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Aan eararm nepal- 2009 Aan eararm nepal- 2009 Document Transcript

  • EARARM – AA Nepal ACTIONAID NEPAL EMERGENCY ALERT, REVIEW AND RESPONSE MECHANISM (EARARM) Shyam.Jnavaly@actionaid.org Senior Theme Leader, Human Security, Emergency and DRR Background Nepal is a disaster prone country due her steep terrain, a rugged and fragile geomorphic condition, high peaks and slopes, volatile tectonic processes, variable climatic condition, increasing population, poor economic condition, unplanned settlement, low literacy rate and very rural topography. Disaster like earthquake, floods, landslides, lighting, glaciers lake outburst flood, avalanche, epidemics often occur time to time causing enormous physical damages and human life losses. Nepal ranks 11th in terms of risk from earthquake, and 30th in terms of flood risk according to global report on disaster risk. Various hazards in Nepal Nepal’s landscape is predominantly composed of hills and mountains, covering about 83% of the total area of the country. All part of the mountains exposed to landslide during monsoon period. Most parts of middle mountains and terai are exposed to severe flooding. Most of the rivers suffer from erosion. Middle mountain also exposed to debris flow. Floods, landslides and avalanches, which are triggered by heavy precipitation, cause 29% of the total annual death of people and 43% of the total loss of properties from different types of disaster in Nepal. Glacier lakes in Nepal are becoming much larger than in previous times due to global warming. A study conducted by International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) points out that “20 lakes in Nepal are potentially dangerous. The lives of tens of thousands of people who live high in the mountains and in downstream communities could be at severe risk. All of Nepal is a high-risk earthquake zone. Regions north of Kathmandu as well as in Mid-Western Nepal, is under higher risk of very big earthquake than eastern Nepal. Out of 21 cities around the world that lie in seismic zones, the Nepali capital is at the highest risk of death, destruction, and un-preparedness mostly due to an uncontrolled urban development with a 6.5% annual growth rate and a large number of poor quality of building construction each year. The next big earthquake is expected to cause at least 40,000 deaths, 95,000 injuries and would leave an estimated 600,000-900,000 homeless in Kathmandu. (Ref: http://www.nepaldisaster.org/download/Hazard.pdf.) Droughts, windstorm, cloudburst, hailstorms, fires, epidemics and lightning are some other types of disasters prominent in Nepal. A wide range of physiological, geological, ecological, meteorological and demographic factors contribute to the vulnerability of the country to disasters. Other major factors contributing to disasters are rapid population growth, slow economic development, high degree of environmental degradation, fragility of the land mass and high elevation of the mountain slopes. Disasters and Emergencies Engagements of ActionAid Nepal AA has been working in Nepal since 1982. AAN is the Country Program of AA International. It has been working in 37 districts of Nepal in conjunction with 28 long-term partners and a number of short-term partners in 40 districts of Nepal. In 1996, ActionAid Nepal (AAN) changed its approach from direct service delivery to partnerships with local NGOs through a rights-based approach. AAN's rights-holders are the poorest and the most marginalized, particularly women, children, Dalits, ex-bonded labourers, disaster affected people, conflict victims, urban poor, land tenants, the disabled and people living with HIV/AIDS. AAN works at the grassroots to address