Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Managing Feeder Calf Health
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Managing Feeder Calf Health

  • 1,424 views
Published

Presentation by Charlie Stoltenow, NDSU Extension Service veterinarian. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

Presentation by Charlie Stoltenow, NDSU Extension Service veterinarian. This slideshow was part of the 2011 NDSU Feedlot School.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,424
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Managing Feeder Calf Health Prepared for the 2011 North Dakota Feedlot School January 27, 2010 Charles L. Stoltenow, DVM, Diplomat ACVPM Associate Professor, Animal and Range Sciences Extension Veterinarian
  • 2. All of my health programs start with nutrition. - Tim Richards, DVM, Kamuela, HI
  • 3. Health Programs for Weaned Calves
    • Worming
    • Lice and mange
    • Vaccinations
    • Methaphylaxis
    • Sick pens
    • Biosecurity
  • 4. Percent of all cattle experiencing health problems at feedlots after arrival
    • Respiratory disease 14.4
    • Digestive problems 1.9
    • Bullers 2.2
    • Lameness 1.9
    • Central Nervous System 0.4
    -NAHMS Feedlot Study, 1999
  • 5. Bovine Pneumonia
  • 6. Preventing Disease
    • Preventing exposure
    • Preventing infection
      • Passive immunity (colostrum)
      • Acquired immunity
        • Natural exposure
        • Vaccination
          • Efficacious vaccine
          • Immunocompetent animal
  • 7. Vaccinations Risk Management
  • 8. Wild-type Virus
  • 9. Modified-Live Virus
  • 10. Killed Virus
  • 11. Type of Vaccine
    • Modified Live
      • Strong immune response
      • Fewer doses required
      • Interferon production
      • Cell mediated immunity
      • Resemble pathogenic form more closely
    • Killed
      • More stable in storage
      • Unlikely to cause disease due to residual virulence or reversion of virulence
  • 12. Challenge vs. Resistance Antibody needed for Resistance Challenge to the Immune System Time Amount of Antibody Present in Serum
  • 13. Challenge vs. Resistance Antibody needed for Resistance Challenge to the Immune System Disease Time Amount of Antibody Present in Serum
  • 14. Challenge vs. Resistance Antibody needed for Resistance Challenge to the Immune System Disease Time Amount of Antibody Present in Serum
  • 15. Challenge vs. Resistance Antibody needed for Resistance Challenge to the Immune System Disease Time Amount of Antibody Present in Serum
  • 16. Challenge vs. Resistance Antibody needed for Resistance Challenge to the Immune System Time Amount of Antibody Present in Serum
  • 17. Response to One Dose of Vaccine Antibody needed for Resistance
  • 18. Response to Two Doses of Vaccine Antibody needed for Resistance “ Insurance Policy”
  • 19. Vaccine Failure
    • Animal already incubating the disease
    • Passive transfer interference
    • Wrong vaccine for condition
    • Vaccine administered incorrectly
    • Vaccine temperature abused
    • Vaccine outdated
    • Animal can not mount appropriate response
  • 20. Animal Cannot Mount Response to Vaccine
    • Pre-existing condition
    • Inappropriate age of animal
    • Number of doses
    • Stressed condition
      • Increased cortisol
      • Decreased immunity
      • Sub-optimal nutrition
  • 21. Common Vaccines for Calves
    • Clostridia
    • IBR
    • BVD
    • PI3
    • BRSV
    • Mannheimia
    • Pasteurella
  • 22. Clostridial Diseases
    • Cl. chauvoei (blackleg)
    • Cl. septicum (malignant edema)
    • Cl. haemolyticum (red water)
    • Cl. novyi (Black’s disese)
    • Cl. sordellii (sore head)
    • Cl. perfringens C&D (and B) (over eating)
  • 23. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
    • Fever
    • Lethargic - standing/lying in the corner
    • Coughing
    • Nasal discharge
    • Open mouth breathing
    • Hyperemic muzzle (red nose)
  • 24. Bovine Viral Diarrhea
    • Immunosuppressive
    • Associated with Mannheimia haemolytica
  • 25. Consequences of a PI
    • Presence of PI in cattle feedyards adversely affects health and performance of pen-mates and cattle in nearby pens
      • 0.3% prevalence of PI in feedlot cattle
      • 2.6% of chronically ill and dead are PI
      • 15.9% of BRD attributed to PI exposure
    • Beef cow herds with one or more PI calves present before breeding had a 5% lower subsequent pregnancy rate.
  • 26. Parainfluenza Type 3
    • Fever
    • Cough
    • Nasal discharge (snotty nose)
    • Ocular discharge (runny eyes)
    • Increased respiration
    • Predisposes animal to subsequent infection
  • 27. Bovine Respiratory Syncitial Virus
    • Fever (104-108 0 F)
    • Depressed
    • Off feed
    • Increased respiration
    • Hypersalivation (drooling)
    • Nasal discharge (snotty nose)
    • Lacrimal discharge (runny eyes)
  • 28. Mannheimia and Pasteurella
    • Mannheimia haemolytica
    • Pasteurella multocida
    • Severity of signs more pronounced
      • Nasal discharge (snotty nose)
