Breaking Poor Reading HabitsIf you're like most people, then you probably have one or more reading habits that slow you down. Becoming a better reader means overcoming these bad habits, so that you can clear the way for new, effective ways of reading. Below, we cover some of the most common bad reading habits, and discuss what you can do to overcome them.Sub-VocalizationSub-vocalization is the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it. Most people do this to some extent or another. When you sub-vocalize, you "hear" the word being spoken in your mind. This takes much more time than is necessary, because you can understand a word more quickly than you can say it.To turn off the voice in your head, you have to first acknowledge that it's there (how did you read the first part of this article?), and then you have to practice "not speaking." When you sit down to read, tell yourself that you will not sub-vocalize. You need to practice this until this bad habit is erased. Reading blocks of words also helps, as it's harder to vocalize a block of words. (See below for more on this.)Eliminating sub-vocalization alone can increase your reading speed by an astounding amount. Otherwise, you're limited to reading at the same pace as talking, which is about 250-350 words per minute. The only way to break through this barrier is to stop saying the words in your head as you read. Reading Word-by-WordNot only is it slow to read word-by-word, but when you concentrate on separate words, you often miss the overall concept of what's being said. People who read each word as a distinct unit can understand less than those who read faster by "chunking" words together in blocks. (Think about how your eyes are moving as you read this article. Are you actually reading each word, or are you reading blocks of two, or three, or five words?)Practice expanding the number of words that you read at a time. You may also find that you can increase the number of words you read in a single fixation by holding the text a little further from your eyes. The more words you can read in each block, the faster you'll read! Inefficient Eye MotionSlow readers tend to focus on each word, and work their way across each line. The eye can actually span about 1.5 inches at a time, which, for an average page, encompasses four or five words. Related to this is the fact that most readers don't use their peripheral vision to see words at the ends of each line.To overcome this, "soften" your gaze when you read – by relaxing your face and expanding your gaze, you'll begin to see blocks of words instead of seeing each word as distinct unit. As you get good at this, your eyes will skip faster and faster across the page. When you get close to the end of the line, let your peripheral vision take over to see the last set of words. This way you can quickly scan across and down to the next line.RegressionRegression is the unnecessary re-reading of material. Sometimes people get into the habit of skipping back to words they have just read, while, other times, they may jump back a few sentences, just to make sure that they read something right. When you regress like this, you lose the flow and structure of the text, and your overall understanding of the subject can decrease.Be very conscious of regression, and don't allow yourself to re-read material unless you absolutely have to.To reduce the number of times your eyes skip back, run a pointer along the line as you read. This could be a finger, or a pen or pencil. Your eyes will follow the tip of your pointer, helping you avoid skipping back. The speed at which you read using this method will largely depend on the speed at which you move the pointer.Poor ConcentrationIf you've tried to read while the TV is on, you'll know how hard it is to concentrate on one word, let alone on many sentences strung together. Reading has to be done in an environment where external distractions are kept to a minimum.To improve your concentration as you read, stop multitasking while reading, and remove any distractions. This is particularly important, because when you use the techniques of chunking blocks of words together and ceasing to sub-vocalize, you may find that you read several pages before you realize you haven't understood something properly. Pay attention to "internal distractions" as well. If you're rehashing a heated discussion, or if you're wondering what to make for dinner, this will also limit your ability to process information.Sub-vocalization actually forces your brain to attend to what you're reading, and that's why people often say that they can read and watch TV at the same time. To become an efficient reader, you need to avoid this.Approaching Reading Linearly We're taught to read across and down, taking in every word, sentence, paragraph and page in sequence. When you do this, though, you pay the same attention to supplementary material as you do to core information. (Often, much more information is presented than you actually need to know.)Overcome this by scanning the page for headings, and by looking for bullet points and things in bold. There is no rule saying that you have to read a document in the order that the author intended, so scan it quickly, and decide what is necessary and what isn't. Skim over the fluff, and only pay attention to the key material.As you read, look for the little extras that authors add to make their writing interesting and engaging. If you get the point, there's no need to read the example or anecdote. Similarly, decide what you need to re-read as well. It's far better to read one critical paragraph twice than it is to read another eight paragraphs elaborating on that same concept.