the immediate conditions of the poorest and the most marginalized people, as well as at the national level through various advocacy programs in order to influence public policies and practices in favour of its rights-holders. Disaster vulnerability is one of the contributing factors in aggravating and perpetuating poverty in Nepal. Hence, AAN has recognized 'Emergency and Disaster Management' as one of its cross-cutting initiatives. AAN's goal in emergency and disaster management is both preventive and curative. It entails risk reduction by addressing the issue of vulnerability and hazards, increasing capacity of poor, marginalized and the vulnerable groups in collaboration with appropriate institutions to influence the development actors to come out with a regular program to deal with disaster. AAN broadly translates its commitments in emergency and disaster management through Creation of Information Base/MIS, Capacity Building, Building Alliances and Resource Mobilization. 1
  • EARARM – AA Nepal ActionAid has successfully implemented two projects in Nepal under DIPECHO 3rd and 4th Action Plan for South Asia, directly reaching out to more than 125,000 disaster vulnerable people to improve their coping capacity and resilience to disasters, thereby gaining considerable experience in implementing DIPECHO projects in the country. In addition, ActionAid has been involved in promoting DRR through the DRR through Schools projects being implemented in Nepal since 2006 and the core support from the Emergency and Disaster Management Theme according to the Country Strategy Paper III of Nepal. ActionAid Nepal has also been responding to numerous major and minor disasters in its operational areas, including the Kosi river flood of 2008, though various supports such as food and non food relief distribution, shelter health and nutrition and shelter. All the above engagements indicate the increasing focus and commitment of AA Nepal to alleviate the distress of poor and marginalised people facing the brunt of natural and manmade disasters in their daily life. However the experiences and learning from our previous engagements reveals the needs for a better preparedness at the organisational level in order to respond to large scale emergencies swiftly and effectively. The ‘Emergency Alert Review and Response Mechanism (EARARM) is the emergency preparedness tool of ActionAid being used internationally, which guides our emergency preparedness and response operations in the country. EARARM is a live document which will be updated periodically in order to accommodate the dynamic disaster scenarios in the Nepal. Based on the frequency, impact, scope of intervention and the expertise of ActionAid Nepal flood, earthquake, conflict, drought, landslides and fire disasters have been considered to be included in the National EARARM of Nepal. Other localised disasters would be included in the DI level EARARMS where ever it is an issue of concern. 2
  • EARARM – AA Nepal EMERGENCY ALERT, REVIEW AND RESPONSE MECHANISM –AA NEPAL Country: Nepal Date: 19.03.2009 SECTION I Population by Region/Districts (Source: Central Bureau of statistics, National Report 2001) Area Population2001 Number of Number Percent Households Total Male Female Total Nepal 23,151,423 11,563,921 11,587,502 100.00 4,253,220 Eastern Dev. Region 5,344,476 2,670,622 2,673,854 23.08 1,012,968 Central Dev. Region 8,031,629 4,109,059 3,922,570 34.69 1,475,477 Western Dev. Region 4,571,013 2,198,170 2,372,843 19.74 863,045 Mid-western Dev. Region 3,012,975 1,500,526 1,512,449 13.01 534,310 Far-western Dev. Region 2,191,330 1,085,544 1,105,786 9.47 367,420 Mountain 1,687,859 837,060 850,799 7.29 319,887 Hill 10,251,111 5,016,802 5,234,309 44.28 1,982,753 Tarai 11,212,453 