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Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery
 

Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery

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Presentation by Karl Hoppe, NDSU Extension Service area livestock specialist. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

Presentation by Karl Hoppe, NDSU Extension Service area livestock specialist. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

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    Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery Presentation Transcript

    • Optimizing Nutrient Management and Delivery Dr. Karl Hoppe Area Extension Livestock Specialist NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center
    • It’s all about making a meal and keeping them fed
    • It’s a full fed but not much for making them gain
    • Some are eating, some are laying down, all look comfortable
    • It takes a lot of planning….
      • Grain Processing
      • Hay processing
      • Ration mixing
      • Human resource management
    • Grain Processing
      • How should I feed my grains?
        • High moisture vs dry
      • Should they be processed?
        • It depends.
        • On the grain, ration, and type of animal
    • Why process grains?
      • Reduce particle size
        • Expose more surface area to microbial and intestinal digestion and absorption
        • Disrupts hull and exposes starch granules
      • Facilitates mixing and reduces sorting
    • Grain Processing
      • Grinding fine particle size
      • Rolling
        • Single stage coarse particle
        • Double stage fine to coarse
      • Flaking large/fine
      • Extrusion fine
      • Cooking
    • Grain Processing
        • If processing improves digestion by 10 %
        • but it increases the cost by 10%
        • what have we gained?
        • Some feedyards process grain (temper, steam flake) to increase the water content
        • inventory gain –
        • sell more pounds than bought
    • Grain Processing
      • Corn
        • Can be feed whole
        • Efficiencies can be improved by rolling cracking
          • 7 to 10 % improvement
        • Avoid fine grinding
    • Effect of Corn Processing and Feeding Method on Performance Cracked TMR Cracked Separate Whole TMR Whole Separate ADG, lb 2.73 2.71 2.76 2.58 DMI,. lb 19.2 19.3 19.2 19.3 Feed:gain 7.03 7.13 6.96 7.46 Rush et al. 2000
    • Grain Processing
      • Barley
        • Great for Beer!
        • Ferments Rapidly – ACIDOSIS possible
        • Should be coarsely rolled or cracked
        • Poor digestibility if fed whole – husk
        • Can be ground finer in a backgrounding diet fed as a TMR (totally mixed ration)
          • Too finely ground lead to really fast fermentation and possible death due to acidosis/bloat
    • Grain Processing
      • Oats
        • Can be fed whole
        • Processing – minimal improvement in digestion – 0 to 10 percent
        • Easy to feed!
          • Hull acts as a buffer and helps decrease incidence of acidosis
    • Grain Processing
      • Wheat
        • Very rapidly fermented
          • Difficult to feed at high levels
          • Requires excellent bunk management
        • Should be coarse rolled
        • Acidosis likely with fine grinding
    • Grain Processing
      • Field Peas
        • Can be fed whole
        • For optimum feed value, process by rolling or cracking
      • Sorghum
        • Hard seed coat
        • Must be processed
    • Grain Processing
      • Grain Screenings
        • Pigeon grass (foxtail)
          • Grind or roll to crack seed coat
          • Wheat screenings used to have a high content of pigeon grass
        • Cracked kernal
          • Damaged kernels don’t need to be processed
            • Corn screenings are mostly cracked corn
    • Light Test Weight Grains
      • For cattle –
        • feeding quality is similar to normal weight grains
        • Remember, as test weight decreases, starch content decreases and fiber content increases
        • since ruminants ferment both starch and fiber, the net effect is minimal to a point
        • But ---- ethanol yields are lower in an ethanol plant and they discount heavily for light test wt
    • Light Test Weight Grains
      • Comments
        • Extreme light test weight feeds can be discounted in energy content
          • this is an extreme situation and haying the field would be an option
        • As test weight decreases, protein content increases.
    • Grain combinations
      • Blending grains may improve ration digestibility or cattle performance.. or not
      • Concept –Feeding a rumen is like stoking a wood furnace. Nice even burn is best.
        • If blending feeds will create a steady even fermentation then that’s the goal.
    • Grain combinations
      • Most of the time with only one grain, the variability in particle size creates the even fermentation.