Survey, question, read (skim), recite, review
A drum, it is a percussion instrument, it makes music, by hitting the top with a drumstick it makes a sound, when you hit it with a specific rhythm it will create music, depending on the skill and experience of the player the music might be good or bad or anywhere in between.
Problem, Thesis, Reasons, Results
A+ student strategies final
A+ Student Strategies for Reading & Thinking Critically Do you want to know what it takes to get better grades? Do you want to be able to read more effectively? Do you want to better analyze information?This workshop will help you to read more efficiently and show you effectivestrategies to get the most out of what you read. You will also gain skills thatwill help you to think more effectively about the information you have read and better expand on these ideas through your writing.
Agenda• A+ Student Learning Metaphor• Model of A+ Student Learning – Reading Effectively – Thinking Critically
A+ Student Learning MetaphorThe performance of a car does not depend on the horsepower of the car, but upon the skill with which the car is driven by the driver.So, if learning is the horsepower of the car, then thinking is the skill with which that horsepower is used. Learning is a potential. Thinking is an operating skill. Adapted from Edward DeBono Thinking Course, p. 2
WHAT YOU BRING TOA schema (pl. schemata), inpsychology and cognitive science, is a THE LEARNING PROCESSmental structure (prior knowledge)that represents some aspect of the A schema is aworld. specific, well-documented, and consistent plan. Personal Characteristics• Your Learning Style• Your Experience People use schemata to organize• Your Attitude• Your Filter current knowledge• Your Prior Knowledge and provide a framework• Your Learning Environment for future understanding.
OutputWhat you create from Input Information to be what you learned learned Evaluation A+ Student Understanding Judging what you learned Comprehending Learning what you learned Analysis Using what you learned
The Text• “The Assignment”• “The Reading”• “The Lecture” INFORMATION• “The Movie” TO BE LEARNED• “The Conversation” Reading Strategies The actual “text” Schema Activation Survey & Skimming SQ3R & SQ5R purpose for reading Reading Environment Active Reading Efficient Reading
*CREATE A POSITIVE READING ENVIRONMENT*• Relatively free of interruptions (phone, email, TV, friends) friends/family)• Free of distractions (noise, people watching, windows)• Study in the same place & time (routine)• Not too comfortable (easily fall asleep)• Choose a time when you are mentally alert **INCREASE YOUR ATTENTION SPAN**• Set specific and manageable study goals• Read with a purpose• Read actively (create study aids)• Keep a distractions list• Vary your reading• Take breaks• Approach assignment with a positive attitude
SurveyObjective: To get a solid overview of what need to learn. What it does… Prepares your mental processing system. Why do it? • Be better able to concentrate with a frame of reference. • Be better able to identify & locate important information. Endstate… Better understanding/comprehension/retention of material
Survey Applied to Your Studies• Periodically, review your learning contracts and/or your online course syllabi• Keep a list of important terms and concepts• Skim any handouts• Read your assignments/questions before you read your texts.• Use the SQ3R strategy when reading your texts
SQ3R Textbook Study System5 step method that was designed to help people become more active in their reading and retain information more easily.Survey Read intro, summary; skim headings, boldface, italicized words, charts, etc.Question Identify your purpose for reading – assignment, paper, discussion, etc.Read Break into sections, take notes as you read, make links back to your purposeRecite Rewrite key information in your own wordsReview Scan material; talk about it with classmate if possible; identify themes and relationships between concepts Research shows students who learn this system and use it conscientiously - read 22% faster - comprehend 10% more - retain 80% of material.
