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Colocuium presentation 27th october 2011 john davies
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Colocuium presentation 27th october 2011 john davies

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Green Green, it’s green they say on the far side of the hill by John Davies at UJ MCTS Colloquium, SAIF

Green Green, it’s green they say on the far side of the hill by John Davies at UJ MCTS Colloquium, SAIF

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  • 1. Green Green, It’s Green They Say, on the Far Side of the Hill……… Folk SongUNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG COLLOCUIUM 2011
  • 2. THE SOUTH AFRICAN FOUNDRY INDUSTRY1. NUMBER OF FOUNDRIES METAL TYPE 2003 2007 2011 %Change 2011/2007Ferrous 110 110 101* 8Non Ferrous 103 101 80 21TOTAL 213 211 181 14* Includes 4 Investment Casting FoundriesIn addition there are 13 Art Foundries and 9 Spin Casterscf Germany = 900 USA = 2000 China = 2600
  • 3. 2. ESTIMATE ANNUAL OUTPUT BY METAL TYPE Estimated Estimated Estimated Growth Annual Annual Annual 2011 vs. Metal Type Production Production Production 2007 2003 (tons) 2007 (tons) 2011 (tons) (%) 2003 2007 2011Non-Ferrous 84,000 97,800 91,400 -7%Ferrous 422,000 562,600 479,950 -15%Total Annual Production 506,000 660,400 571,350 -13%cf Germany 2.7m Tons USA 11.0m Tons China 39.0m Tons
  • 4. 4. PROCESS TYPES Process Type No. of Foundries using the Process (%) Sand Bonded sand 44% Green sand 34% Other 14% Permanent Mould Gravity 21% Low Pressure 5% High Pressure Die Casting 7% Other 3%
  • 5. 3. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION3.1 No. of No. of No. of Percent of Province Foundries Foundries Foundries Total 2003 2007 2011 2011 Gauteng 110 108 97 54% Western Cape 26 16 15 8% Kwa-Zulu Natal 20 26 24 13% Eastern Cape 16 10 10 6% Free State 10 7 6 3% North-West 10 9 5 3% Northern Cape 6 3 3 2% Other 15 15 18 10% NOTE: Other includes Mpumalanga and Vereeniging area
  • 6. 5. FOUNDRY TYPE No. of Foundries Foundry Type No. of Foundries (%) Production 23 24% Jobbing 50 52% Production & Jobbing 24 24%
  • 7. 6. AUTOMOTIVE CASTINGS (Est. Production)6.1 METAL TYPE TONS % OF TOTAL / TYPE Grey Iron 153 072 75 Ductile Iron 78 432 63 Aluminium 66 012 88 Zinc 408 15 Magnesium 240 95 TOTAL 298 164 526.2 METAL TYPE TONS % OF TOTAL Ferrous 231 504 48 Non Ferrous 66 660 70
  • 8. 7. EMPLOYMENT (Automotive Foundries) 7.1 METAL TYPE NO EMPLOYEES % OF TOTAL Ferrous 2116 22 Non Ferrous 598 34 Total 2714 247.2 Automotive Foundries produce 52 percent of the output with 24 percent of the total staff employed in the industry.
  • 9. 8. FOUNDRY PRODUCING AUTOMOTIVE CASTINGS METAL TYPE NO OF FOUNDRIES % OF TOTAL Ferrous 8 (Est.) 8 Non Ferrous 16 20 Total 24 13• 8 Automotive Iron Foundries generate 48 percent of the total Ferrous tonnage produced• 16 Non Ferrous Foundries produce 70 percent of the total.
  • 10. GREEN TECHNOLOGY• DEFINITION: Technology that when properly implemented, allows an organisation to meet it’s present needs without compromising it’s future needs.• Green Technology pervades every aspect of our lives• Energy reduction is leading the way towards a greener future• 90 Percent of manufactured goods / products contain cast components
  • 11. Mold Making Heat Treatment 12% 6% Other 12%Core Making 8% Melting 55% Post Casting 7%
  • 12. ENERGY SAVING OPPUTUNITIES1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPARATION2. CHARGING3. MELTING4. ALLOYING / REFINING / TREATMENT / SAMPLING5. HOLDING6. TAPPING / LADLES7. TRANSPORTING8. POURING9. MAINTENANCE
  • 13. 1. SCRAP SELECTION AND PREPERATION• Safety• Correct Size• Density• Cleanliness:  Sheared versus Shredded Scrap  Rusted Scrap  Briquetted Swarf• Preheating of Scrap?• Induction Melting Limits the Range of Scrap Used
  • 14. 2. CHARGING OF SCRAP• Prepare the Charge Sequence• Vibrating Systems• Continuous During the Melt• Pre Heat Charge in the Furnace• Focus on Reducing the Duration of Charging to Maximise the Melting