      • Ensiled high moisture corn (HMC) mixed with dry rolled corn (DRC) can have a synergistic effect.
          • Mix fast fermenting feeds (HMC) with slower fermenting feeds (DRC)
    • Processing Hay
      • Why grind hay?
        • To allow ration mixing
        • Only slightly higher Dry Matter Intake
        • None or small change in digestibility
          • If it was pulverized and lignin broken and exposed, then digestibility will increase
            • Chemical reaction needed to really work – anhydrous ammonia, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide
    • Processing hay - concerns
      • Particle size to large
        • Poor mixing
      • Particle size to small
        • Lower effective fiber size (need long fiber for cud chewing)
        • Acidosis is likely since cud chewing is reduced
      • Grinding loss – wind loss, heating loss
          • snow/moisture consistency in pile
    • Processing hay
      • Tub grinders
        • Own vs Lease vs Custom
        • Flexibility works with many different forages
      • Vertical Mixers
        • Chop hay prior to ration mixing
        • Works well for high forage rations (40-60%)
          • Great for Backgrounders, dairy
          • Not best choice for finishing rations
            • These mixers require a substantial horsepower tractor
    • Summary
      • Value of Grain processing depends on:
          • Grain type
          • Processing method
          • Diet
          • Performance expectations
      • Hay processing
          • Facilitates ration mixing
    • Feed mixing
    • TMR --Totally Mixed Ration
      • Advantages
        • Complete ration can be delivered to feedbunk
        • Reduced manual labor
      • Disadvantages
        • Equipment cost – mixer, feedbunks (fenceline)
        • Forage must be processed
    • Feedlot Performance -TMR vs. handfed
    • Feedlot Performance -TMR vs. handfed
    • Mixers
      • Silage delivery wagons
        • Not really a mixer
      • Reel Type
      • 3 or 4 Auger
      • Vertical mixer
    • Feed Delivery Wagons
      • Silage Wagons
        • Not designed to mix feed
        • Designed to deliver silage
        • Can layer in and deliver feed
      • May work in backgrounding with high forages - -also works if feed is already mixed before loading into wagon
    • Feed Delivery Wagons
    • Mixers --- reel type
    • Mixer – 3 or 4 auger
    • Mixer – vertical
    • Mixing Order – High Grain diets
      • Grain
      • Dry supplement
      • Forages
      • Fat
      • Molasses or liquid supplement
      • Mix to manufactures guidelines (3-6 min)
    • Mixing Order – Backgrounding diets
      • Grains
      • Pelleted supplement
      • Silage
      • Hay
      • Liquid supplement
      • * add dense feeds first *
    • Mixing Order for Various Mixers Auger/ hay kit Reel Auger MFG #1 Vertical Auger MFG #2 Haylage 3 2 3 4 4 Corn silage 4 3 4 5 1 Hay 1 5 1 1 2 Supplement 5 4 5 2 5 Corn Ref: Dr. Greg Lardy, NDSU and others 2 1 2 3 3
    • Batch size
      • Most mixer operate efficiently at 60-90 % of rated capacity
      • Overloading mixer will not mix
      • Underloading mixers don’t mix well
      • Don’t over mix – separation can occur
    • What should a feed truck/wagon driver do?
      • Monitors feeds and inventories
      • Does dry matters
      • Maintains the mix sheets
      • Mixes and delivers the rations
      • Monitors DMI and orts
      • Watches the cattle
      • Keeps records
      • Shovel bunks, etc
    • Feeder Decisions
      • Determine batch size
        • Adjusted for:
          • Number of head (deads, sold)
          • Feed Refusal
          • Dry Matter content of wet feeds
            • Silages can dry out over time
            • Wet feeds i.e. distillers grains change moisture on loads and over time
          • Batch – errors affect cattle performance!
              • Too much weight, too little - big effect on DM intake
    • Feed Delivery
      • Goal: Deliver rations uniformly along the bunk
      • Do not pile it all at one end
      • Monitor mixing with bunk samples..
    • Feed sorting
      • Will always be some sorting
        • Try to minimize
      • Utilize wet feeds or liquid supplement
        • Improves palatability
        • Decrease fines and dust
      • Ask someone to review your feedstuffs and processing methods
          • What you think is good enough could be better
    • Summary
      • Totally mixed rations TMR
        • Improve performance
        • Improved feed efficiency
      • Processing feeds
        • Improves utilization/ digestion
      • Feed Delivery
        • Keep feed fresh and pay attention to details
    • And one more thing…
      • If you have employees (or need them),
      • Communication is important
      • Identify expectations
      • Share thoughts, training, and stress attention to details