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Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments
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Advanced DNS/DHCP for Novell eDirectory Environments

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Don't be intimidated by DNS/DHCP. When properly implemented, these powerful tools can enhance your network's performance and stability. Attend this popular session where we'll demystify DNS/DHCP and …

Don't be intimidated by DNS/DHCP. When properly implemented, these powerful tools can enhance your network's performance and stability. Attend this popular session where we'll demystify DNS/DHCP and share best practices for running eDirectory-enabled DNS in Novell Open Enterprise Server 2. You'll also learn how to how to register your own domain name without using an ISP, how to "ransom back" a domain name from a Web hosting provider and much more.

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  • 1. Advanced DNS/DHCP for eDirectory™ Environments Allan Hurst Partner and Director of Enterprise Strategy KIS allanh@kiscc.com Terry DeFreese Engineer, Worldwide Support Novell tdefreese@novell.com Version 1.5
  • 2. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.2 • Cell phones, pagers, Treos, Blackberries, etc., set them all to stun, please. No noise is good noise. • If you have a question, it’s absolutely OK to ask. It’ll help if you raise your hand first to get my attention. I’ll try to answer on the fly. • It’s OK to have fun in here. Honest. Housekeeping
  • 3. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.3 Who are these guys, anyway? Allan Hurst • Works for KIS (“Keep IT Simple”) • Partner and Director of Enterprise Strategy • Master CNE SM working with Novell® products since 1988 (2.0a) • One of four partners at KIS, a Novell Platinum Partner and Novell Gold Training Partner in Fremont, CA, Kansas City, MO, and Cleveland, OH. • Runs the Enterprise Strategy Practice (network planning, migrations, upgrades, moves, re-architecting, and clean-up) • Also runs “The WAP Squad.” (“WAP” stands for …) • Author of the classic BrainShare presentations, Demystifying DNS and SLP Made Easy
  • 4. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.4 Who are these guys, anyway? Terry DeFreese • Works for Novell® Worldwide Support • Backline Engineer • Specializes in DNS/DHCP Issues
  • 5. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.5 Who are you? • Novell® Open Enterprise Server 2 (OES2) administrator and/or network manager • You already know the basics of DNS and DHCP • Have moved/are moving to OES, and have some concerns about maintaining Novell DNS/DHCP on a Linux-based OES2 server • Some workstations on your network may have odd resolving problems • You may be struggling with integrating both Novell DNS/DHCP into a network which also contains Active Directory DNS
  • 6. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.6 Where did this session come from? • This session is the follow-up to Allan’s session from previous years, entitled “Demystifying DNS”. Every year the session was presented, people asked for a second session with more advanced material. • Many people are still embarrassed to publicly ask about the basics of DNS or DHCP. • It’s OK for you to ask anything about DNS/DHCP that you wish – that’s what this session is for! (We may not always have the answers, but this is how sessions get revised to better meet your needs.)
  • 7. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.7 About This Session • Resolving DNS Requests • Why Johnny Can't Read Resolve • Short vs. Long DNS Names • Suffering With Suffixes • Resolving DNS Problems • DNS on OES2 DNS• DHCP on OES2 • DNS & DHCP • DNS & eDirectory™ • DNS, eDirectory and Active Directory • Adminstering DNS using eDirectory • Tips & Tricks
  • 8. Resolving DNS Requests
  • 9. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.9 Issues in DNS Resolution • Workstations can’t find server during login • Workstations can't resolve a "short" DNS name • Workstations append the wrong DNS suffix to a “short” DNS name • Web browsing produces strange errors and results DNS D DNS Let’s review how DNS resolution works...
