Determining the level and awareness of Gender Based Violence and existing legal framework in western Kenya


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Determining the level and awareness of Gender Based Violence and existing legal framework in western Kenya

  1. 1. Determining the level and awareness of Gender Based Violence and existing legal framework in western Kenya NOPE 6th Biannual Conference 18th -20th June 2014 Kenya International Conference Centre By Fredrick Nyagah MenEngage Kenya Network & Global Communities
  2. 2. Outline  Background  Study objectives  Methodology  Key Findings  Conclusion  Recommendations  Interventions 2
  3. 3. Background  The UNTF funded project implemented by MenEngage Kenya Network (MenKen) in partnership with Sonke Gender Justice,seeks to engage men and boys to strengthen the implementation of GBV laws and policies and promote gender equality in Kenya.  KDHS (2008) show that 26% of all married/seperated/divorced kenya women have experienced emmotional violence, 40% experienced phyisical violence and 16% swexual violence.  The above study showed Western Kenya to have the highest levels of GBV and HIV hence the selection of the region for the study.  Causes of GBV are ascribed to traditional and cultural norms that suppres women and suport partriachy. To ensure evidence based programming, a baseline survey on GBV levels and its manifestations in western Kenya was conducted in August 2013. 3
  4. 4. Objectives of the Study 4 Goal: To determine the level and awareness of SGBV and existing legal framework with focus on engaging men and boys for gender equality, HIV and AIDS response in western Kenya Objectives: I. To identify GBV levels and manifestations in Western Kenya(Kisumu and Kakamega Counties) II. To map out the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) around GBV and HIV/AIDS through qualitative mapping with a focus on constructive male engagement. III. To assess the level of awareness on GBV and the existing legal framework with specific focus on engaging men and boys in GBV and HIV prevention.
  5. 5. METHODOLOGY 5 This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that aimed to describe GBV in four selected districts/sites inWestern Kenya. The survey was designed to collect information from the households within the proposed project area. A multistage sampling technique was used.  Purposive non probability sampling was employed to identify four districts in Western Kenya where GBV cases are reportedly higher and also to capture both rural and urban setting: Nyakach and Kisumu East in Kisumu County Kakamega South and Mumias in Kakamega County. In each county, two districts were randomly selected and the same approach was employed in the selection of divisions, locations and sub locations.
  6. 6. Sampling, Data Collection and Analysis 6 Systematic sampling technique was used to select households interviewed This Study applied both qualitative (KII and FGD) and quantitative techniques to collect data on the key indicators.  Data analysis for the quantitative data was conducted using SPSS. The focus of the analysis for the quantitative data was on identifying levels of Knowledge, beliefs and practices. The qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic approach.
  7. 7. FGD in Nyakach, Kisumu County 7
  8. 8. DEMOGRAPHICS 8 A total of 736 respondents were interviewed: 384 (52.2%) male and 352 (47.8%) female. Age: just under 20 years to above 46 years. Majority 153 (20.8%) of the respondents were between 21-25 years, followed by ages 26-30 years, 152 (20.6%) respondents.The ages 20 years and below were the least, 64 (8.7%).  and 21.2% of the respondents were formally employed, while 31.9% were unemployed.  32.4% live with an average of six and over other persons, 16 % live alone while 14.6 % live with three others. 26.6% of male respondents are formally employed while 39.5% of female are unemployed.
  9. 9. SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS  Childhood Experiences  Household Expenditure Decisions  Health Services and Condom Use  Sexual Partners  GBV Campaigns in the Community  Opinion on Laws on Violence against Women  Privileges of Men in the Community and Distribution of Tasks  Types of Violence and Community Campaigns 9
  10. 10. CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES More than a half (52.7%) of both male and female respondents were cared for as they were growing up by a variety of caretakers in almost equal proportion  Only mother (17.5%)  Mostly stepmother/female relatives (18.3%) Only father at 4.3% 10
  11. 11. OVERALL DECISION ON HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE The fathers have the final say on how family income is spent or invested:  Final word on siblings welfare- 44% of the respondents indicated that the father decides compared to only 20.7% who indicated mother  31.7% indicated that father decides on food/clothing expenses and 43.2% decides on large investments mil income is spent or invested: 11
  12. 12. HEALTH SERVICES AND CONDOM USE 12  Health Services:  majority (67.7%) supported provision of specific health facilities for men or specific times/days for male health services  54.2% felt that the facilities accessible to them are not friendly. Condom Use:  48.5% do not use a condom,  25.9 % use occasionally,  12.2% use Mostly  13.4 % use always
  13. 13. SEXUAL PARTNERS 13 Sexual partners in the last one year:  22.1% had one other  15.4% had two other partners  6.5% had three others. One Occasion or One “night stand” Sexual Partners:  27.6% had one other,  7.3% had two others  3.9% had three others. Cohabitation 23.2% had cohabited with one other and 4.9% had cohabited with two others. Last person the respondent had sex with: majority 76.6% indicated having sex with wife/husband/main partner, (7.7%) had last had sex with other partner
  14. 14. OPINION AND AWARENESS OF LAWS ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN14 Over a half (55.2%) were aware of laws about Violence againstWomen About a third (33.1%) were in agreement that it makes it easy for women to bring charges against men 23.7% said the laws were too harsh, 22.9% partly agreed while 22.4% disagreed and 31% did not know.
