22 January 2008 Sjef van Hoof [email_address] About space, place and environment: The geography of sport and leisure
Outline of this presentation: <ul><li>What is geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Why geography? </li></ul><ul><li>Space, place and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of empirical research </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion.. </li></ul>
About (human) geography… Geography is about: * Spaces * Places * Environments (and Movements between spaces and places) (Edgington and Hyman, 2005)
About sport/leisure/tourism research: <ul><li>1). Sport and tourism research tends to produce pieces of research with poor linkages to bodies of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>2). Lack of any explicit consideration of epistemology: simple questionnaire based individual descriptive research </li></ul><ul><li>3). Sport and leisure travel flows are influenced by a range of factors that are not well understood </li></ul><ul><li>Source: James Higham and Tom Hinch (2006, p32) </li></ul>
Need for sport policy research: <ul><li>NOC/NSF: Space for Sport (2006): about access and availability of sport accommodations.. </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization of stadiums </li></ul><ul><li>Sport and Leisure for re-imaging and branding: how to determine impacts? </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic management (NL 2002: 25% work -38% leisure) </li></ul><ul><li>Place attachment </li></ul>
Applicability of sport/leisure marketing: <ul><li>Determination of spatial client base/ promotion strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge to involve stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation of Brand Value (NAC or NAC Breda?) </li></ul>
Geographies of spaces: <ul><li>Exploring how sport, leisure and tourism influence spatial travel patterns and itineraries of consumers </li></ul><ul><li>At different levels (local, regional, national or supranational) </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-classical economic assumptions: Distance decay influences attractivity </li></ul>
Sport and space <ul><li>Manchester (1999): 4,000 – 6,000 foreign tourists visiting home matches of FC Manchester United </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore (1999): 11,000 supporters of Baltimore Orioles remain at least 1 night in Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Stevens, 2001 </li></ul>
Geography of places.. <ul><li>A place is a space infused with meaning (Lew, 2001). Sport and leisure may influence the meanings that are associated with those area’s: struggle for the most authentic attractions.. </li></ul><ul><li>Place is a rather subjective concept, constantly constructed and reconstructed.. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang (1999) Leisure and travel are used to establish identity and meaning to lives </li></ul>
Sport and places.. <ul><li>Public and private stakeholders are interested in adding brand elements of sport to their destination marketing profile </li></ul><ul><li>Tophophilia effect: people develop a sense of attachment to an area: </li></ul><ul><li>We live here with more than 7,000 families and over 25,000 people. Our neighbourhood can not be find on any map of Rio de Janeiro. Even on the most recent maps the area we live in is still coloured green as in 1930. We do not exist. But if a person like Adriano Leite becomes successfull, we become noticed.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Jönsson, 2006, p52. Translation by the author ) </li></ul>
Diffusion of sport in the Netherlands Source: RIVM, 2003 A B C
The geography of environment <ul><li>Natural and built environment that are used for sport and leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sportscapes” (Bale, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of sport and leisure accomodations and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Re-imaging of physical places </li></ul><ul><li>Sport may be an incubator for new forms of leisure and tourism </li></ul>
Concepts central place theory: <ul><li>Threshold = the minimum number of consumers needed to be able to offer a service. </li></ul><ul><li>Range = The maximum distance a consumer wants to travel to obtain a good or service </li></ul>
Empiric example: <ul><li>Mercedes Benz dealers </li></ul>
Research Professional Football in the Netherlands: * What are the geographical marketarea’s of professional football clubs? (extension, population) * Where are the marketareas of professional football clubs interfering? * Which areas do offer prospects for growth?
Empirical research: Visitor numbers matched with population figures Per municipality: who is going where? Per club: who travels from where? Possible analisys: relative visitor frequency, where are gaps that may be filled?
Application geographical research in Sport/Leisure/Tourism?
Auteurs: Trudo Dejonghe, Sjef van Hoof en Thijs Kemmeren Prijs: euro 21,65 (exclusief btw en verzendkosten) ISBN-10: 90-5472-011-5 ISBN-13: 978-90-5472-011-9 Omvang: 176 pagina's Voetballen in de kleine ruimte
Sjef van Hoof NHTV Internationale Hogeschool Breda Tel: 076 530 1241 [email_address]
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