Determining the level and awareness of Gender Based Violence and existing legal framework in western Kenya
Determining the level and awareness of
Gender Based Violence and existing legal
framework in western Kenya
NOPE 6th Biannual Conference
18th -20th June 2014
Kenya International Conference Centre
MenEngage Kenya Network & Global Communities
The UNTF funded project implemented by MenEngage Kenya Network
(MenKen) in partnership with Sonke Gender Justice,seeks to engage men
and boys to strengthen the implementation of GBV laws and policies and
promote gender equality in Kenya.
KDHS (2008) show that 26% of all married/seperated/divorced kenya
women have experienced emmotional violence, 40% experienced phyisical
violence and 16% swexual violence.
The above study showed Western Kenya to have the highest levels of GBV
and HIV hence the selection of the region for the study.
Causes of GBV are ascribed to traditional and cultural norms that suppres
women and suport partriachy. To ensure evidence based programming, a
baseline survey on GBV levels and its manifestations in western Kenya was
conducted in August 2013.
Objectives of the Study
Goal: To determine the level and awareness of SGBV and
existing legal framework with focus on engaging men and
boys for gender equality, HIV and AIDS response in western
I. To identify GBV levels and manifestations in Western
Kenya(Kisumu and Kakamega Counties)
II. To map out the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP)
around GBV and HIV/AIDS through qualitative mapping with a
focus on constructive male engagement.
III. To assess the level of awareness on GBV and the existing legal
framework with specific focus on engaging men and boys in
GBV and HIV prevention.
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that aimed to describe
GBV in four selected districts/sites inWestern Kenya.
The survey was designed to collect information from the
households within the proposed project area.
A multistage sampling technique was used.
Purposive non probability sampling was employed to identify four
districts in Western Kenya where GBV cases are reportedly higher and
also to capture both rural and urban setting:
Nyakach and Kisumu East in Kisumu County
Kakamega South and Mumias in Kakamega County.
In each county, two districts were randomly selected and the same
approach was employed in the selection of divisions, locations and sub
Sampling, Data Collection and Analysis
Systematic sampling technique was used to select households
This Study applied both qualitative (KII and FGD) and quantitative
techniques to collect data on the key indicators.
Data analysis for the quantitative data was conducted using SPSS.
The focus of the analysis for the quantitative data was on identifying
levels of Knowledge, beliefs and practices.
The qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic approach.
A total of 736 respondents were interviewed: 384 (52.2%) male and 352 (47.8%)
Age: just under 20 years to above 46 years. Majority 153 (20.8%) of the
respondents were between 21-25 years, followed by ages 26-30 years, 152 (20.6%)
respondents.The ages 20 years and below were the least, 64 (8.7%).
and 21.2% of the respondents were formally employed, while 31.9% were
32.4% live with an average of six and over other persons, 16 % live alone while
14.6 % live with three others.
26.6% of male respondents are formally employed while 39.5% of female are
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS
Household Expenditure Decisions
Health Services and Condom Use
GBV Campaigns in the Community
Opinion on Laws on Violence against Women
Privileges of Men in the Community and Distribution
Types of Violence and Community Campaigns
More than a half (52.7%)
of both male and female
respondents were cared for
as they were growing up by a
variety of caretakers in
almost equal proportion
Only mother (17.5%)
Only father at 4.3%
OVERALL DECISION ON HOUSEHOLD
The fathers have the final say on
how family income is spent or
Final word on siblings welfare-
44% of the respondents
indicated that the father
decides compared to only
20.7% who indicated mother
31.7% indicated that father
decides on food/clothing
expenses and 43.2% decides on
mil income is spent or
HEALTH SERVICES AND CONDOM USE
majority (67.7%) supported provision of specific health facilities
for men or specific times/days for male health services
54.2% felt that the facilities accessible to them are not friendly.
48.5% do not use a condom,
25.9 % use occasionally,
12.2% use Mostly
13.4 % use always
Sexual partners in the last one year:
22.1% had one other
15.4% had two other partners
6.5% had three others.