  • 10. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.10 How a PC Resolves DNS Requests PC’s local hosts file doesn’t contain the entry, so the PC asks the LAN’s internal DNS server Internal DNS Server doesn’t know, so it queries the ISP’s DNS ISP’s DNS Server has no earthly idea, so it queries the root server to find the “.ca” TLD server (NOT SHOWN HERE) INTERNAL DNS SERVER ISP'S DNS SERVER TOP LEVEL DOMAIN SERVER FOR “.CA” ISP queries “.ca” TLD server to see who handles “novell.ca” “What is the IP address of http://www.novell.ca?” 1 2 34 Hosts
  • 11. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.11 How a PC Resolves DNS Requests PC’s local hosts file doesn’t contain the entry, so the PC asks the LAN’s internal DNS server Internal DNS Server doesn’t know, so it queries the ISP’s DNS ISP’s DNS Server has no earthly idea, so it queries the root server to find the “.ca” TLD server (NOT SHOWN HERE) INTERNAL DNS SERVER ISP'S DNS SERVER TOP LEVEL DOMAIN SERVER FOR “.CA” ISP queries “.ca” TLD server to see who handles “novell.ca” “What is the IP address of http://www.novell.ca?” “.ca” TLD server gives out location of server(s) handling NS duties for “novell.ca” (NOT SHOWN HERE) 5 ISP queries the name server for “novell.ca” (NOT SHOWN HERE) “www.novell.ca = 130.57.4.70” and passes that information back to internal DNS. 6 Internal DNS server tells PC, “www.novell.ca = 130.57.4.70” 7 1 2 34 Hosts
  • 12. Why Johnny Can’t Read Resolve
  • 13. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.13 Four things must be configured on each workstation: 1. Host name. (e.g., “offissa-ws”) 2. Primary DNS suffix. (e.g., “coconino.co.az.us”) 3. List of DNS servers to use for resolution. 4. DNS suffix search list or search method (for “short”, or “unqualified” names, meaning the name has no DNS domain attached). If any of these things aren’t set up correctly, the workstation will probably not be able to resolve. Why Johnny Can’t Read Resolve Example: offissa-ws.cocnino.co.az.us
  • 14. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.14 Short vs. Long DNS Names DNS names can be specified in a relative (short) or fully qualified (long) format. For example: Relative: fs1 Fully Qualified: fs1.hq.xyzzy.com With relative names, the workstation (or server) will append the default DNS suffix.
  • 15. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.15 Short vs. Long DNS Names Assuming the workstation in the prior example has a (correct) DNS suffix of “hq.xyzzy.com”, it will interpret a short name of “fs1” as equivalent to the fully qualified name, so that: fs1[.hq.xyzzy.com] = fs1.hq.xyzzy.com This will only work, however, if the workstation has the correct DNS suffix. Much of the DNS troubleshooting work I’ve performed in the past couple of years has centered around networks handing out an incorrect DNS suffix.
  • 16. Suffering With Suffixes
  • 17. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.17 Where Do DNS Suffixes Come From? Contrary to popular belief, DNS suffixes do not come from under a cabbage leaf. They can be assigned to workstations in various ways. – DHCP (The preferred method at 90% of my customers) – ZCM / GPO / AD (For complex installations) – Manual Assignment (Try to avoid if possible) When a workstation can’t resolve, the trick is finding out what the DNS suffix is, and where it’s coming from.
  • 18. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.18 What are My DNS Suffixes? If your workstations aren’t able to resolve short DNS names, then you need to know two things: 1. What DNS suffix(es) do I want my workstations to use? 2. What DNS suffix(es) are my workstations actually using? Hopefully, you already know the answer to question #1. To determine the answer to question #2, we need to turn to our old friend, the ipconfig /all command. Let’s look at a “vanilla” configuration, with no DNS suffixes explicitly set up on the workstation except for what it got from DHCP...
  • 19. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.19 “Normal” DHCP-enabled Workstation C:>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : offisa-ws Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : coconino.co.az.us Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : coconino.co.az.us Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0F-B5-43-0A-E5 Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.203 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.2 192.168.129.20 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, January 30, 2010 4:03:14 PM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, January 31, 2010 4:03:14 PM
  • 20. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.20 “Normal” DHCP-enabled Workstation C:>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : offisa-ws Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : coconino.co.az.us Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : coconino.co.az.us Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0F-B5-43-0A-E5 Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.203 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.2 192.168.129.20 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, January 30, 2010 4:03:14 PM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, January 31, 2010 4:03:14 PM This field shows you what DNS suffix will be added to short names by default. If it’s blank or wrong, you’ll have problems. This is the DNS suffix assigned to this network adapter.
  • 21. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.21 C:>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : offisa-ws Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : coconino.co.az.us Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : coconino.co.az.us Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0F-B5-43-0A-E5 Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.203 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.2 192.168.129.20 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, January 30, 2010 4:03:14 PM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, January 31, 2010 4:03:14 PM “Normal” DHCP-enabled Workstation Watch what happens to these fields when we try different types of configurations
  • 22. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.22 Where are DNS Suffixes Changed? 1. Local Area Connection Properties Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties “Advanced” Button “DNS” Tab 2. My Computer Properties Computer Name "Change" Button "More" Button
  • 23. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.23 Changing DNS Suffix: LAN Properties So what happens if a DNS suffix is added here?
