implement rules based temperature monitoring Selected training at management and hourly levels Review fleet utility and rationalize size – with a process in place and asset productivity improved other Develop audit to validate index Protocols and Product Standards
  13. 13. Temperature as a Quality Control Point • Single point readings are irrelevant • Average temperature readings are irrelevant • Cumulative temperatures matter most >50 A A A A A A 50 C A A A A A 48 G C C A A A 46 G C C C A A 44 G G C C C C 42 G G G G G C 39 - 41 G G G G G G 36 - 38 G G G G G G Hours 2 4 6 8 10 12 G = Good – optimal quality C = Compromised – quality issue A = Adulterated – food safety risk Protocols and Product Standards
  14. 14. Canary in the Mine • Can’t focus on everything • Understand sensitivities of selected products or product families • Use one or two product families for guidance in determining thresholds or ‘cold chain specs’
  15. 15. Where is the Canary?
  16. 16. Evaluating and Assessing Trends
  17. 17. • There is often resistance to cold chain issues • Once issues are identified…what to do? • What is the cost-benefit in fixing Cold Chain Evaluation
  18. 18. • Rising consumer complaints • Need to set standards against product quality thresholds • Need to monitor the standard • Need for predictive capabilities in eliminating problems before they arise • Capability to measure and control the cold chain Cold Chain Evaluation
  19. 19. How to evaluate cold chains in assessing trends and weaknesses Need to look at Cold Chains in Totality
  20. 20. How to evaluate cold chains in assessing trends and weaknesses Understanding the entire cold chain doesn’t stop at delivery
  21. 21. How to evaluate cold chains in assessing trends and weaknesses Even with the best monitoring things can wrong without being noticed
  22. 22. If you could, would you have a manager ride along the cold chain, with a cell phone, reporting back critical operational data? Who would be that manager?  Trailer Temperature  Temperature Profile  Product Quality Behavior  Reefer Mode  Reefer Set Point  Supply Air  Return Air  Product Temperature  Door Open or Close  Reefer Alarms  Location
  23. 23. Poor cold chain management has a direct influence on cost and product quality Refrigerated trucks ready for loading
  24. 24. Refrigerated dock design to minimize energy and temperature loss This is an excellent option in minimizing energy while maintaining product temps
  25. 25. Raising storage temperatures to save energy: Is it worth it in the long-run? • Raising the holding temperature and reducing the heat gain through the walls due to a reduced temperature differential inside to outside. • With 4” of insulation, raising the temperature will decrease the conduction into the facility by 2%. The impact or change in effect of infiltration would be minimal with a 5 deg. change so was not considered at this time. • Thus providing a 2% energy savings on a “peak differential day” • Raising the holding temperature, thereby allowing a reduction in compressor suction temperature • if the compressor suction can be raised a corresponding 5 deg. then depending on the system, there will be a reduction of 8-9% of required compressor brake- horsepower • Kraft Foods engineers claim a 2% savings for every 1 psi increase. At these temps we are about 4.5 psi increase, so this is a second validation of the 8-9% savings. • Installing Variable Speed Drives • If the roofing is black, change to a reflective coating • This will reduce the heat gain through the roof • Can reduce the temperature of the air being drawn across the condenser coils
  26. 26. The focus on cold chain management improves the scientific basis for safety and control processes. Monitoring of temperature in a proprietary way is done by using indicators that can be measured easily, such as cumulative average ambient temperatures. This focus on measurable indicators provides a more cost-effective approach to control than product sampling and testing, which is more expensive and may not provide timely results. This is especially important for foodborne microbial pathogens, because their incidence is low and costs of testing are high. To meet the goals of processors, retailers and the consumer, temperature standards must be set to accommodate accurate product behavior over extended periods. Once established, these standards can be measured in innovative ways that convert data into meaningful and actionable information in better controlling processes. Setting product temperature standards and measuring in innovative ways allow greater efficiency in meeting processors, retailers and public health goals. Cold Chain management is evolving into a regulatory tool, but more importantly, into a supplier and retailer specific requirement. The reason is that it overcomes and solves for the high information costs of setting and enforcing standards for microbial foodborne pathogens. These information costs contribute to the market failure in food safety provision and make design of effective interventions difficult. Moreover, a cold chain standard has been proven to actually reduce food safety risks. It is an effective and useful performance standard. Epilogue
  27. 27. The Integrated Food Chain Research Center
  28. 28. Thank You Nick Pacitti – npacitti@sterlingsolutions.net 330-217-8005 www.ifc.scl.gatech.edu www.sterlingsolutions.net
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