  15. 15. PRIVILEGES OF MEN, OPINION ON RAPE AND DISTRIBUTION OFTASKS About a quarter (23.4%) feel that men have a right to have sex even when a woman does not consent  28.1% agreed that ‘Women are raped when they've done something careless to put them in the situation  25.8% agreed that in some cases women want rape to happen 39.3% felt that when women do not physically fight back it is not rape Certain tasks are reserved for a particular gender in some homes.  e.g. washing clothes (19%) cleaning the house (22.6%), are done by women.  The tasks that appear to be predominantly done by men are repairing the house Privileges of Men Distribution of Tasks 15
  16. 16. Physical Violence 16 About a quarter (24.2%) had slapped or thrown something at women at least once It was closely followed by pushing or shoving a partner (18%) During FGD’s and KII, violence against women was reported as a common feature. Majority of the respondents (56%) admitted having friends who use violence on women 57.1% would challenge or question a friend who is violent, 17.7% would not while 10.3% did not respond.  I out of 10 (9%) had suffered injury resulting from of violence Most common type of violence outside the home settings was getting punched followed by threatening with a knife  About a third (33.3%) had not spoken to son(s)/boy(s) they care for in the home or outside of home about violence against women
  17. 17. SEXUALVIOLENCE AND CAMPAIGNS ON GBV INTHE COMMUNITIES Having sex with a woman/girl when she didn’t consent was present but at a low proportion (4.2%- once in the last 12 months) 4% reported having raped a woman at least once Majority (79.3%) had heard about campaigns focusing on violence against women, but a significant proportion (47.7%) had not participated. While promotion of men’s involvement as fathers in upbringing of their children had reached the vast majority of the community members, (56.4%) reported not to have been involved at all. Sexual Violence Campaigns on GBV 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS 18  Violence against women in the region is still rampant and is risk factor to HIV infections while awareness on GBV laws is average  Many Parents do not talk to their sons or boys about violence against women  The culture of silence among women suffering violence is promoted by fear of community sanctions if reported to authorities to take action against the offender.  Sex and sexual issues are still male dominated  Use of Condoms is low yet sex with multiple partners is common which increase HIV risk  Important decisions in the family are a preserve of men, except those pertaining to food and childcare.  There is low involvement of men in campaigns about GBV  Fathers are rarely involved in Child care
  19. 19. RECOMMENDATIONS 19 •There is need to create awareness on the policies, laws and effects of GBV •Men and boys need to be constructively engaged in GBV interventions for any successful interventions. •Young people, particularly boys should be targeted from an early age so as to deconstruct wrong notions of masculinity and empower girls from the formative stage •Intervention against GBV should take into account the cultural orientation of the communities. •There is need for intensive public education campaigns to cover the wider context that nurtures these cultural practices. •There is need to empower women socially, economically and psychologically to stand up for their rights and perceive themselves as people fully entitled to all inalienable human rights. •There is need to educate men on GBV laws and policies to support strengthening legislation and implementation
  20. 20. INTERVENTIONS BY MENKEN  Baseline survey finding disseminated to key stakeholders at the community level  Community change agents (Majority are men) recruited in the two counties  Adaptation of a training manual on gender transformation and community mobilization  CCAs trained on gender transformation and community mobilization strategies  Challenging social norms and the culture of silence regarding violence against women and HIV and AIDS, particularly among men and boys through social norms campaigns and community mobilization is ongoing  End line survey to be conducted at the end of the Project 20
  21. 21. Engaging men…
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