  • 24. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.24 Changing DNS Suffix: Computer Properties And what happens if we explicitly define a DNS suffix here, too?
  • 25. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.25 Result Of Changing DNS Suffix C:>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : offissa-ws Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : set-under-system-properties.com Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : set-under-system-properties.com dns-suffix-for-this-connection Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : dns-suffix-for-this-connection Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0F-B5-43-0A-E5 Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.203 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.2 192.168.129.20 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, January 30, 2010 11:33:02 AM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, January 31, 2010 11:33:02 AM
  • 26. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.26 Adding Multiple DNS Suffixes Notice that we haven’t explicitly specified a DNS suffix for this connection; that’s normally picked up automatically via DHCP. So what happens if a couple of DNS suffixes are added here? Here's what: If a DNS search order is specified, it will override the primary and connection specific DNS suffixes.
  • 27. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.27 Result Of Adding Multiple Suffixes C:>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : offissa-ws Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : [blank; we didn’t set this explicitly] Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No DNS Suffix Search List. . . . . . : appended-dns-suffix-1 appended-dns-suffix-2 Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : this-dns-suffix-came-from-dhcp Description . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR GA311 Gigabit Adapter Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-0F-B5-43-0A-E5 Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.203 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.1 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.129.2 192.168.129.20 Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Saturday, January 30, 2010 11:33:02 AM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, January 31, 2010 11:33:02 AM These will be searched instead of the primary or connection specific DNS suffixes
  • 28. Resolving DNS Problems
  • 29. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.29 Troubleshooting Tools for DNS nslookup • “Built-in” to Windows and Linux. • Linux version is deprecated, succeeded by “dig”. dig • Preferred tool in Linux. • Has been ported to Windows; Google “dig for windows”.
  • 30. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.30 Basic nslookup Commands [hostname] ... Resolve [name] to IP address [IP address] ... Resolve IP address to hostname server [hostname or IP] ... Use this DNS server set type = [mx|a|ns|any] ... Filter for (mx, a, ns, any) records [domain name] ... List records (filtered results if “set type” used) exit ... Exit program
  • 31. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.31 Query a Single Name Using nslookup C:>nslookup Default Server: ignatz.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.2 > server krazy.allanh.com Default Server: krazy.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.20 > www.novell.com Server: krazy.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.20 Non-authoritative answer: Name: www.novell.com Address: 130.57.5.25 > 130.57.5.25 •Server: krazy.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.20 Name: www.novell.com Address: 130.57.5.25 Indicates that this reply came from a server other than the authoritative name server on record This is the server that was queried The answer to the query
  • 32. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.32 Query Name Servers Using nslookup > set type=ns > kiscc.com Server: ignatz.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.2 Non-authoritative answer: kiscc.com nameserver = ns41.domaincontrol.com kiscc.com nameserver = ns42.domaincontrol.com ns41.domaincontrol.com internet address = 216.69.185.21 ns42.domaincontrol.com internet address = 208.109.255.21 Answer to Query List of authoritative name servers
  • 33. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.33 Query MX Records Using nslookup > set type=mx > kiscc.com Server: ignatz.allanh.com Address: 192.168.129.2 Non-authoritative answer: kiscc.com MX preference = 10, mail exchanger = mail.kiscc.com kiscc.com nameserver = ns42.domaincontrol.com kiscc.com nameserver = ns41.domaincontrol.com ns41.domaincontrol.com internet address = 216.69.185.21 ns42.domaincontrol.com internet address = 208.109.255.21 Answer to Query List of authoritative name servers
  • 34. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.34 Basic Problem Resolution Check the hosts file for spurious entries Run NSLOOKUP against the internal DNS server (or whatever DNS server the workstation is pointing to) Run NSLOOKUP against the ISP's DNS server INTERNAL DNS SERVER ISP'S DNS SERVER Run NSLOOKUP against the NS of record for the domain I can't resolve “krazy.fubar.com” 1 2 3 4 Hosts NAME SERVER FOR DOMAIN HAVING PROBLEMS Basic DNS Troubleshooting: 1. Work from one end to the other, one segment at a time. Don't skip segments. 2. Learn to use NSLOOKUP (or DIG). 3. Don't rely on PING to test DNS resolution; you never know what it's talking to for information.
