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BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM 2012          HOSTED BY  CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATIONPRACTICAL APPLICATION OF IMPROVING  ENERGY EFFICIENC...
THE SOUTH AFRICAN FOUNDRY INDUSTRY1. NUMBER OF FOUNDRIES     METAL TYPE          2003             2007               2011 ...
DEFINITION• “Demand Side” refers to the demand for, or consumption of,  electricity.• “Demand Side Management” refers to i...
The Case for Energy Efficiency                      South Africa vs. the Rest of the World                                ...
Together we have the power to save   5
Benchmarks             Programmes                                              OfferLighting & HVAC                       ...
ESCO Implementation Model          Eskom DSM          • Evaluation        DSM                                Customer     ...
Mold Making   Heat Treatment                     12%              6%       Other        12%Core Making    8%              ...
ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPARATION2. CHARGING3. MELTING4. ALLOYING / REFINING / TREATMENT / SAM...
1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPARATION•   Safety•   Correct Size•   Density•   Cleanliness:                Sheared versus shr...
2. CHARGING OF SCRAP•    Prepare the Charge Sequence•    Vibrating Systems•    Continuous Charging During the Melt•    Pre...
3. MELTING THE CHARGE•   Mains versus medium Frequency / cupola•   Theoretical Power Versus “Best Practice”•   Benefits of...
Comparison of Practical Minimum, Theoretical Minimum and Best Practice Minimums for                                       ...
Induction and Cupola Melting Energy Comparison 10 Btu / Ton                                                         Melt  ...
Historical Induction Melting Furnace Energy* (Delivered)          900          800          700          600          500 ...
4. ALLOYING / REFINING / DE - SLAGGING / SAMPLING•    Ferro – Alloy Additions•    Sampling – Floor Controls•    Sampling –...
5. HOLDING•   Avoid Holding Metal in Batch Furnaces•   Melt Cold – Pour Hot
6. TAPPING / LADLES•    Refractories•    Pre Heating Using Oxy – Fuel to Improve Efficiency•    Management
7. TRANSFER OF MOLTEN IRON                             •   Preparation                             •   Speed and Accuracy ...
8. POURING•   High Power Thermal Plasma Heating                                        Efficient Heating                 ...
9. MAINTENANCE•   Refractories:                       Replacement Schedule – Push Out                       Type of Refr...
CONCLUSION•   There is no “One Size Fits All” Solution•   There are no immediate technological innovation in the melting o...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS•   Advanced Melting Technologies “BCS Inc Nov 2005”•   Theoretical / Best Practice Energy Use in Metal Ca...
practical applications of improving energy efficiency in foundries
practical applications of improving energy efficiency in foundries
practical applications of improving energy efficiency in foundries
practical applications of improving energy efficiency in foundries
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  1. 1. BRICS FOUNDRY FORUM 2012 HOSTED BY CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATIONPRACTICAL APPLICATION OF IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN FOUNDRIES PRESENTED BY: John T DaviesCEO – South African Institute of Foundrymen
  2. 2. THE SOUTH AFRICAN FOUNDRY INDUSTRY1. NUMBER OF FOUNDRIES METAL TYPE 2003 2007 2011 %Change 2011/2007Ferrous 110 110 101* 8Non Ferrous 103 101 80 21TOTAL 213 211 181 14* Includes 4 Investment Casting FoundriesIn addition there are 13 Art Foundries and 9 Spin Casterscf Germany = 900 USA = 2000 China = 2600
  3. 3. DEFINITION• “Demand Side” refers to the demand for, or consumption of, electricity.• “Demand Side Management” refers to interventions to reduce energy consumption• “Energy Efficiency” refers to the effective use of energy to produce a given output (in a production environment) • technology is one that which produces the same service or output with less energy input.• “Green Technology” means • Technology that when properly implemented allows an organisation to meet its present needs without compromising its future needs.
  4. 4. The Case for Energy Efficiency South Africa vs. the Rest of the World Per Capita Electricity Consumption for Countries with similar GDP per capita (± 20%) relative to South Africa* 1.20 Gabon 1.15 (1,128 kWh pa) GDP per capita x South Africa GDP per capita 1.10 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1.05 (3,770 kWh pa) Russian Federation (6,425 kWh pa) South Africa Mauritius Turkey Malaysia 1.00 (4,818 kWh pa) (1,775 kWh pa) (2,122 kWh pa) (3,196 kWh pa) Saint Lucia Uruguay 0.95 (1,879 kWh pa) (2,408 kWh pa) Compared to other Panama (1,807 kWh pa) Argentina countries with a similar per (2,714 kWh pa) 0.90 Costa Rica capita GDP (15% variance), (1,876 kWh pa) Romania (2,548 kWh pa) SA is more electricity Grenada 0.85 (1,963 kWh pa) intensive by factor of 35- Brazil (2,340 kWh pa) 65% 0.80 - 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 Electricity consumption per capita x South Africa Electricity consumption per capita Source: UN (United Nations). 2007d. The 2004 Energy Statistics Yearbook. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. New York. 44*Situation as in 2004, beneficiation policy and co-generation will alter the above picture