5,710,059 5,502,394 48.43 1,950,580 Eastern Mountain 401,587 197,231 204,356 1.73 77,197 Central Mountain 554,817 275,330 279,487 2.40 112,313 Western Mountain 24,568 13,214 11,354 0.11 5,019 Mid-western Mountain 309,084 156,984 152,100 1.34 55,363 Far-western Mountain 397,803 194,301 203,502 1.72 69,995 Eastern Hill 1,643,246 807,949 835,297 7.10 309,149 Central Hill 3,542,732 1,800,082 1,742,650 15.30 692,255 Western Hill 2,793,180 1,298,051 1,495,129 12.06 568,898 Mid-western Hill 1,473,022 723,698 749,324 6.36 269,614 Far-western Hill 798,931 387,022 411,909 3.45 142,837 Eastern Tarai 3,299,643 1,665,442 1,634,201 14.25 626,622 Central Tarai 3,934,080 2,033,647 1,900,433 16.99 670,909 Western Tarai 1,753,265 886,905 866,360 7.57 289,128 Mid-western Tarai 1,230,869 619,844 611,025 5.32 209,333 Far-western Tarai 994,596 504,221 490,375 4.30 154,588 Eastern Mountain 401,587 197,231 204,356 1.73 77,197 Taplejung 134,698 66,205 68,493 0.58 24,764 Sankhuwasabha 159,203 77,853 81,350 0.69 30,766 Solukhumbu 107,686 53,173 54,513 0.47 21,667 Eastern Hill 1,643,246 807,949 835,297 7.10 309,149 Panchthar 202,056 99,042 103,014 0.87 37,260 Ilam 282,806 142,434 140,372 1.22 54,565 Dhankuta 166,479 81,841 84,638 0.72 32,571 Terhathum 113,111 54,932 58,179 0.49 20,682 Bhojpur 203,018 97,762 105,256 0.88 39,481 Okhaldhunga 156,702 75,361 81,341 0.68 30,121 Khotang 231,385 112,821 118,564 1.00 42,866 Udayapur 287,689 143,756 143,933 1.24 51,603 Eastern Tarai 3,299,643 1,665,442 1,634,201 14.25 626,622 Jhapa* 688,109 341,675 346,434 2.97 137,301 Morang 843,220 422,895 420,325 3.64 167,875 Sunsari 625,633 315,530 310,103 2.70 120,295 Saptari 570,282 291,409 278,873 2.46 101,141 Siraha* 572,399 293,933 278,466 2.47 100,010 Central Mountain 554,817 275,330 279,487 2.40 112,313 Dolakha* 204,229 99,963 104,266 0.88 43,165 3
  • EARARM – AA Nepal Sindhupalchok* 305,857 152,012 153,845 1.32 60,452 Rasuwa 44,731 23,355 21,376 0.19 8,696 Central Hill 3,542,732 1,800,082 1,742,650 15.30 692,255 Sindhuli* 279,821 139,280 140,541 1.21 48,758 Ramechhap 212,408 100,853 111,555 0.92 40,386 Kavrepalanchok 385,672 188,947 196,725 1.67 70,509 Lalitpur 337,785 172,455 165,330 1.46 68,922 Bhaktapur 225,461 114,798 110,663 0.97 41,253 Kathmandu 1,081,845 576,010 505,835 4.67 235,387 Nuwakot 288,478 142,731 145,747 1.25 53,169 Dhading 338,658 165,864 172,794 1.46 62,759 Central Tarai 3,934,080 2,033,647 1,900,433 16.99 670,909 Dhanusa 671,364 349,422 321,942 2.90 117,417 Mahottari 553,481 287,905 265,576 2.39 94,229 Sarlahi 635,701 329,182 306,519 2.75 111,076 Rautahat 545,132 282,246 262,886 2.35 88,162 Bara 559,135 289,397 269,738 2.42 87,706 Parsa 497,219 260,411 236,808 2.15 79,456 Chitawan 472,048 235,084 236,964 2.04 92,863 Western Mountain 24,568 13,214 11,354 0.11 5,019 Manang 9,587 5,034 4,553 0.04 1,776 Mustang 14,981 8,180 6,801 0.06 3,243 Western Hill 2,793,180 1,298,051 1,495,129 12.06 568,898 Gorkha 288,134 134,407 153,727 1.24 58,923 Lamjung 177,149 83,406 93,743 0.77 36,525 Tanahu 315,237 146,788 168,449 1.36 62,898 Syangja 317,320 143,619 173,701 1.37 64,746 Kaski 380,527 184,995 195,532 1.64 85,075 Myagdi 114,447 53,178 61,269 0.49 24,435 Parbat 157,826 72,942 84,884 0.68 32,731 Baglung 268,937 123,528 145,409 1.16 53,565 Gulmi 296,654 133,771 162,883 1.28 59,189 Palpa 268,558 125,068 143,490 1.16 49,942 Arghakhanchi 208,391 96,349 112,042 0.90 40,869 WesternTarai 1,753,265 886,905 866,360 7.57 289,128 Nawalparasi 562,870 278,257 284,613 2.43 98,340 Rupandehi 708,419 360,773 347,646 3.06 117,856 Kapilbastu 481,976 247,875 234,101 2.08 72,932 Mid-western Mountain 309,084 156,984 152,100 1.34 55,363 Dolpa* 29,545 14,735 14,810 0.13 5,812 Jumla* 89,427 45,848 43,579 0.39 15,850 Kalikot* 105,580 53,189 52,391 0.46 18,487 