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STRENGTHENING THE EDUCATION SECTOR’S RESPONSE TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH HIV AND AIDS THROUGH AGE APPROPRIATE COMPREHENSIVE SEXUALITY EDUCATION
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STRENGTHENING THE EDUCATION SECTOR’S RESPONSE TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH HIV AND AIDS THROUGH AGE APPROPRIATE COMPREHENSIVE SEXUALITY EDUCATION

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  • 1. STRENGTHENING THE EDUCATION SECTOR’S RESPONSE TO REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH HIV AND AIDS THROUGH AGE APPROPRIATE COMPREHENSIVE SEXUALITY EDUCATION JORAM KIBIGO I CHOOSE LIFE – AFRICA (ICL) 20th June 2014
  • 2. Background  Globally, fewer and fewer young people are adequately prepared for adulthood.  This renders them vulnerable to infectious diseases such as STIs, HIV and AIDS as well as abuse, unwanted pregnancies, substance abuse and exploitation.  In Kenya the HIV prevalence among young people aged 15 – 24 is 3.8% with a reduced sexual debut of 15 years (KDHS, 2008/9).  Majority of population in this age group are within the education sector.
  • 3. Background… Cont • In Kenya prevalence among 15-24 year olds stands at 2.1% partly since sexual debut among adolescents aged 12-14 is 7% (KAIS, 2012). • Less than 40% of young people in Kenya have basic knowledge about HIV and SRHR (UNAIDS 2013). • Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) 2008/09 reveal that sex debut among young people has declined from 15 to 12 years and that HIV prevalence among 15 to 24 years old is 3.8 percent, with girls four times likely to be infected than boys. • Nearly 1 in 10 girls, between ages 15 to 19 have already experienced sexual relationship.
  • 4. Introduction • Ministries of Education and Health at national and county levels, directorate of youth affairs, development partners and implementing organizations must pull together to prevent new HIV infections through provision of age appropriate comprehensive information on HIV and sexuality education and services. • Within the national response to the HIV epidemic, the education sector has a responsibility to provide young people with the education, skills and support needed to prevent STI infections, particularly HIV, and unintended pregnancy.
  • 5. Introduction… Cont • School-based and extra-curricular activities need to be aligned to national policies and guidelines in the education and health sectors among others. • To protect young people today and in the future, schools must provide high quality programs that respond to real-life situations of peer pressure, pregnancy, HIV and AIDS, alcohol and drug abuse.
  • 6. Proposed Response • Comprehensive sexuality education is vital to HIV prevention among young people. • The school setting provides a golden opportunity of reaching large numbers of young people with comprehensive sexuality education before they become sexually active through the life skills curriculum. • Teachers also continue to remain trusted sources of information and skills whose capacities need to be enhanced in the same area.
  • 7. Proposed Response… Cont • HIV and AIDS interventions in the education sector need strong coordination and partnership with other sectors and stakeholders. • As part of coordination efforts the education sector needs to:  Collaborate with other partners to build livelihood and employment skills  Collaborate with other key stakeholders to ensure a common understanding of the comprehensive sexuality education concept for both education sector staff and the partners in the fight against HIV and AIDS  Facilitate access to services including youth-friendly confidential VCT, early and effective diagnosis and treatment of STIs, prevention and treatment of substance abuse as well as provide reproductive health education and services.  Collaborate with the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) to revise the Life Skills Education curriculum to make it more robust in responding to the current needs of young people.
  • 8. What is Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) • A process of acquiring sexual reproductive health and rights information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about identity, relationships and intimacy. • It recognizes that information on sexuality alone is not enough, and therefore seeks to equip young people with the knowledge and skills they need to determine and enjoy their sexuality in all spheres of life.