Active Reading Engage with the textTake Notes Highlight Important Use a Pacer Information
Efficient ReadingBreak poor reading habits – Don’t sub-vocalize (pronounce) each word in your head – Chunk words into concepts instead of reading word-by-word – Soften your eyes and force yourself to scan faster – Don’t re-read unnecessarily, use a pacer/pointer – Avoid distractions to improve your concentration – Read from top to bottom as well as left to right Practice Your Skill - http://www.readingsoft.com/ Adapted from http://www.mindtools.com/speedrd
What is “understanding”?• Knowing what needs to be knownand why/what will be done with theinformation COMPREHENDING WHAT YOU LEARNED• Activated Schema• “Thinking” Making meaning• Comprehending – Key Issues/ as you read the “text” Main Points• Summarizing in your own words Strategies for how to get it Reading and Decoding Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy
Comprehension TipsCREATE INTEREST• Set Goals: • “What is my purpose for doing this reading?” • “What do I want to learn?”• Look at lessonhow to best take notes Think about objectives• Learn new vocabulary• Preview the reading• Review introductory informationUSE WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW• Activate prior knowledge (schema): “What do I know about the topic?”
Reading & DecodingCollege reading requires that you not only read and compreh a subject, but that you also read for a specific purpose, analyze the material, and read between the line3 levels of reading and decoding:• Decoding for meaning – using context clues• Reading for meaning – not word for word• Reading with a purpose – knowing what you are reading a why you are reading it
Decoding for Meaning – Using context cluesRaining Cats and Dogs Belly Button
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Reading for Meaning – not word for word Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy,researcher at Cambridge University, it doesnt matter in According to a it deosnt mttaer in waht oredr theltteers in aletters in a are,are, the olny iprmoetntthat the what order the wrod word the only important thing is tihng first and last letter be at the right place. The rest can be a total mess is tahtcan stillfristit and lsat ltteer isbe at thehuman and you the read without problem. This because the rghit pclae. The read every letter bya toatlthe word asand you mind does not rset can be itself but mses a whole. http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/~mattd/Cmabrigde/ can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs isbcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
evaluateBloom’s Taxonomy critique argue EVALUATION – JUDGE – Do you have to appraise, assess or critique on a basis of specific standards and criteria? synthesize contrast SYNTHESIS – COMBINE – Do you need to take your own ideas and integrate them with course concepts into a product, plan or proposal? Can you identify what is relevant from what irrelevant? compare/ analyze ANALYSIS – CONNECT – Do you need to compare/contrast, distinguish, classify and relate any assumptions, hypotheses, evidence or structure of a statement or question? apply react APPLICATION - USE – Do you have to select, transfer or use data and principles to complete a problem or task? summarize describe interpret discuss define COMPREHENSION – UNDERSTAND - Do you have to translate your understanding or interpretation of information? KNOWLEDGE – REGURGITATE -- Do you have to recall or recognizes information? Do you have to present the ideas and principles that you learned in a basic summary?
Bloom and a Real Life Example• Knowledge – What is it?• Comprehension – What else is it like?• Application – What does it do?• Analysis – How does it work?• Synthesis – What happens when you…?• Evaluation – How was the quality?
What is “analysis”• Identify the Elements, Relationships andOrganization of the “text” USING WHAT YOU LEARNED• Know the Parts of the “text”• Look for the relationships between ideas• Interpretation Strategies for how to do it How you piece together the Context Clues significance and organization Association with Schema of the parts of the text Says/Does Outlining Graphic Organizing/Mindmapping PTR2
Restatement: Reading What a Text Says Description:Describing What a Text Does Interpretation:Analyzing What a Text Means
EXAMPLES of Ways to Read and Discuss Text From: www.criticalreading.com/ways_to_read.htmConsider the following nursery rhyme... Mary had a little lamb, Its fleece was white as snow, and everywhere that Mary went The lamb was sure to go.What A Text Says talks about the topic of the original text, Mary and the lamb. Mary had a lamb that followed her everywhere.What A Text Does talks about the story. The nursery rhyme describes a pet that followed its mistress everywhere.What a Text Means talks about meaning within the story, here the idea of innocent devotion. An image of innocent devotion is conveyed by the story of a lambs close connection to its mistress. The devotion is emphasized by repetition that emphasizes the constancy of the lambs actions ("everywhere"…"sure to go.") The notion of innocence is conveyed by the image of a young lamb, "white as snow." By making it seem that this connection between pet and mistress is natural and good, the nursery rhyme asserts innocent devotion as a positive relationship.
