Wear resistant cast materials for the mining industry

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ricardo fuoco wear resistant cast materials for the mining industry

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Wear resistant cast materials for the mining industry

  1. 1. Wear Resistant Cast Materials for the Mining Industry Ricardo Fuoco METSO Minerals – Brazil
  2. 2. Outline• 1. Introduction• 2. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• 3. Wear resistant cast materials to: • Crushers • SAG/AG mill • Balls mill / Vertimill• 4. Summary WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 2
  3. 3. Introduction WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 3
  4. 4. Introduction Typical mining operations • 1. Drilling • 2. Blasting • 3. Comminution WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 4
  5. 5. Introduction Typical mining operation Drilling WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 5
  6. 6. Introduction Typical mining operation Blasting WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 6
  7. 7. Introduction Typical comminution operation in the mining industry• Comminution: • 1. Crushing • 2. Grinding (AG/SAG Mills, Ball Mills and Vertimills) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 7
  8. 8. Introduction Typical comminution operation in the mining industry 1. Crushers WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 8
  9. 9. Introduction Typical comminution operation in the mining industry 1. Crushers 2. SAG Mill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 9
  10. 10. Introduction Typical comminution operation in the mining industry 1. Crushers 2. SAG Mill 3. Ball Mill/Vertimill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 10
  11. 11. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 11
  12. 12. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution) Vertimill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 12
  13. 13. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution) High stress abrasion and impact Vertimill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 13
  14. 14. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution) High stress abrasion and impact High stress grinding abrasion Vertimill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 14
  15. 15. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution) High stress abrasion and impact High stress grinding abrasion Erosion Vertimill WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 15
  16. 16. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• Crushers: • High stress abrasion • High impact forces • Gouging abrasion Wear resistant material with high toughness: Austenitic Mn steels WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 16
  17. 17. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• AG/SAG mills and large balls mills: • High stress grinding abrasion • Medium impact forces • Scratching and micro-cracking resistant Wear resistant material with some toughness: Cr-Mo low alloy steels WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 17
  18. 18. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• Small ball mills and Vertimills: • Erosion • Low stress scratching abrasion • Low impact forces Very high wear resistant material: High Cr white cast iron WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 18
  19. 19. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• Hardness (and wear resistance):Hardness (HB) 700 600 600 HB 500 400 450 HB 300 Series1 375 HB 320 HB 200 100 200 HB 0 Hadfield Hadfield Cr-Mo low Cr-Mo low Hi Cr White Steel (initial) Steel alloy steel alloy steel Cast Iron (deformed) (pearlitic) (martensitic) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 19
  20. 20. Types of wear in the mining industry (comminution)• Charpy Impact test (toughness): Impact (J) 200 200 J 180 160 140 120 100 Series1 80 60 40 20 10 J 15 J 2J 0 Hadfield Steel Cr-Mo low alloy Cr-Mo low alloy Hi Cr White Cast (initial) steel steel Iron (pearlitic) (martensitic) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 20
  21. 21. Wear resistant cast materials Crusher parts WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 21
  22. 22. Wear resistant cast materials Types of crushers: Primary gyratory WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 22
  23. 23. Wear resistant cast materials Types of crushers: Jaw crusher WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 23
  24. 24. Wear resistant cast materials Types of crushers: Cone crusher WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 24
  25. 25. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn steel - Typical castings WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 25
  26. 26. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn steel - Typical castings WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 26
  27. 27. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels for Crushers Parts• Typical Spec described in the ASTM A128 Grades B and C: • 12 – 14% Mn / 1.1 – 1.25% C• High Mn special grades: • 17 - 19% Mn • 19 - 22% Mn WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 27
  28. 28. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels for Crushers Parts High Mn special grades WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 28
  29. 29. Wear resistant cast materialsAustenitic Mn Steels for Crushers Parts – wear mechanisms Gouging abrasion (deep surface scratching and high energy indentation) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 29
  30. 30. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels for Crushers Parts Surface layer: microstructure after deformation 400 to 500 HB Core: original microstructure 200 HB© Metso WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY 30 RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012
  31. 31. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatment• Critical step in the production: Heat Treatment • Solution heat treatment at 1050 – 1100°C • Quench in water WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 31
  32. 32. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatmentMicrostructure in the as cast condition Microstructure after solution HT Charpy impact energy = 10J Charpy impact energy = 180J WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 32
  33. 33. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatment• Typical problem in the heat treatment (low toughness). Incomplete solution HT Complete solution HT but ineffective (low temperature or insufficient time) quenching (low cooling rate) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 33
  34. 34. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatment• Typical quenching problem TTT curves of carbides re-precipitation during the cooling after solution of Hadfield austenitic steel © Metso WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 34
  35. 35. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatment• Typical quenching problem Solution Carbide re-precipitation TTT curves of carbides re-precipitation during the cooling after solution of Hadfield austenitic steel © Metso WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 35
  36. 36. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels – Heat treatment• Typical quenching problem Effect of the grain boundaries coverage by continuous carbide re-precipitation in the Charpy impact energy of different grades of Hadfield austenitic manganese steels WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 36