  • 35. DNS on OES2
  • 36. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.36 DNS on OES2 DNS under NetWare® and OES2 are quite compatible, right down to the (current version of) management tools such as iManager and/or the Java-based DNS/DHCP Console. However, the DNS module on OES2 is not the same as on “vanilla” SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server 10: OES2 SLES 10 (not OES2) rcnovell-named named
  • 37. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.37 OES2 DNS Command Differences Here are the basic command differences, taken from the OES2 DNS/DHCP documentation:
  • 38. DHCP on OES2
  • 39. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.39 OES2 DHCP ≠ NetWare DHCP DHCP on OES is different than the NetWare® version • The OES2 DHCP uses different dhcpLocator and dhcpGroup objects than NetWare. Please don’t point to the NetWare objects when installing and configuring OES2 DHCP • You’ll also need to download a new version of the Java console, which should be available from the OES2 server’s default web page
  • 40. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.40 But...ZOMG! Where’s the Java Console?
  • 41. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.41 DHCP on OES2 As with the DNS server, the DHCP server on OES2 uses different commands than you’re probably used to:
  • 42. DNS and DHCP
  • 43. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.43 DNS and DHCP If DHCP has been set up correctly, workstations will pick up a default domain name (“DNS suffix”) that way:
  • 44. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.44 DNS and DHCP – Things To Remember • When creating a DHCP subnet, a common error is forgetting to fill out the Domain Name field in iManager. • If you have more than one DHCP subnet, you may have more than one subdomain. Make sure each DHCP subnet is passing the correct subdomain information to workstation DNS. For example: 192.168.1.x = fubar.com 192.168.2.x = shipping.fubar.com 192.168.3.x = accounting.fubar.com
  • 45. DNS and eDirectory™
  • 46. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.46 DNS and eDirectory™ • Service Location Protocol (SLP) uses DNS to resolve server and directory agent (DA) names • If SLP isn’t working, workstations will use DNS to locate their default server and/or tree • Servers can synchronize time and eDirectory more quickly if your network has good internal DNS • Good internal DNS is critical for moving to OES2
  • 47. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.47 Special Internal DNS “A” Records Useful for Novell® Environments • eDirectory™ Servers – Each eDirectory server needs an “A” record. This includes any server running eDirectory. – This is required for proper SLP operation. • eDirectory Tree – SLP requires that the eDirectory tree must have its own “A” record. This should point to the server hosting the Master Replica of [Root].
  • 48. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.48 Special Internal DNS “A” Records Needed for Novell® Environments • GroupWise® – Helps GW clients find the POA quickly (See TID #10063483) – “ngwnameserver” = Most accessible* POA’s IP address. – “ngwnameserver2” = Alternate POA’s IP address. • ZENworks® 7 (not needed for ZCM 10) – Imports workstations automatically. – (See TID #10056752) – “zenwsimport” = ZFD inventory server’s IP. *Which I define as the POA able to respond to a client most quickly.
  • 49. DNS, eDirectory™ and Active Directory
  • 50. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.50 Keep your Active Directory DNS domain separate from your “real” domain name • I suggest using a “fake” TLD for Active Directory integrated domains, such as yourdomain.corp, .internal, or .ad (Warning: Don’t use .local) You must use Active Directory’s built-in DNS on all AD- participating servers • There must be “A” records for all AD-participating servers in an AD integrated domain • Only AD-connected devices should be in an integrated domain DNS and Active Directory
  • 51. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.51 For political reasons, some shops maintain separate systems for normal DNS and AD (integrated) DNS. If you need to do this: – Create your MS network’s integrated DNS using Active Directory. (e.g., “fubar.corp”) 1. Create your network's “real” DNS domain using NetWare® or Linux. (e.g., “fubar.com”) 2. Point Microsoft's DNS to your OES 2 DNS server for resolution of your “real” DNS domain (e.g., “fubar.com”) Keeping eDirectory™ /AD DNS Separate
  • 52. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.52 Keeping eDirectory™ /AD DNS Separate Internet OES 2 Servers hosting “fubar.com” Windows Servers hosting “fubar.corp” DNS queries for anything except “fubar.corp” Active Directory workstations DNS Queries for all domains Answer fubar.corp, pass all else upstream to OES DNS
  • 53. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.53 If you’re one of the shops that maintains separate DNS using eDirectory and Active Directory, improve your DNS fault tolerance by pointing the two systems at each other. If for any reason your Active Directory domain controllers go down, workstations (and servers) can resolve through eDirectory...and vice-versa for non-AD systems. This is more easily explained with a diagram... eDirectory™ /AD DNS Fault Tolerance
  • 54. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.54 eDirectory™ /AD DNS Fault Tolerance Primary: “fubar.com” Secondary: “fubar.corp” OES2 Windows Secondary: “fubar.com” Primary: “fubar.corp” [AD Integrated) Regardless of whether or not it’s in AD, any device in this configuration can resolve for either domain. Non-AD Device AD-Based Device Non-AD Device AD-Based Device
  • 55. Administering DNS using eDirectory™
  • 56. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.56 • Create a separate eDirectory container … such as “DNSDHCP”. Place the container high in the tree, preferably above where your servers are kept • Install all DNS and DHCP objects and services inside this new DNSDHCP container • In large/busy networks, split off the DNSDHCP container as a separate partition • Place replicas of the DNSDHCP partition on each DNS and/or DHCP server, plus whatever is needed for at least 3 copies Classic Best Practices for eDirectory™ DNS
  • 57. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.57 iManager can be used for DNS/DHCP creation and management Be aware! iManager has separate plug-ins for NetWare® vs. Linux DHCP The (Java-based) DNS/DHCP Console will manage either platform...assuming you’re running the most current version Similar to iManager, the DNS/DHCP Console has separate tabs for NetWare vs. Linux DNS Administration
  • 58. Tips and Tricks
  • 59. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.59 When creating an IN-ADDR-ARPA zone in the DNS/DHCP Console, enter only the network octets “My Reverse DNS Doesn’t Work” Example: For 192.168.129.0, leave this blank.