Helpful SAYS/DOES EXAMPLE Copyright New York Times Company Aug 9, 2005 Helpful Hint: Hint: These CONGRESS has an amazing new scheme to cut crime, automobile fatalities and energy consumption. There is These should all should all be one hitch. We have to stay in bed until sunrise during the first week of November -- lights out, televisions and radios off and be actiondescriptive words. words please stay away from that coffee maker. Congress Of course, doing so might interfere with breakfast, school Intro to attempts attendance, morning workouts and jobs. Thats because during topic with to that week, the sun wont rise until 7:30 a.m. at the earliest. If humorous influence you live on the western edge of your time zone, expect darkness linkages to social until 8:30 a.m. Sorry, Boise. Good night, Grand Rapids. daily problems impact of with change in change in Congress has extended daylight saving time by four weeks: In 2007, our clocks will spring forward on the second Sunday of DLS. time Change in March and fall back on the first Sunday of November. And DLS is frankly, there may be another hitch or two in the plan. First, the Providesextended trick of shifting unused morning light to evening was intended current 4 weeks state of to exploit long summer days, when sunrise occurs between 4:00and points affairs out and 5:00 a.m. Standard Time -- hours of daylight that do not exist during the short days of March and November. with & problems critique of with Second, after nearly 100 years, daylight saving has yet to save us anything. The idea of falsifying clocks was proposed by the the change original in DLS. intent & British architect William Willett in 1907, but the Germans were current the first to try it in 1916, hoping that it would help them change conserve fuel during the First World War. Then Britain and America gave their clocks a whirl.
Are military TO ARGUE WITH this outcome? Back in 1992 Shunta Belle was on the fast at-risk WHOS GOING programs in the inner-city public schools rescuing track to nowhere, "hanging around thugs and drug dealers and tryingbecome soldiers? Then, as a freshman at kids or pushing them to to prove myself to them." Provine High School in Jackson, Miss., she signed up for the spit-and-shine, no-nonsense world of the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps. For the first year, Belle held on to a few of her underachieving civilian comrades. But over the next three years, she picked up new friends, a better attitude and a fresh set of goals to match. "I got serious about things," she says, "and I wanted to be around people who wanted something out of life." Today Belle, 23, is a fire fighter in her hometown department.Problem It is stories like Belles that have helped fuel the growth of JROTC. Started in 1916, JROTC established a beachhead at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy in Norwich, Vt. Currently the program can be found in some 3,000 public schools across the nation, and its Pentagon funding is expected to rise more than 50%, from $215 million last year to $326 million by 2004. JROTC has its best-known booster in Colin Powell, who was a ROTC cadet as a student at City College of New York. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he decided that JROTC offered the best prescription for saving lost inner-city youths. "Yes, Ill admit, the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of Junior ROTC. But Thesis society got a far greater payoff," Powell later wrote in his 1995 autobiography, My American Journey. "Inner- city kids, many from broken homes, found stability and role models in junior Rom They got a taste of discipline, the work ethic, and they experienced pride of membership in something healthier than a gang." There are quite a few people, however, who believe that those success stories come at too high a price. After all, JROTC teaches kids how to act and think like soldiers before they are old enough to know their own mind. Critics argue that because such programs are among the few sources of additional funding for some of the nations neediest schools, they exploit poor kids by putting them on a military track, to the exclusion of other R1Reasons options. The debate hasOakland, Calif.,growing number ofscrapped conventional teaching methods to convert heated up as a school districts have begun offering JROTC, while others in such cities as and Chicago have some schools into public military academies. One of the biggest selling points of JROTC to school districts is that its matching federal funds provide a cost- R1 effective way to broaden a schools curriculum. But thats a claim opponents say masks many hidden expenses. A recent study by the American Friends Service Committee argues, for example, that after school districts
What it is• Assess merits of the argument• EFFECTIVENESS JUDGING WHAT• Draw conclusions YOU LEARNED• Critique the structure, content, orimplications• Generate possible solutions• Look for logical fallacies How you judge the quality Strategies for how to do it and make decisions based Outlining on the evidence, structure, Graphic Organizing and logic of the reading PTR2 Interpretation of Intent/Facts
The Benefits of Mind MappingConcept mapping can be done for several purposes: • to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.). • to design a complex structure (long texts, large web sites, etc.); • to communicate complex ideas. • to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge • to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding.Concept maps: • Show relationships between ideas. • Acts as a memory trigger. • Makes it easier to remember information. • Improves reading comprehension. • Unequaled tool for organizing information. • The act of organizing materials is studying.