One Occasion or One “night stand” Sexual Partners:
27.6% had one other,
7.3% had two others
3.9% had three others.
23.2% had cohabited with one other and 4.9% had cohabited with two others.
Last person the respondent had sex with: majority 76.6% indicated having sex
with wife/husband/main partner, (7.7%) had last had sex with other partner
OPINION AND AWARENESS OF LAWS ON
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN14
Over a half (55.2%) were aware of laws about
About a third (33.1%) were in agreement that it
makes it easy for women to bring charges against men
23.7% said the laws were too harsh, 22.9% partly
agreed while 22.4% disagreed and 31% did not know.
PRIVILEGES OF MEN, OPINION ON RAPE AND
About a quarter (23.4%) feel that
men have a right to have sex even
when a woman does not consent
28.1% agreed that ‘Women are
raped when they've done
something careless to put them in
25.8% agreed that in some cases
women want rape to happen
39.3% felt that when women do
not physically fight back it is not
Certain tasks are reserved for a
particular gender in some homes.
e.g. washing clothes (19%)
cleaning the house (22.6%), are
done by women.
The tasks that appear to be
predominantly done by men are
repairing the house
Privileges of Men Distribution of Tasks
About a quarter (24.2%) had slapped or thrown something at women at
It was closely followed by pushing or shoving a partner (18%)
During FGD’s and KII, violence against women was reported as a common
Majority of the respondents (56%) admitted having friends who use
violence on women
57.1% would challenge or question a friend who is violent, 17.7% would not
while 10.3% did not respond.
I out of 10 (9%) had suffered injury resulting from of violence
Most common type of violence outside the home settings was getting
punched followed by threatening with a knife
About a third (33.3%) had not spoken to son(s)/boy(s) they care for in the
home or outside of home about violence against women
SEXUALVIOLENCE AND CAMPAIGNS ON
GBV INTHE COMMUNITIES
Having sex with a
woman/girl when she didn’t
consent was present but at a
low proportion (4.2%- once
in the last 12 months)
4% reported having raped a
woman at least once
Majority (79.3%) had heard about
campaigns focusing on violence
against women, but a significant
proportion (47.7%) had not
While promotion of men’s
involvement as fathers in upbringing
of their children had reached the
vast majority of the community
members, (56.4%) reported not to
have been involved at all.
Sexual Violence Campaigns on GBV
Violence against women in the region is still rampant and is risk
factor to HIV infections while awareness on GBV laws is average
Many Parents do not talk to their sons or boys about violence
The culture of silence among women suffering violence is
promoted by fear of community sanctions if reported to
authorities to take action against the offender.
Sex and sexual issues are still male dominated
Use of Condoms is low yet sex with multiple partners is common
which increase HIV risk
Important decisions in the family are a preserve of men, except
those pertaining to food and childcare.
There is low involvement of men in campaigns about GBV
Fathers are rarely involved in Child care
•There is need to create awareness on the policies, laws and effects of GBV
•Men and boys need to be constructively engaged in GBV interventions for any successful
•Young people, particularly boys should be targeted from an early age so as to deconstruct
wrong notions of masculinity and empower girls from the formative stage
•Intervention against GBV should take into account the cultural orientation of the
•There is need for intensive public education campaigns to cover the wider context that
nurtures these cultural practices.
•There is need to empower women socially, economically and psychologically to stand up
for their rights and perceive themselves as people fully entitled to all inalienable human
•There is need to educate men on GBV laws and policies to support strengthening
legislation and implementation
INTERVENTIONS BY MENKEN
Baseline survey finding disseminated to key stakeholders at the
Community change agents (Majority are men) recruited in the
Adaptation of a training manual on gender transformation and
CCAs trained on gender transformation and community
Challenging social norms and the culture of silence regarding
violence against women and HIV and AIDS, particularly among
men and boys through social norms campaigns and community
mobilization is ongoing
End line survey to be conducted at the end of the Project