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motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
motivation
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motivation

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  • 1. Motivating Self and Others <ul><li>Questions for Consideration: </li></ul><ul><li>What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences? </li></ul>
  • 2. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity: how hard a person tries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direction: where effort is channeled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence: how long effort is maintained </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Motivators <ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Needs Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory) </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s theory of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Basic idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation </li></ul>
  • 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Hygiene factors - necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extrinsic factors; context of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>company policy and administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unhappy relationship with employee&apos;s supervisor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor interpersonal relations with one&apos;s peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivators - the sources of satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic factors; content of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>challenging, varied or interesting work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>advancement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
  • 9. Relationship of Various Needs Theories Hygiene Factors Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Motivators Relatedness Existence Growth Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland
  • 10. Summary of Needs Theories <ul><ul><li>Maslow : Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg : Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alderfer : More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland : People vary in the types of needs they have. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation, or power. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Looks at the actual process of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-setting theory </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. </li></ul>
  • 13. Expectancy Theory Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal Goals 1 2 3 1. Effort -performance relationship (expectancy) 2. Performance -reward relationship (instrumentality) 3. Rewards - personal goals relationship (valence)
  • 14. Expectancy Relationships <ul><li>The theory focuses on three relationships: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort-performance relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance-reward relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards-personal goals relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Maximizing Motivation Under Expectancy <ul><li>If I give maximum effort, will I be able to accomplish the task expected of me? </li></ul><ul><li>If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized by my manager and/or in my performance appraisal? </li></ul><ul><li>If I receive a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards? </li></ul><ul><li>If I’m rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive? </li></ul>
  • 16. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals increase performance; difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Management by Objectives <ul><li>A program that encompasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participative decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul></ul>

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