  5. 5. Together we have the power to save 5
  6. 6. Benchmarks Programmes OfferLighting & HVAC Up to 5.2m/MWSolar water heating (SWH) Up to 6.3m/MWHeat pumps Up to 5.2m/MWDemand Response Up to 3.5m/MWCompressed Air Up to 4.4m/MWProcess Optimisation Up to 5.2m/MWShower Heads Up to 2.8m/MW Together we have the power to save 6
  7. 7. ESCO Implementation Model Eskom DSM • Evaluation DSM Customer • Financier Agreement • Sustainability ESCo ESCo Maintenance orNew EngineeringContract • Audit Performance • Proposal agreement • Installation Together we have the power to save 7
  8. 8. Mold Making Heat Treatment 12% 6% Other 12%Core Making 8% Melting 55% Post Casting 7%
  9. 9. ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPARATION2. CHARGING3. MELTING4. ALLOYING / REFINING / TREATMENT / SAMPLING5. HOLDING6. TAPPING / LADLES7. TRANSPORTING METAL8. POURING9. MAINTENANCE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
  10. 10. 1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPARATION• Safety• Correct Size• Density• Cleanliness:  Sheared versus shredded scrap  Rusted scrap  Briquetted swarf• Preheating of scrap?• Induction melting Limits the range of scrap used
  11. 11. 2. CHARGING OF SCRAP• Prepare the Charge Sequence• Vibrating Systems• Continuous Charging During the Melt• Pre Heat the Charge in the Furnace• Focus on Reducing the Duration of Charging to Maximise the Melting Process
  12. 12. 3. MELTING THE CHARGE• Mains versus medium Frequency / cupola• Theoretical Power Versus “Best Practice”• Benefits of Batch Melting • Efficiency (No Holding) 97 Percent • Max Power • Power Density • Melting Rate • Furnace Size • Production Planning • Less Emmision • Improved Control • Improved Homogeneity• Furnace Lids / Covers• Slag and Dross
  13. 13. Comparison of Practical Minimum, Theoretical Minimum and Best Practice Minimums for Selected Processes Best Tactic Best Theoretical Industry % Practice % Practice Selected Processes Minimum Average Difference Minimum Difference Minimum Iron Induction Melting 351.5 796.3 56% 538.1 35% 1,689.50 Iron Cupola Melting 351.5 1,413.60 75% 1,002.50 65% 1,124.50 Aluminum Reverberatory 288.7 1,399.80 79% 510.5 43% 523.2 Melt Furnaces Estimated Iron Induction Melting Energy Usage Per Ton Melt Gross Melt Tacit Tacit Tacit 10 Btu /Item KWh/Ton Loss KWh/Ton KWh/Ton 10 Btu / Ton 10 Btu / Ton Ton**Heel Melting Calculated 800 1.5% 812 2550 2.77 8.71 14.52Heel Melting and Holding Estimated 954 1.5% 969 3041 3.31 10.39 17.31Modern Batch Melter Caclulated 500 1.5% 508 1594 1.73 5.44 9.07Batch Melter and Holding Estimated 530 1.5% 538% 1690 1.84 5.77 9.62Includes Hold Power for 8 Hours per day and preheat gas at 74 kWh/ton melt for heel melterShip tons consider 60% yuekd
  14. 14. Induction and Cupola Melting Energy Comparison 10 Btu / Ton Melt Tacit Melt Tacit ShipItem Energy Energy EnergyInduction Heel Melting 3.31 10.39 17.31Modern Induction Batch Melting 1.84 5.77 9.62Low Efficiency Cupola 4.92 5.76 9.6High Efficiency Cupola 3.25 3.84 6%
  15. 15. Historical Induction Melting Furnace Energy* (Delivered) 900 800 700 600 500 400kWh/ton 300 200 100 0 1950 - 1960s 1960 - 1970s 1970 - 1980s 1990s
  16. 16. 4. ALLOYING / REFINING / DE - SLAGGING / SAMPLING• Ferro – Alloy Additions• Sampling – Floor Controls• Sampling – Spectrometer Analysis• Slag Removal – Tools, Efficiency• Slag Wall, Slag Build – Up – Use of Fluxes• Treatment of Metal
  17. 17. 5. HOLDING• Avoid Holding Metal in Batch Furnaces• Melt Cold – Pour Hot
  18. 18. 6. TAPPING / LADLES• Refractories• Pre Heating Using Oxy – Fuel to Improve Efficiency• Management
  19. 19. 7. TRANSFER OF MOLTEN IRON • Preparation • Speed and Accuracy of the Operation • Temperature Control • Skimming
  20. 20. 8. POURING• High Power Thermal Plasma Heating  Efficient Heating  Fast  Offers Metallurgical Benefits• Existing Systems = Ladles & Auto Pouring Units Both have Disadvantages• HPTP Offers a Cost Effective Solution• Improved Temperature Control to +- 5 C• Energy Efficiency Improvement of 20%
  21. 21. 9. MAINTENANCE• Refractories:  Replacement Schedule – Push Out  Type of Refractory  Campaign Life  On Going Repairs – Chemical Erosion Leading to Failure  Measurement• Furnace:  Regular Coil Inspection  Water System Quality  Control of Harmonics  Short Main Power Cable Supply
  22. 22. CONCLUSION• There is no “One Size Fits All” Solution• There are no immediate technological innovation in the melting of Iron (No Magic Wand)• Retrofitting Technology is Available for many frequency Furnaces• The Approach Recommended is Continuous Improvement in Small Increments• Opportunities for Energy Savings EXIST
  23. 23. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• Advanced Melting Technologies “BCS Inc Nov 2005”• Theoretical / Best Practice Energy Use in Metal Casting Operations “JF Suhfo, JT Radia – May 2004”• Improvement in Energy Efficiency of a Melting furnace “Dr DS Padan, Tata Motors Limited”• High Power thermal Plasma Heating in Automotive Casting Units: Tomorrow’s Technology Applied to Today’s Casting “Luis Cobos Enal 2010”• Casting Directory 2011 “Crawford Publications”• How to become a practical Green Foundry Indsustry? “G Gigante, Thyssen Krupp – Wupaca, WI USA 2010• ESKOM – Discussion with the Foundry Industry – Stephen Koopman, Energy Manager RSA 2010
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