MIddle East Unit, Islamic Fundamentalism

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  • An Ayatollah is a title given to very high clerics in the Shi’a sect. there is one in Iraq (al-sistani) and one in Iran (Khamenei) It has been called an event that "made Islamic fundamentalism a political force ... from Morocco to Malaysia ." [7] The Shah's regime was seen as oppressive, brutal, [25] [26] corrupt, and extravagant; [25] [27] it also suffered from basic functional failures — an overly-ambitious economic program that brought economic bottlenecks, shortages and inflation. [28] Security forces were unable to deal with protest and demonstrations; [29] Iran was an overly centralized royal power structure. [30] The extraordinarily large size of the anti-shah movement meant that there "were literally too many protesters to arrest", and that the security forces were overwhelmed. [31] Helping to pass the constitution, suppress moderates and otherwise radicalize the revolution was the holding of 52 American diplomats hostage for over a year. In late October 1979, the exiled and dying Shah was admitted into the United States for cancer treatment. In Iran there was an immediate outcry and both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. On 4 November 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line , invaded the embassy compound and seized its staff . Revolutionaries were reminded of how 26 years earlier the Shah had fled abroad while the Embassy-based American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent. 1 UNQ
  • Against…western influence in the region – which can corrupt people from following true Islam.
  • This means that a western super power has invaded! We need to get rid of this western aggression! 2 UNQs
  • 1 UNQ
  • First clip -documentary footage - - - - - 0809 did not work, try again in 0910 http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1962879n trhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oybiXywbLis&feature=relatedy: Second clip – CBC footage of massacre at the airfield – and aftermath http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNfIiXHiwLc&NR=1 Gave the cause worldwide attention Team – wrestlers and weightlifters 1 UNQ
  • 1 UNQ
  • 6 total UNQs for this section of unit notes
  • MIddle East Unit, Islamic Fundamentalism

    1. 1. Religious Fundamentalism Shapes the Middle East <ul><li>Origins of the Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Cast Study: Taliban </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of Modern Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism Today </li></ul>
    2. 2. Fundamentalism in the Middle East* <ul><li>Strict observance of religious laws </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of modern movement </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – Iran: “Iranian Revolution” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ayatollah Kohmeni (Shi’a spiritual leader in Iran) overthrows the Shah (King), creates Fundamentalist state </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Shah of Iran (The “King”) Demonstrations supporting the Ayatollah Khomeini, Tehran 1979
    4. 4. (Note)
    5. 5. Fundamentalism in the Middle East* <ul><li>Strict observance of religious laws </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of modern movement </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – Iran: “Iranian Revolution” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ayatollah Kohmeni (Shi’a spiritual leader in Iran) overthrows the Shah, creates Fundamentalist state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iran changed almost overnight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws based on Sharia (Islamic law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut off ties with the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western culture forbidden (books, art, t.v., movies, clothes, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ayatollah executed anyone who had been associated with the Shah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic fundamentalists are against… </li></ul>
    6. 6. The current Ayatollah in Iran: The Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei In Iran, the Grand Ayatollah has more power than the President. It is he who is the “supreme leader” President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
    7. 7. Islamic Fundamentalism Case Study: The Rise of the Taliban* <ul><li>Role of the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Afghanistan to end an internal rebellion in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>To fundamentalists this means… </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the United States (Those pesky Soviets!) </li></ul><ul><li>Aided Afghan rebels with the “struggle”, or jihad, against the Soviet Union, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>called mujahideen (“strugglers”) , US gave them weapons and training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mujahideen (fundamentalists) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osama bin Laden (a Saudi) joined mujahideen to support Arab cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forced Soviet Union to withdraw in 1989 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Afghan Mujahideen, 1979 Soviets invade Afghanistan, 1979 Soviet pullout from Afghanistan, 1989 It has been said that this conflict was similar to US involvement in Vietnam (i.e. USSR’s Vietnam)
    9. 9. “ We’d do anything to beat those pesky Soviets!”
    10. 10. Islamic Fundamentalism Case Study: The Rise of the Taliban <ul><li>Role of the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Afghanistan to end an internal rebellion in late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Aided Afghan rebels against the Soviet Union, called mujahideen </li></ul><ul><li>gave them weapons and training </li></ul><ul><li>Mujahideen (translation: one who fights in a struggle) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forced Soviet Union to withdraw in 1989 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osama bin Laden - a Saudi - joined mujahideen to support Arab cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of Taliban in Afganistan </li></ul><ul><li>One group of mujahideen came to power in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled from 1996 - 2002 under a tight fist – sheltered Al-Qaeda </li></ul><ul><li>Women had no rights (education, employment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burqa – garment women were forced to wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for the country? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Taliban Ambassador to Pakistan With Taliban militia Women in Burqua
    12. 12. The Rise of Modern Terrorism <ul><li>Tactics of terrorism are not new </li></ul><ul><li>PLO (1964) – used terrorism to achieve goals </li></ul><ul><li>Goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Modern terrorism on the world stage </li></ul><ul><li>Munich Olympic Games Tragedy (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Black September – part of PLO </li></ul><ul><li>8 fedayeen (“men of sacrifice”) entered Olympic Village, killing two and taking 9 Israeli hostages. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy media coverage gave the cause.... </li></ul><ul><li>Western preparation for terrorism…? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Terrorism makes its first appearance on the world scene Munich Olympic Games Tragedy, 1972 <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = sNfIiXHiwLc&NR =1 </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Rise of Modern Terrorism <ul><li>Tactics of terrorism are not new </li></ul><ul><li>PLO (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Arafat: Founder of Fatah movement - became a part of PLO </li></ul><ul><li>Used terror and violence to achieve its means. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern terrorism on the world stage </li></ul><ul><li>Munich Olympic Games Tragedy (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Black September – part of PLO </li></ul><ul><li>Eight fedayeen (“men of sacrifice”) entered Olympic Village, killing two and taking 9 Israeli hostages. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy media coverage gave the cause… worldwide attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Western preparation for terrorism…? </li></ul><ul><li>Demand: release of about 200 Arab prisoners in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>All hostages killed </li></ul>
    15. 15. Terrorism Today <ul><li>Bin Ladin remembers his mujahideen experience: </li></ul><ul><li>“ All that we have mentioned has made it easy for us to provoke and bait this administration (Bush administration). </li></ul><ul><li>All that we have to do is to send two mujahideen to the furthest point east to raise a piece of cloth on which is written al-Qaida, in order to make the generals race there to cause America to suffer human, economic, and political losses... </li></ul><ul><li>This is in addition to our having experience in using guerrilla warfare… to fight tyrannical superpowers, as we, alongside the mujahideen, bled Russia for 10 years, until it went bankrupt and was forced to withdraw in defeat. … So we are continuing this policy in bleeding America to the point of bankruptcy…” </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda </li></ul><ul><li>“the base” </li></ul>Terrorism Today
    17. 17. Where was bin Laden from? What changed his life?
    18. 18. <ul><li>Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda </li></ul><ul><li>“ the base” </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Drive western influence/presence out of Muslim nations </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Topple oppressive dictatorships in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Unite all Muslims under Sha’ria law </li></ul><ul><li>Current Islamic Terrorism: </li></ul><ul><li>Angry about western actions in Muslim regions of the world (Gulf War I; War in Iraq; Israel support) </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of groups/tactics/locations (Hamas, Hezbollah, AlQaeda, Islamic Jihad, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>History in the making – you are living it. </li></ul>Terrorism Today

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