Subcritical Water Extractor


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Subcritical Water Extractor

  1. 1. Subcritical Water EXtractor (SWEX) For Life Search Instrument Suite Point of contact: Carol Stoker (SST), email , phone 650 604 6490 Problem: Lack of a well tested Mars mission ACHIEVEMENT QUANTITATIVE IMPACT sample extraction processing system integrated with the sample handling. Potential customers:STATUS QUO Future Mars organics and life Current solution: Current Mars organic search missions such as: analyzers have own sample extraction MAIN ACHIEVEMENT: -  Icebreaker processors that have had problems as We build a breadboard flight organics extraction -  Ice Dragon on Mars shown in the Phoenix mission. processor using subcritical water and test for Proposed solution: We build a single species of organics extracted for different extractor extraction processor, integrated with the operating temperatures. sample handling system providing for a suite of organic and biological analyzers. HOW IT WORKS: Starting TRL:2: Water is heated under pressure (20 MPa), modifying itʼs dielectric constants, thus changing organic solvent Innovation: We use subcritical water extraction of organic species over characteristics.# different temperatures to provide a range of organics for different detection The the subcritical water is passed through the sample at instruments from the same sample. different temperatures, extracting organic species as a Our Role: We integrate our sample function of the temperature # handling capability to the proposed generic organic extractor facilitated by The extracted material is provided to the detector suite. # END-OF-TASK OBJECTIVES our organics detection understanding. The significance: Deliverables: Design element fidelity sufficient for cost modeling (1)  Lower Costs and greater reliability: Designing and testing 1 generic Start-end TRL:Start 2 End 3 extraction processor saves cost and Total Budget/Sched: 50K/12 moNEW INSIGHTS improves on reliability. Team: (2)  Good science: The extractor provides Carol Stoker (SST): Organization, an identical and characterized planetary protection extraction from the same sample to all David Willson (ARC/KISS): Engineering instruments providing a different science perspective of the same Richard Quinn (ARC/SETI): Chemistry sample. Arwen Dave (ARC/Lockheed): Sample (3)  Integration of sample handling and handling extraction process: Sample handling Follow-on work: and extraction is integrated and Develop flight prototype tested separate from detection. # Lowers cost, increases reliability, good science, integrates sample handling & extraction processes.
  2. 2. Subcritical Water Organics Extractor for Organic Analyzer Instruments 09 Oct 2012, ARCTEK Presentation. C.R Stoker1, D Willson2, R.C. Quinn3, A.I. Dave4 (1) Principle Investigator NASA Ames , (2) NASA Ames/KISS Institute of practical robotics (3) NASA Ames/SETI Institute, (4) NASA Ames/Lockheed Martin Objective: We develop a prototype organics extractor to supply a suite of instruments using subcritical water as a solvent that: - Receives scooped or drilled surface samples from a range of materials ie soils, ice etc - extracts a range of potential organic molecules using subcritical water - delivers an identical characterized extract product to downstream detectors Left: Icebreaker drilling for life on MarsAdvantage for NASA Ames:(1)  Good Science: Provides an identical characterized extraction from the sample to a suite of organics and biogenic organic detectors.(2)  An Integrated sample handling & extraction system: Provide an integrated sample handling package of drill, a robot sample transfer arm and an organic extraction instrument.(3)  Lower Costs and greater reliability: Designing and testing 1 generic extraction processor saves cost and focuses on reliability.
  3. 3. Method: The Science of Subcritical Water Extraction Why an extraction process? Separate and concentrate the target species prior to delivery to analyzers. Lowers complexity of analyzers which otherwise have to incorporate this function Why Subcritical water? We can separate organic species as a function of subcritical water temperature and pressure Other methods require many organic solvents for the same extraction. We aim to affirm: What organics are extracted over the subcritical temperature range. Table of organic species extraction temperatures (derived from (1)) Decreasing dielectric constant What is Subcritical water? 25°C 35°C 85°C 145°C 275°C Subcritical water temperature range 185°C 225°C 325°C @ 20 MPapressure Carbohydrates Amino acids & peptides Lipids Hetrocycles Polynulear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)Above: Organics extraction – water dielectric constant – temperature @ 20 MPa1  (1)  Amashukeli  X.,  Pelle3er  C.C.,  Kirby  J.P.,1  and  Grunthaner  F.J.  2007,  Subcri3cal  water  extrac3on  of  amino  acids  from  Atacama  Desert  soils,  Journal  of  geophysical  research,  vol.  112,  G04S16 Above: Water phase diagram
  4. 4. Method: The Generic Subcritical Water Extractor ProcessDIRT to DATA sample handling (top) and extraction (below) process flow diagrams. Our ultimate aim is to develop an extractor plant for future flight mission Left: Sample handing to extractor process flow diagram Below: Organic extraction process flow diagram & Detection
  5. 5. Applications-  Any mission that has organic detection as an objective-  By solving the sample handling problem in a system, we relieve many other candidate instruments of also having to develop their own independent sample handling hardware.-  The Icebreaker life search mission, a mission concept for Discovery does organic analysis and biomarker detection on extracted product. This concept would simplify sample handling for the Icebreaker instruments Above: Icebreaker Life detection mission