BRAINSTORMING LECTURE STUDY GROUP TEXTBOOK CHAPTER CHAPTER NOTES NOTES LESSON What Can I WHAT TO PARAGRAPHSOBJECTIVES Graphically Organize G.O? ROUGH TEST DRAFTS REVIEW
SimilaritiesDifferences Differences Object, Event Object, Event or Person or Person
Persuasive Essay State the Give brief outline Tell why AddressIntroduction Summarize facts of argument to argument is arguments of your argument follow reasonable the other side Supports organization of ideas Helps form logical arguments Serves as reminder of audience and purpose
Line 8 Line 1Line 7 Title of Line 2 Poem by Line 6 Author Line 3 Line 5 Line 4
OUTPUT What it is• Your Assignment • Paper WHAT YOU CREATE FROM • Presentation WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED • Quiz• Adding to your schema Strategies for how to do it Prewriting How you prove that you have Outlining successfully linked the important Mindmapping course material with your own Rough Drafts schema. You must show evidence of Editing this through clear and well organized Accepting a final draft writing.
You Should Now Be Able To• Understand what is expected of you• Know effective reading/studying strategies• Understand and use critical thinking skills• Make connections with personal schema and new information• Demonstrate that you’ve acquired new knowledge through clear writing, presentation, etc.
Reading Efficiency ResourcesREADING TEXTS• Pre-Reading Strategies www.studygs.net/preread.htm• Critical Reading www.esc.edu/ESConline/Across_ESC/WritingResourceCenter.nsf/wholeshortlinks2/Academic+Reading• Studying Efficiently gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/asc/index.gw/Site_ID/46/Page_ID/14536/• Textbook Reading Strategies academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/208.HTM• How to Study – Reading Resources www.howtostudy.org/resources_skill.php?id=10• Dartmouth Academic Skills Center www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/reading.html• St. Louis University Reading Resource Center www.slu.edu/x14076.xml• Rochester Institute of Technology – Academic Support Center – On Textbook Reading www.rit.edu/studentaffairs/asc/college_programs/lng_pwr/index.php?l1=3&l2=7&location=37• James Cook University – Reading Efficiency - http://www.jcu.edu.au/office/tld/learningskills/effreading/MINDMAPPING• Theory Behind Concept Mapping cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm• Mindmapping Overview members.optusnet.com.au/~charles57/Creative/Mindmap/• Reading Comprehension & Mindmapping Video www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvnbKEHOQIY&feature=related• University of Victoria www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/reading-skills/• James Cook University – Mindmapping - http://www.jcu.edu.au/office/tld/learningskills/mindmap/index.html
Characteristics of Strong Critical Thinkers (from Vincent Ruggiero, Beyond Feelings, A Guide to Critical Thinking):• Critical Thinkers... "Are honest with error." themselves, acknowledging what they dont know, recognizing their • Critical Thinkers... "Are interested in limitations, and being watchful of their other peoples ideas, so are willing to own errors." read and listen attentively, even when• Critical Thinkers... "Regard problems and they tend to disagree with the other controversial issues as exciting person." challenges." • Critical Thinkers... "Recognize that• Critical Thinkers... "Strive for extreme views (whether conservative or understanding, keep curiosity liberal) are seldom correct, so they avoid alive, remain patient with complexity and them, practice fair-mindedness, and seek ready to invest time to overcome a balanced view." confusion." • Critical Thinkers... "Practice• Critical Thinkers... "Set aside personal restraint, controlling their feelings rather preferences and base judgments on than being controlled by them, and evidence, deferring judgment whenever thinking before acting." evidence is insufficient. They revise judgments when new evidence reveals