  • 60. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.60 Internal DNS for External Devices Internal DNS must also contain “A” records for your external services, or your internal workstations won’t be able to resolve them Not adding “www” internally is a common error
  • 61. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.61 DNS for DMZ Devices Internet gw.xyzzy.com 243.128.24.1 DMZ “Where is gw.xyzzy.com?” LAN “It’s at 243.128.24.1” “Where is gw.xyzzy.com?” “It’s at 243.128.24.1” Internal DNS Server External DNS Server
  • 62. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.62 Internal/External DNS Records If you have a publicly-available server inside your firewall using NAT, remember to add an internal “A” record pointing to the internal IP address
  • 63. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.63 DNS for Internal/Exernal Devices Internet “Where is gw.xyzzy.com?” LAN “It’s at 10.2.0.43” “Where is gw.xyzzy.com?” “It’s at 243.128.24.1” Internal DNS Server External DNS Server Firewall using NAT 243.128.24.1 gw.xyzzy.com 10.2.0.43 10.2.0.43
  • 64. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.64 DNS/DHCP Resources http://tinyurl.com/oes2dnsdhcp Quick link to OES2 DNS/DHCP Documentation (PDF) http://tinyurl.com/nw-to-oes2-lessons-learned Great article (not by me) on NetWare/OES2 migration pitfalls http://www.zytrax.com/books/dns/ “DNS For Rocket Scientists”... my favorite DNS reference text
  • 65. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.65 Got Reference? If you would like an updated copy of this presentation, please pass me your business card. On the back, please write any or all of: Advanced DNS … for this presentation. Basic DNS … for the classic presentation, Demystifying DNS SLP … for the classic presentation, SLP Made Easy
  • 66. Questions?
  • 67. © Novell, Inc. All rights reserved.67 Thank You! Very special thanks to David Powell, my Senior Network Engineer at KIS, for his invaluable assistance in proofing this presentation and gently pointing out all of the things I forgot to add in the first couple of drafts. Thanks also to NOBUG - the “Novell® Oakland Bay Area User Group” (http://www.nobug.us) - for their invaluable support and feedback in creating, testing, and refining this presentation. Support your local NUI & LUG chapters!
  • 68. Unpublished Work of Novell, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This work is an unpublished work and contains confidential, proprietary, and trade secret information of Novell, Inc. Access to this work is restricted to Novell employees who have a need to know to perform tasks within the scope of their assignments. No part of this work may be practiced, performed, copied, distributed, revised, modified, translated, abridged, condensed, expanded, collected, or adapted without the prior written consent of Novell, Inc. Any use or exploitation of this work without authorization could subject the perpetrator to criminal and civil liability. General Disclaimer This document is not to be construed as a promise by any participating company to develop, deliver, or market a product. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. Novell, Inc. makes no representations or warranties with respect to the contents of this document, and specifically disclaims any express or implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. The development, release, and timing of features or functionality described for Novell products remains at the sole discretion of Novell. Further, Novell, Inc. reserves the right to revise this document and to make changes to its content, at any time, without obligation to notify any person or entity of such revisions or changes. All Novell marks referenced in this presentation are trademarks or registered trademarks of Novell, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All third-party trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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