      • Dyspnea (difficult breathing)
      • High fever
      • Depressed (head and ears held low)
      • Toxemia
    • Host immune response aids in tissue reaction
  • 29. Vaccines for Cattle Entering Feedlot
    • ESSENTIAL
      • IBR (modified live)
    • May be useful
      • Mannheimia sp.
      • Clostridial bacterins
    • Highly Recommended
      • BRSV (modified live)
      • BVD (modified live)
      • PI3 (modified live)
  • 30. Morbidity Rates by Source Agri-Practice, 1992
    • Auction 36%
    • Ranch 14%
    • Pre-conditioned 2.8%
  • 31. Metaphylaxis
    • Treating animals with antibiotics at labeled rates before animal becomes ill
    • Short term treatment
    • Micotil ®, Nulfor® Excede ® and Tetradure®
  • 32. Effect of timing of Tilmicosin metaphylaxis on control of bovine respiratory disease and performance in feeder cattle Elanco, 1999 Item Control Preshipment Postshipment No Animals/Pen 100/10 100/10 100/10 BRD Morbidity 54 29 15 Days to 1 st BRD 3.5 10.3 15.3 Treat Succ. % 41/54 (75.9) 24/29 (82.8) 12/15 (80.0) Treat Fail. % 13/54 (24.1) 5/29 (17.2) 3/15 (20.0) BRD Mortality 2 0 0 Initial Weight 437.4 448.1 440.2 28 Day Weight 525.8 537.1 534.0 Weight Gain 88.5 89.0 93.9 ADG 3.16 3.18 3.35 DMI 11.4 12.3 12.4 Feed/Gain 3.70 3.98 3.93
  • 33. Bacterial Receptor Sites
    • Group 1
      • Draxxin
      • Nuflor
      • Micotil
    • Group 2
      • A180
      • Baytril
  • 34. *EstimatedAntibiotic Costs 500 lbs, one time
    • Metaphylaxis
      • Nuflor 15 ml SC 2 days $ 8.25
      • Micotil 7.5 ml SC 2 days 8.97
      • Excede 7.5 ml SC 3 days 13.12
      • Tetradure 15 ml SC 7 days 4.15
    • Treatment
      • Draxxin 5.7 ml SC 10 days 21.42
      • A180 7.5 ml SC 2 days 8.18
      • Baytril 10 ml SC 2 days 6.62
      • ResFlor Gold 30 ml SC once 18.85
      • Banamine 5 ml IV once 1.40
    *January 22, 2011
  • 35. Treating Disease
    • Recognize sick animals
    • Make the correct diagnosis
    • Use the correct therapy
    • Give the animals time to get well
    • Get rid of the unproductive animals
    • Learn from experience
  • 36. Recognizing Disease
    • Appetite depression (not in the feed bunk)
    • Increase in body temperature
    • Generalized depression
    • Stiff gait
    • Cough
    • Watery eyes, runny nose
  • 37. Correct Diagnosis
    • Clinical observation
    • Sampling of live animals
      • Nasal swab
      • Serology
    • Necropsy of dead animals
      • Veterinarian
      • Feedlot personnel
    • Analysis of records
    • Diagnostic laboratory
  • 38. NDSU VDL Antibiotic Resistance Patterns for Mannheimia , 2006 n=298 Drug % Resistant % Susceptible % Intermediate Polyflex 17.1 82.9 0.0 Naxcel/Excede 0.0 100.0 0.0 Baytril 0.0 97.5 2.5 Nuflor 0.0 97.5 2.5 Micotil 5.0 90.0 5.0 Gentocin LA200 7.5 77.5 15.0 TMZ-SMZ 22.0 78.0 0.0 Penicillin 17.1 22.0 61.0 Amiglyde
  • 39. Respiratory Illness Treatment
    • Develop treatment schedule with your VETERINARIAN
    • Sick animals need a sick pen
      • Enough space for treating 5 days
    • Consider re-vaccination
      • Attack rate > 5% per day
      • Response to 1st time antibiotic therapy < 80%
  • 40. Arrival Protocol Example
    • Arrival
      • Metaphylaxis
      • 4-way MLV vaccine
        • Booster in seven days
      • Parasiticide Internal/External
    • 28 days later
      • Castrate
      • Implant
      • Clostridials
  • 41. Illness Protocol Example
    • Illness
      • Day One Antibiotic & Banamine
      • Day Three Antibiotic & Banamine
      • Day Five Big Gun Antibiotic???
      • Day Seven Realizer pen
    • Heavy Cattle
      • Naxcel
  • 42. Mannheimia hemolytica in Market Stressed Cattle After Natural Infection Current Microbiology 1988
    • Risk of Stress and Commingling
      • Mannheimia hemolytica produces substances in stressed cattle allowing the organism to be more pathogenic
      • Neuraminidase produced in market stressed cattle after a natural Mannheimia hemolytica infection
      • Neuraminidases play a role in adhesion of organisms to host epithelial cells.
  • 43. What does a sick animal cost?
    • Feedlot
      • Sick animal $90/animal
        • Medical costs $30
        • Decreased efficiency $60
    *Texas A&M Ranch to Rail Program
  • 44. Mycoplasma bovis
    • Clinical Signs
      • Pneumonia
      • Mastitis
      • Polyarthritis
    • Difficult to Treat
      • Extracellular
      • No cell wall
      • Adhere to cells
      • Toxins
      • Hemolysins, proteases, nucleases and neurotoxins ?
    • Treatment
      • Few antibiotics work
      • Those that may
        • Enrofloxacin
        • Florfenicol
        • Spectinomycin
        • Tetracycline
        • Draxxin
    • Clean-up
      • Survive many days when protected from sunlight
  • 45. Coccidiosis
    • Intracellular parasite
    • Complex life cycle (dose dependent)
    • Symptoms
      • Diarrhea (bloody)
      • Neurologic
      • Respiratory???? (predisposition)
    • Treatment
      • Amprolium, sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline
    • Prevention
      • Decoquinate, monensin