  • 15. 3. MELTING THE CHARGE• Mains versus Medium Frequency / cupola• Theoretical Power Versus “Best Practice”• Benefits of Batch Melting • Efficiency (No Holding) 97 Percent • Max Power • Power Density • Melting Rate • Furnace Size • Production Planning • Less Emmision • Improved Control • Improved Homogeneity• Furnace Lids / Covers
  • 16. Comparison of Practical Minimum, Theoretical Minimum and Best Practice Minimums for Selected Processes Best Tactic Best Theoretical Industry % Practice % Practice Selected Processes Minimum Average Difference Minimum Difference Minimum Iron Induction Melting 351.5 796.3 56% 538.1 35% 1,689.50 Iron Cupola Melting 351.5 1,413.60 75% 1,002.50 65% 1,124.50 Aluminum Reverberatory 288.7 1,399.80 79% 510.5 43% 523.2 Melt Furnaces Estimated Iron Induction Melting Energy Usage Per Ton Melt Gross Melt Tacit Tacit Tacit 10 Btu /Item KWh/Ton Loss KWh/Ton KWh/Ton 10 Btu / Ton 10 Btu / Ton Ton**Heel Melting Calculated 800 1.5% 812 2550 2.77 8.71 14.52Heel Melting and Holding Estimated 954 1.5% 969 3041 3.31 10.39 17.31Modern Batch Melter Caclulated 500 1.5% 508 1594 1.73 5.44 9.07Batch Melter and Holding Estimated 530 1.5% 538% 1690 1.84 5.77 9.62Includes Hold Power for 8 Hours per day and preheat gas at 74 kWh/ton melt for heel melterShip tons consider 60% yuekd
  • 17. Induction and Cupola Melting Energy Comparison 10 Btu / Ton Melt Tacit Melt Tacit ShipItem Energy Energy EnergyInduction Heel Melting 3.31 10.39 17.31Modern Induction Batch Melting 1.84 5.77 9.62Low Efficiency Cupola 4.92 5.76 9.6High Efficiency Cupola 3.25 3.84 6%
  • 18. Historical Induction Melting Furnace Energy* (Delivered) 900 800 700 600 500 400kWh/ton 300 200 100 0 1950 - 1960s 1960 - 1970s 1970 - 1980s 1990s
  • 19. Modern Induction Melting Process 3.89 0.08 0.02 0.26 0.29 Losses 1.81 1.73 1.71 1.45 1.16Electricit y Power Refractory Cable Iron 5.7 10’ Supply Coil Losses and Cover Losses Melting Btu Losses Losses(Power Plant)
  • 20. 4. ALLOYING / REFINING / DE - SLAGGING / SAMPLING• Ferro – Alloy Additions• Sampling – Floor Controls• Sampling – Spectrometer Analysis• Slag Removal – Tools, Efficiency• Slag Wall, Slag Build – Up – Use of Fluxes• Treatment of Metal
  • 21. 5. HOLDING• Avoid Holding Metal in Batch Furnaces• Melt Cold – Pour Hot
  • 22. 6. TAPPING / LADLES• Melt Cold – Pour Hot• Refractories• Pre Heating Using Oxy – Fuel to Improve Efficiency• Management
  • 23. 7. TRANSFER OF MOLTEN IRON • Preparation • Speed and Accuracy of the Operation • Temperature Control • Skimming
  • 24. 8. POURING• High Power Thermal Plasma Heating  Efficient Heating  Fast  Offers Metallurgical Benefits• Existing Systems = Cold Ladles & Auto Pouring Units Both have Disadvantages• HPTP Offers a Cost Effective Solution• Improved Temperature Control to +- 5 C• Energy Efficiency Improvement of 20%
  • 25. 9. MAINTENANCE• Refractories:  Replacement Schedule – Push Out  Type of Refractory  Campaign Life  On Going Repairs – Chemical Erosion Leading to Failure  Measurement• Furnace:  Regular Coil Inspection  Water System Quality  Harmonious Controls  Short Main Power Cable Supply
  • 26. CONCLUSION• There is no “One Size Fits All” Solution• There are no Immediate Technological Innovation in the melting of Iron (No Magic Wand)• Retrofitting Technology is Available• The Approach Recommended is Continuous Improvement in Small Increments• Opportunities for Energy Saving EXITS
  • 27. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS• Advanced Melting Technologies “BCS Inc Nov 2005”• Theoretical / Best Practice Energy Use in Metal Casting Operations “JF Suhfo, JT Radia – May 2004”• Improvement in Energy Efficiency of a Melting furnace “Dr DS Padan, Tata Motors Limited”• High Power thermal Plasma Heating in Automotive Casting Units: Tomorrow’s Technology Applied to Today’s Casting “Luis Cobos Enal 2010”• Casting Directory 2011 “Crawford Publications”• How to Become a Practical Green Foundry Indsustry? “G Gigante, Thyssen Krupp – Wupaca, WI USA 2010

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