  37. 37. Wear resistant cast materials Austenitic Mn Steels• The main problems in austenitic Mn steels production are related to heat treatment;• Ineffective heat treatments develops microstructures with carbides which result in low toughness and possibility of breakage problems in field. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 37
  38. 38. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 38
  39. 39. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Feed end side WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 39
  40. 40. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Discharge side (grates) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 40
  41. 41. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Lifting effects of the shell liners illustrated by charge motion simulation (TCS - Total Critical Speed) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 41
  42. 42. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Lifting effects of the shell liners illustrated by charge motion simulation (TCS - Total Critical Speed) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 42
  43. 43. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Lifting effects of the shell liners illustrated by charge motion simulation (TCS - Total Critical Speed) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 43
  44. 44. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills (and large ball mills) Charge motion illustration showing the atriction and the impact grinding mechanisms. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 44
  45. 45. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Typical castings WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 45
  46. 46. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Alloy specification• Typical Specification: Cr-Mo steels • Cr-Mo steels (Pearlitic microstructure) - 320 HB • Cr-Mo steels (Martensitic microstructure) - 375 HB WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 46
  47. 47. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Heat treatment• Critical step in the production: Heat Treatment • Pearlitic – Normalizing and Tempering • Martensitic – Quenching in blown air and tempering WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 47
  48. 48. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Heat treatment (TTT curve)• Schematic TTT curves of Cr-Mo steel showing the formation of Pearlite and Martensite during the heat treatment. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 48
  49. 49. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Typical microstructures• Cr-Mo steel (0.6%C) after normalizing and temper heat treatment Pearlite Spheroidized Pearlite 400x WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 49
  50. 50. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Typical microstructures• Cr-Mo steel (0.45%C) after quenching and temper heat treatment 200x WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 50
  51. 51. Wear resistant cast materials Cr-Mo steels• The main problems in Cr-Mo steels production are related to heat treatment;• Inadequate microstructures and hardness result in low wear resistance (premature wear) or low toughness and possibility of breakage problems in field;• Improper mill operation frequently promote direct impact of balls on liners resulting in accelerated wear and risk of breakage. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 51
  52. 52. Wear resistant cast materialsImproper mill operation causing direct impact of balls on liners Charge motion simulation Charge motion simulation (< 75% TCS - no impact) (> 75% TCS - direct impact on liners) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 52
  53. 53. Wear resistant cast materialsImproper mill operation causing direct impact of balls on liners Typical aspect of liner surface after direct impact of balls on liners promoting accelerated wear and risk of liner breakage. © Metso WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 53
  54. 54. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 54
  55. 55. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 55
  56. 56. Wear resistant cast materials Vertimills WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 56
  57. 57. Wear resistant cast materials Vertimills – Grinding mechanism WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 57
  58. 58. Wear resistant cast materials Ball mills – Typical wear parts WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 58
  59. 59. Wear resistant cast materials Vertimills – Typical wear parts WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 59
  60. 60. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills – Alloy specification• Typical specification: ASTM A532 • Grade II E : 18 – 23% Cr / 2.0 – 3.0% C • Grade III A : 23 – 28% Cr / 2.5 – 3.5% C WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 60
  61. 61. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills – Alloy specificationASTM A532 Grade III AASTM A532 Grade II E WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 61
  62. 62. Wear resistant cast materials SAG/AG Mills – Heat treatment• Critical step in the production: Heat Treatment • Solution (austenite destabilization) at 950 – 1000°C • Quenching in calm air / blow air • Tempering WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 62
  63. 63. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills - microstructures 1000x SEM, 2000x© Metso WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 63
  64. 64. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills – wear mechanism (erosion) WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 64
  65. 65. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills – wear mechanism (erosion) Carbides HV= 1500 Martensite HV=700 WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 65
  66. 66. Wear resistant cast materials Balls mills and Vertimills – wear mechanism (erosion) – Carbides (M7C3) has high hardness > 1500 HV – Most important abrasive is quartz with 1.000 to 1.300 HV WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 66
  67. 67. Wear resistant cast materials High Cr white cast irons• The main problem in high Cr white cast iron production is crack formation;• Premature shake out, inadequate handling and thermal shock are common causes of cracks in high Cr cast iron castings. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 67
  68. 68. Summary WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY© Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 68
  69. 69. Summary• The most commonly used cast materials in the mining industry are: • Austenitic Mn steels – normally used in Crusher application due to its very high toughness and fairly good wear resistance; • Cr-Mo low alloy steels – normally used in SAG/AG mills application due to its high wear resistance and reasonable toughness; • High Cr white cast iron – normally used in ball mills and vertimills application due to its very high wear resistance. WEAR RESISTANT CAST MATERIALS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY © Metso RICARDO FUOCO - 2ND BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM - CHINA – MAY 8-11, 2012 69

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