Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery


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Presentation by Karl Hoppe, NDSU Extension Service area livestock specialist. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

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Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery

  1. 1. Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery Dr. Karl Hoppe Area Extension Livestock Specialist NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center
  2. 2. It’s all about making a meal and keeping them fed
  3. 3. It’s a full fed but not much for making them gain
  4. 4. Some are eating, some are laying down, all look comfortable
  5. 5. It takes a lot of planning…. <ul><li>Grain Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Hay processing </li></ul><ul><li>Ration mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul>
  6. 6. Grain Processing <ul><li>How should I feed my grains? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High moisture vs dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should they be processed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It depends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> On the grain, ration, and type of animal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why process grains? <ul><li>Reduce particle size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose more surface area to microbial and intestinal digestion and absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupts hull and exposes starch granules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitates mixing and reduces sorting </li></ul>
  8. 8. Grain Processing <ul><li>Grinding fine particle size </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single stage coarse particle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double stage fine to coarse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flaking large/fine </li></ul><ul><li>Extrusion fine </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Grain Processing <ul><ul><li>If processing improves digestion by 10 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but it increases the cost by 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what have we gained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some feedyards process grain (temper, steam flake) to increase the water content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory gain – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sell more pounds than bought </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Grain Processing <ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be feed whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiencies can be improved by rolling cracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7 to 10 % improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid fine grinding </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Effect of Corn Processing and Feeding Method on Performance Cracked TMR Cracked Separate Whole TMR Whole Separate ADG, lb 2.73 2.71 2.76 2.58 DMI,. lb 19.2 19.3 19.2 19.3 Feed:gain 7.03 7.13 6.96 7.46 Rush et al. 2000
  12. 12. Grain Processing <ul><li>Barley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for Beer! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferments Rapidly – ACIDOSIS possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be coarsely rolled or cracked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor digestibility if fed whole – husk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be ground finer in a backgrounding diet fed as a TMR (totally mixed ration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too finely ground lead to really fast fermentation and possible death due to acidosis/bloat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Grain Processing <ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be fed whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing – minimal improvement in digestion – 0 to 10 percent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to feed! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hull acts as a buffer and helps decrease incidence of acidosis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Grain Processing <ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very rapidly fermented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to feed at high levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires excellent bunk management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be coarse rolled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidosis likely with fine grinding </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Grain Processing <ul><li>Field Peas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be fed whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For optimum feed value, process by rolling or cracking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sorghum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard seed coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be processed </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Grain Processing <ul><li>Grain Screenings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigeon grass (foxtail) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grind or roll to crack seed coat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat screenings used to have a high content of pigeon grass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracked kernal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged kernels don’t need to be processed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn screenings are mostly cracked corn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Light Test Weight Grains <ul><li>For cattle – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feeding quality is similar to normal weight grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, as test weight decreases, starch content decreases and fiber content increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>since ruminants ferment both starch and fiber, the net effect is minimal to a point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But ---- ethanol yields are lower in an ethanol plant and they discount heavily for light test wt </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Light Test Weight Grains <ul><li>Comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme light test weight feeds can be discounted in energy content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this is an extreme situation and haying the field would be an option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As test weight decreases, protein content increases. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Grain combinations <ul><li>Blending grains may improve ration digestibility or cattle performance.. or not </li></ul><ul><li>Concept –Feeding a rumen is like stoking a wood furnace. Nice even burn is best. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If blending feeds will create a steady even fermentation then that’s the goal. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Grain combinations <ul><li>Most of the time with only one grain, the variability in particle size creates the even fermentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensiled high moisture corn (HMC) mixed with dry rolled corn (DRC) can have a synergistic effect. