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  • 1. Motivating Self and Others
    • Questions for Consideration:
    • What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others?
    • How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences?
  • 2. What is Motivation?
    • Motivation
      • The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
        • Intensity: how hard a person tries
        • Direction: where effort is channeled
        • Persistence: how long effort is maintained
  • 3. Theory X and Theory Y
    • Theory X
      • The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
    • Theory Y
      • The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
  • 4. Motivators
    • Intrinsic
      • A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.
    • Extrinsic
      • Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
  • 5. Needs Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    • Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory)
    • Alderfer’s ERG theory
    • McClelland’s theory of needs
    • Basic idea:
    • Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
  • 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Physiological
      • includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs
    • Safety
      • includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm
    • Social
      • includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
    • Esteem
      • includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention
    • Self-actualization
      • the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment
  • 7. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    • Hygiene factors - necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
      • extrinsic factors; context of work
        • company policy and administration
        • unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor
        • poor interpersonal relations with one's peers
        • poor working conditions
    • Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
      • intrinsic factors; content of work
        • achievement
        • recognition
        • challenging, varied or interesting work
        • responsibility
        • advancement
  • 8. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction
  • 9. Relationship of Various Needs Theories Hygiene Factors Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Motivators Relatedness Existence Growth Maslow Alderfer Herzberg McClelland
  • 10. Summary of Needs Theories
      • Maslow : Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs.
      • Herzberg : Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction.
      • Alderfer : More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.
      • McClelland : People vary in the types of needs they have. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation, or power.
  • 11. Process Theories of Motivation
    • Looks at the actual process of motivation
      • Expectancy theory
      • Goal-setting theory
  • 12. Expectancy Theory
    • The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
  • 13. Expectancy Theory Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal Goals 1 2 3 1. Effort -performance relationship (expectancy) 2. Performance -reward relationship (instrumentality) 3. Rewards - personal goals relationship (valence)
  • 14. Expectancy Relationships
    • The theory focuses on three relationships:
      • Effort-performance relationship
        • The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.
      • Performance-reward relationship
        • The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome.
      • Rewards-personal goals relationship
        • The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual.
  • 15. Maximizing Motivation Under Expectancy
    • If I give maximum effort, will I be able to accomplish the task expected of me?
    • If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized by my manager and/or in my performance appraisal?
    • If I receive a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards?
    • If I’m rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally attractive?
  • 16. Goal-Setting Theory
    • The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance.
      • Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
      • Specific goals increase performance; difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.
      • Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.”
        • The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.
  • 17. Management by Objectives
    • A program that encompasses
      • Specific goals
      • Participative decision-making
      • Explicit time period
      • Performance feedback