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NICVA Masterclass - Ailsa McKay


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  • 1. Gender Budgeting in Practice? The Scottish Experience NICVA CEE Masterclass Belfast Friday 18th November 2011 Ailsa McKay Glasgow Caledonian University Scotland
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Women
    • Womens Work
  • 4. Why Economics?
    • The purpose of studying economics is not to acquire a set of ready-made answers to economic questions, but to learn how to avoid being deceived by economists.
    • Joan Robinson (1903-1983)
  • 5. Valuing Women? For a certain percentage of persons to serve other persons, in order that the ones so served may produce more, is a contribution not to be overlooked. The labour of women in the house, certainly enables men to produce more wealth than they otherwise could: and in this way women are economic factors in society. (Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics, 1898)
  • 6. A Global Issue? The informal slogan of the Decade of Women became “Women do two-thirds of the world’s work, receive 10 percent of the world’s income and own 1 percent of the means of production.” Richard H. Robbins, (1999) Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism, p. 354
  • 7. Scotland Who and What do we Value?
    • WiSE facts:
    • 60% of unpaid care work undertaken by women
    • There is a 12 per cent pay gap between men ’s and women’s full time hourly pay rates in Scotland.
    • Women graduates earn 15% less then men within 5 years of graduating.
  • 8. Scotland What and Who do we Value? “ Thank you for your positive paper on Modern Apprenticeships and Gender Based Occupational Segregation in Scotland. Before I take time to digest the contents, I ask why, given the subject, the paper has been prepared by three women? Are there no males in the Department of Economics and Enterprise who can be found who have either interest or knowledge in the subject? Could you also please advise if any of the three ladies involved in compiling this paper have any practical experience of working in an industrial workplace for any period of time or if all come from a background of academia? The questions I ask are serious and not intended to be facetious.” Letter from Member of Scottish Parliament April 2004
  • 9. And it Continues….. There is a significant liability that still needs to be addressed, and that is before we come on to what we believe is the continuing discrimination in the brand new pay system that single status was intended to introduce. We have had the new scheme independently analysed. I do not want to go into the detail of that too much; suffice it to say that it has 13 factors that people are evaluated on, 12 of which favour men. We have got rid of the bonus and in its place we have a new discriminatory system. In response, in order to protect the interests of our members, we have no option other than to continue to mass litigate. Currently, we are lodging 500 new claims every mont h… Peter Hunter, UNISON, Equal Opportunities Official Report 26 th Oct 2010 Col 2139
  • 10. The Work women do – a question of values?
  • 11. Counting the costs?
    • Do women count?
    • Of course they count but are they accounted for?
    Child rearing fits uncomfortably within our economic system. Parents provide services of great value directly to their children and indirectly to those who benefit greatly from their children’s future contributions. Yet parents receive little or no economic reward. Mothers, tend to pay a higher price for children than fathers do. Partly as a result they typically earn less than men and remain more vulnerable to poverty. Nancy Folbre, 2010, Valuing Children, Rethinking the Economics of the Family
  • 12.  
  • 13. What? Can We Move Beyond the Bias?
    • Challenge the norm – the dumb question?
    • Building Capacity
    • Economics for (not economics of) gender Equality
    • Gender Budgets - lack of understanding
      • 1)The role of economic theorising/analysis in the policy process - a ‘perceived wisdom’
      • 2)The relevance of gender in the formal allocation process (i.e. the budget is ‘gender neutral’)
  • 14.
    • Can you imagine the nation ’s annual budget becoming a realistic description of the well-being of the community and its environment, a reflection of real wealth and different values? The budget would answer all of the following. Who does what work and where – paid and unpaid? What is the position of the nation’s children and the aged? Who is not housed adequately? Who has the poorest health? ….
    • Marilyn Waring, (1988) If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics .
    • HOW?
  • 15. Gender Budget Analysis?
    • Gender Budgets - lack of understanding
    • Using tools to analyse the gender dimensions of budgetary allocations and budgetary process
    • Promote transparency with respect to the actual beneficiaries of public expenditure and who and how contributes?
    • Assists in meeting an overall goal of efficiency/effectiveness thus promotes economic growth??
  • 16. Governing Principles
    • Transparency
    • Participation
    • Sustainability
    • Long Term Strategy
    • Country Ownership
  • 17. Gender Budgeting in Scotland:
    • Scottish Political Context
    • - Devolution 1999
    • - Equality and the New Political Institutions
    • - Election May 5 th 2011
    • Scottish Policy Context
    • - Prioritising Economic Growth
    • - Social Justice
    • - Equalities Mainstreaming
    • - Fiscal Consolidation???
  • 18. Who? The Scottish Women ’ s Budget Group
    • Established May 2000
    • Members from range of organisations - academic, trade unions, statutory and voluntary organisations and local communities
    • Resources limited!!!
    • Activities unlimited!!! - Responding to budget documents, requests to give evidence to committees, responding to policy related consultative documents, raising awareness, building capacity ………
    • Unpaid work but not invisible!
  • 19. The Activities of SWBG: building capacity
  • 20. Gender Budgeting in Scotland: 10 years on
    • Scottish Women ’ s Budget Group
    • Equality and Budgets Advisory Group
    • Equal Opportunities Committee
        • Advisor
        • Pay focus
        • Political will?
  • 21. Scottish Gender Budget Initiative?
  • 22.  
  • 23. However……
    • Greater transparency - “Understanding the Budget Process”?
    • Greater participation - forging new partnerships
    • Equality Strategy of the Scottish Government (Nov 2000) a commitment to;
    • ‘ assess the equality impact of spending plans and decisions as part of the mainstreaming agenda’
    • Perceptions of us (SWBG)
    • Equal Pay focus – 2008/09
    • Equality Statement 2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13
  • 24. November 2010 Equality Statement Scotland ’s Budget : 2011-12
    • We have shown leadership in facing the challenges and set a Scottish budget directed at economic recovery, protecting the frontline services that people rely on …..How Governments spend money has the potential to reduce or amplify inequalities. Our budget has been shaped by the evidence we have gathered including our equality analysis (pg 4)
    • Scotland continues to carry deep rooted and systemic inequalities that can hold people back. These barriers are especially evident in labour market participation, income and health. Women for example are already disadvantaged by unequal pay and occupational segregation resulting from society ’s assumptions about the roles of men and women. (pg7 )
  • 25. Effective Scrutiny?
    • The framework of economic analysis informing future spending plans should incorporate equality considerations, thus embedding equality within the mainstream budgetary process… with a view to the Scottish Government applying equality impact analysis to the framework of economic modelling employed in determining the relevant range of the economic forecasts that in turn inform its future economic strategy.
    • (Equal Opportunities Committee Report on the Draft Budget 2011-12, Jan 2011)
  • 26. And in turn…..
    • While we are clear that the package of work over the year and individual sets of analysis did influence decision making, there were challenges in presenting the full range of work undertaken across Government centrally…. and locally….in the Equality Statement. We agree that we need to explore further with the Equality and Budgets Advisory Group how we can improve the future presentation and narration of this work.
    • (Scottish Government Response to Equal Opportunities Committee Report on the Draft Budget 2011-12, Jan 2011)
  • 27. Progress??
    • Following on from the discussions with the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, EBAG has engaged with the Office of the Chief Economic Adviser to discuss some of the underpinning issues around equality and the economy. In particular the discussion focused on issues relating to women ’s role and participation in the labour market, the formal and informal economy and the challenge of measurement and economic modelling for this.
    • (Equality Statement Scottish Budget 2011/12, Pg 9)