Mugu* 43,937 22,250 21,687 0.19 8,261 Humla 40,595 20,962 19,633 0.18 6,953 Mid-western Hill 1,473,022 723,698 749,324 6.36 269,614 Pyuthan 212,484 98,390 114,094 0.92 40,183 Rolpa 210,004 101,592 108,412 0.91 38,512 Rukum 188,438 95,432 93,006 0.81 33,501 Salyan* 213,500 106,834 106,666 0.92 38,084 Surkhet* 288,527 142,817 145,710 1.25 54,047 Dailekh 225,201 110,125 115,076 0.97 41,140 Jajarkot 134,868 68,508 66,360 0.58 24,147 Mid-western Tarai 1,230,869 619,844 611,025 5.32 209,333 Dang 462,380 228,958 233,422 2.00 82,495 Banke 385,840 198,231 187,609 1.67 67,269 Bardiya 382,649 192,655 189,994 1.65 59,569 Far-western Mountain 397,803 194,301 203,502 1.72 69,995 Bajura* 108,781 53,834 54,947 0.47 20,378 Bajhang 167,026 80,676 86,350 0.72 28,588 Darchula 121,996 59,791 62,205 0.53 21,029 Far-western Hill 798,931 387,022 411,909 3.45 142,837 Achham 231,285 108,998 122,287 1.00 44,005 Doti 207,066 103,521 103,545 0.89 36,465 Dadeldhura 126,162 60,965 65,197 0.54 21,980 Baitadi 234,418 113,538 120,880 1.01 40,387 Far-western Tarai 994,596 504,221 490,375 4.30 154,588 Kailali 616,697 312,311 304,386 2.66 94,430 4
  • EARARM – AA Nepal Kanchanpur 377,899 191,910 185,989 1.63 60,158 SECTION II : HAZARDS PROFILE Hazards Flood/ Earthquake Conflict Drought Landslide Fire Flash floods Geographica Mid Hills Kathmandu valley Plane of Western Central hills Terai and l regions hit Inner Terai hills Terai, Nepal High Bhabar, Southern Terai Bhabhar Hill Terai Following Pradesh The Siwaliks districts are Pahade/Thar or the inner more vulnerable u Terai, Achham Vs Madhesi Arghakhanchi Hindu Muslim the Middle Bajhang Armed rebel Mountains, Bajura for free Dadeldhura Madhesh The High Dang Movement Mountains Darchula regions. Dhankuta Dolpa Doti Humla Ilam Jhapa Jumla Kaski Kailali Kanchanpur Kapilbastu Kathmandu Kavrepalanchok Khotang Lamjung Mahottari Makawanpur Morang Mustang Myagdi Nuwakot Okhaldhunga Panchthar Parbat Parsa Pyuthan Ramechhap Rautahat Rolpa Salyan Sankhuwasabha Saptari Sarlahi Sindhuli Sindhupalchok Solukhumbu Sunsari Taplejung Terathum Udayapur 5
  • EARARM – AA Nepal Months of July- September No specific time Ongoing March-July July February-Mid occurrence* -September June Warning 2-3 days No early warning Unanticipated 2-3 months 2-3 days time (For flash floods time between 12-24 hours) start of hazard and impact Early Warning Information Formal Meteorological No sources. Situation Agriculture Meteorologic sources department, Estimation by Reports of Department al DWIP, MOHA, JICA/MOHA/NSE UNOCHA, . FAO, department, DPNet, District T and USAID for Media, DPNet DWIP, Disaster Centres/ Kathmandu Valley MOHA, Networks Earthquake DPNet, Mapping Project District Disaster Centres/Netw orks Community Displacement Failure of Continuous indicators to Monsoon guess - crops, rainfall, be Observation of Restriction on monitored dam/barrages mobility shortage of heavy Inundation of fodder for snowfall, fields, roads, etc; ‘Movement of animals, cadres’ closure of water levels in ‘movement of absence of roads due to local streams army/security rainfall minor and lands forces’ since about landslides six months, any migration ‘security incidents’ dried up streams, Hartals lack of Public drinking appeals water in water taps Other Occasional News group, Occasional Occasional sources reports and flash Web blogs, reports and reports and reports by DFID/GTZ, flash flash reports different RMO reports by by different agencies Police different agencies CBOs agencies CBOs NGOs CBOs NGOs Media NGOs Media Media 6