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix fast fermenting feeds (HMC) with slower fermenting feeds (DRC) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Processing Hay <ul><li>Why grind hay? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow ration mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only slightly higher Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None or small change in digestibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it was pulverized and lignin broken and exposed, then digestibility will increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction needed to really work – anhydrous ammonia, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Processing hay - concerns <ul><li>Particle size to large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particle size to small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower effective fiber size (need long fiber for cud chewing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidosis is likely since cud chewing is reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grinding loss – wind loss, heating loss </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>snow/moisture consistency in pile </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Processing hay <ul><li>Tub grinders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own vs Lease vs Custom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility works with many different forages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical Mixers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chop hay prior to ration mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works well for high forage rations (40-60%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great for Backgrounders, dairy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not best choice for finishing rations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These mixers require a substantial horsepower tractor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Value of Grain processing depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grain type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hay processing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates ration mixing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Feed mixing
  26. 26. TMR --Totally Mixed Ration <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete ration can be delivered to feedbunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced manual labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment cost – mixer, feedbunks (fenceline) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forage must be processed </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Feedlot Performance -TMR vs. handfed
  28. 28. Feedlot Performance -TMR vs. handfed
  29. 29. Mixers <ul><li>Silage delivery wagons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not really a mixer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reel Type </li></ul><ul><li>3 or 4 Auger </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical mixer </li></ul>
  30. 30. Feed Delivery Wagons <ul><li>Silage Wagons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designed to mix feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to deliver silage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can layer in and deliver feed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May work in backgrounding with high forages - -also works if feed is already mixed before loading into wagon </li></ul>
  31. 31. Feed Delivery Wagons
  32. 32. Mixers --- reel type
  33. 33. Mixer – 3 or 4 auger
  34. 34. Mixer – vertical
  35. 35. Mixing Order – High Grain diets <ul><li>Grain </li></ul><ul><li>Dry supplement </li></ul><ul><li>Forages </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Molasses or liquid supplement </li></ul><ul><li>Mix to manufactures guidelines (3-6 min) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mixing Order – Backgrounding diets <ul><li>Grains </li></ul><ul><li>Pelleted supplement </li></ul><ul><li>Silage </li></ul><ul><li>Hay </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid supplement </li></ul><ul><li>* add dense feeds first * </li></ul>
  37. 37. Mixing Order for Various Mixers Auger/ hay kit Reel Auger MFG #1 Vertical Auger MFG #2 Haylage 3 2 3 4 4 Corn silage 4 3 4 5 1 Hay 1 5 1 1 2 Supplement 5 4 5 2 5 Corn Ref: Dr. Greg Lardy, NDSU and others 2 1 2 3 3
  38. 38. Batch size <ul><li>Most mixer operate efficiently at 60-90 % of rated capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Overloading mixer will not mix </li></ul><ul><li>Underloading mixers don’t mix well </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t over mix – separation can occur </li></ul>
  39. 39. What should a feed truck/wagon driver do? <ul><li>Monitors feeds and inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Does dry matters </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the mix sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Mixes and delivers the rations </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors DMI and orts </li></ul><ul><li>Watches the cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps records </li></ul><ul><li>Shovel bunks, etc </li></ul>
  40. 40. Feeder Decisions <ul><li>Determine batch size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusted for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of head (deads, sold) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Refusal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Matter content of wet feeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silages can dry out over time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet feeds i.e. distillers grains change moisture on loads and over time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batch – errors affect cattle performance! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much weight, too little - big effect on DM intake </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Feed Delivery <ul><li>Goal: Deliver rations uniformly along the bunk </li></ul><ul><li>Do not pile it all at one end </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor mixing with bunk samples.. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Feed sorting <ul><li>Will always be some sorting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to minimize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilize wet feeds or liquid supplement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves palatability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease fines and dust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask someone to review your feedstuffs and processing methods </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you think is good enough could be better </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Summary <ul><li>Totally mixed rations TMR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved feed efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves utilization/ digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep feed fresh and pay attention to details </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. And one more thing… <ul><li>If you have employees (or need them), </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is important </li></ul><ul><li>Identify expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Share thoughts, training, and stress attention to details </li></ul>