  • 9. What evidence is there to show that CSE is effective Research by; Underhill et al 2007, Michielsen et al 2010, Mavedzenge et al 2011, Chin et al 2012 Findings: • CSE programmes do not increase sexual activity or risky sexual behaviour • CSE programmes demonstrate significant positive results for self-reported behavioural outcomes, and in some cases for health outcomes • CSE programmes that address gender and power inequalities have a greater effect on behavioural and health outcomes
  • 10. CSE Programmes What they help to do What they contribute to Reduce misinformation & increase knowledge Delayed initiation on first intercourse Strengthen positive attitudes & values Increased use of condoms & contraception among sexually active adolescents Improve perceptions about peer groups & social norms Reduced number of sexual partners Increase communication with parents and other trusted adults Reduced levels of consequences of unprotected sexual activity
  • 11. Aims of CSE What CSE aim to do What CSE provide Increase knowledge & understanding on Reproductive health, dispel myths Age-appropriate, culturally relevant & scientifically accurate information Increase self awareness & promote social norms - respectful of others & gender equitable Structured opportunities to explore attitudes & values, thoughts & feelings Develop or strengthen skills Structured opportunities to practice the decision making & other skills needed to make well considered choices & to carry them out Promote and sustain risk-reducing behaviour
  • 12. Rationale for CSE • CSE promotes positive health choices, taking informed decisions, practicing healthy behaviors and avoiding behaviors • CSE aim to foster positive behaviors and to change unacceptable behaviors learned early, which may translate into inappropriate and risky behavior at a later stage of life • CSE helps youth to respond to situations requiring decisions which may affect their lives
  • 13. Key concerns on CSE Concerns Response Sexuality education leads to early sex. Research from around the world clearly indicates that sexuality education rarely, if ever, leads to early sexual initiation. Sexuality education can lead to later and more responsible sexual behavior Sexuality education deprives children of their ‘innocence’. Getting the right information that is scientifically accurate, non-judgemental, age-appropriate and complete in a carefully phased process from the beginning of formal schooling is something from which all children and young people benefit Sexuality education is against our culture or religion. Key stakeholders, including religious leaders, must be involved in the development of what form sexuality education takes. However, there is need to change social norms and harmful practices that are not in line with human rights and increase vulnerability and risk, especially for girls and young women.
  • 14. Concerns Response It is the role of parents and the extended family to educate our young people about sexuality. Traditional mechanisms for preparing young people for sexual life and relationships are breaking down in some places, often with nothing to fill the void. Sexuality education recognizes the primary role of parents and the family as a source of information, support and care in shaping a healthy approach to sexuality and relationships. Key concerns on CSE... Cont
  • 15. Concerns Response Parents will object to sexuality education being taught in schools. Schools and educational institutions where children and young people spend a large part of their lives are an appropriate environment for young people to learn about sex, relationships and HIV and other STIs. When these institutions function well, young people are able to develop the values, skills and knowledge to make informed and responsible choices in their social and sexual lives. In most cases, parents are among the strongest supporters of quality sexuality education programmes in schools. Key concerns on CSE... Cont
  • 16. Concerns Response Teachers may be willing to teach sexuality education but are uncomfortable, lacking in skills or afraid to do so. Well-trained, supported and motivated teachers play a key role in the delivery of good quality sexuality education. Clear school policies and curricula help to support teachers in this regard. Teachers should be encouraged to specialize in sexuality education through added emphasis on formalizing the subject in the curriculum, as well as stronger professional development and support. Sexuality education is already covered in other subjects (biology, life skills or civics education). Ministries, schools and teachers in many countries are already responding to the challenge of improving sexuality education. Key concerns on CSE... Cont
  • 17. Application of Sexuality Education Programme reviews by UNESCO 2010, 2012 & by UNFPA 2011 Findings: • A number of countries have made advances in developing high-quality, large-scale (school-based) programmes (Uruguay, Colombia, Nigeria & Jharkhand State, India) including CSE
  • 18. MoEST’s Response to the Need for Comprehensive Sexuality Education • Age Appropriate Comprehensive Sexuality Education now included in the MOEST Education Sector Policy on HIV & AIDs •CSE Considered the main strategy of HIV prevention among learners •Great Milestone indeed
  • 19. What Next • To develop a better understanding of Adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRH) and HIV prevention, care and management of young people in and out of school • To develop a common understanding and definition of ASRH in light of the cultural and social setting of Kenya and the ICPD (Post 2015 Development Agenda) • To better engage with MoEST, MOH, KICD and other stakeholders in the revision of the LSE curriculum within the provisions of the Revised Education Sector Policy on HIV and AIDS
  • 20. Informed Choices, Changed Lives!