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  1. 1. Motivating Self and Others <ul><li>Questions for Consideration: </li></ul><ul><li>What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences? </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity: how hard a person tries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direction: where effort is channeled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence: how long effort is maintained </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Motivators <ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Needs Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory) </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s theory of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Basic idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Hygiene factors - necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extrinsic factors; context of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>company policy and administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor interpersonal relations with one's peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivators - the sources of satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic factors; content of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>challenging, varied or interesting work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advancement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
  9. 9. Relationship of Various Needs Theories Hygiene Factors Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Motivators Relatedness Existence Growth Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland
  10. 10. Summary of Needs Theories <ul><ul><li>Maslow : Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg : Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alderfer : More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland : People vary in the types of needs they have. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation, or power. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Looks at the actual process of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-setting theory </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Expectancy Theory Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal Goals 1 2 3 1. Effort -performance relationship (expectancy) 2. Performance -reward relationship (instrumentality) 3. Rewards - personal goals relationship (valence)
  14. 14. Expectancy Relationships <ul><li>The theory focuses on three relationships: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort-performance relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance-reward relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards-personal goals relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Maximizing Motivation Under Expectancy <ul><li>If I give maximum effort, will I be able to accomplish the task expected of me? </li></ul><ul><li>If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized by my manager and/or in my performance appraisal? </li></ul><ul><li>If I receive a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards? </li></ul><ul><li>If I’m rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals increase performance; difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Management by Objectives <ul><li>A program that encompasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul></ul>