  • EARARM – AA Nepal SECTION III: AAN POLICY, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE PROFILE Flood/ Earthquake Conflict Drought Landslide Fire Hazards Flash floods Policy Work Current Future Engage with Engage with Engage with Engage with Engage with Possible GoN for GoN for GoN for GoN for GoN for ensuring the ensuring the ensuring the ensuring the ensuring the implementation implementation implementation implementation implementation of National of National of National of National of National Strategy for Strategy for Strategy for Strategy for Strategy for Disaster Risk Disaster Risk Disaster Risk Disaster Risk Disaster Risk Management Management Management Management Management Facilitate a Facilitate a Facilitate a Facilitate a Facilitate a community community community community community consultative consultative consultative consultative consultative process to process to process to process to process to review the review the draft review the review the review the draft draft disaster disaster draft disaster draft disaster disaster management management management management management Act and Act and Act and Act and Act and Disaster Disaster Disaster Disaster Disaster Management Management Management Management Management Policy to Policy to Policy to Policy to Policy to incorporate incorporate incorporate incorporate incorporate community community community community community views. views. views. views. views. Join with other Join with other Join with other Join with other Join with other stakeholders in stakeholders in stakeholders in stakeholders in stakeholders in influencing the influencing the influencing the influencing the influencing the government for government for government for government for government for the enactment the enactment the enactment the enactment the enactment of the Disaster of the Disaster of the Disaster of the Disaster of the Disaster Management Management Management Management Management Act Disaster Act Disaster Act Disaster Act Disaster Act Disaster Management Management Management Management Management Policy which Policy which Policy which Policy which Policy which was drafted in was drafted in was drafted in was drafted in was drafted in 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 Advocate for the strict enactment for building codes Community Preparedness and Resilience Building Work Current Immediate School safety Immediate Immediate Immediate relief support programs in relief support relief support relief support to people selected public to people to people to people affected by schools with affected by affected by affected by various natural the support of various natural various natural various natural and manmade NSET to make and manmade and manmade and manmade 7
  • EARARM – AA Nepal disasters. schools safer disasters. disasters. disasters. against Initiated earthquakes. Initiated Initiated Initiated disaster safety disaster safety disaster safety disaster safety net campaign Initiated net campaign net campaign net campaign in Nepal, in disaster safety in Nepal, in in Nepal, in in Nepal, in collaboration net campaign collaboration collaboration collaboration with local in Nepal, in with local with local with local NGOs and collaboration NGOs and NGOs and NGOs and other with local other other other stakeholders, NGOs and stakeholders, stakeholders, stakeholders, to address the other to address the to address the to address the issues of stakeholders, issues of issues of issues of vulnerability to address the vulnerability vulnerability vulnerability and hazards of issues of and hazards of and hazards of and hazards of the poor, vulnerability the poor, the poor, the poor, excluded and and hazards of excluded and excluded and excluded and vulnerable the poor, vulnerable vulnerable vulnerable groups. excluded and groups. groups. groups. vulnerable Introduced groups. Introduced Introduced Introduced DRR through DRR through DRR through DRR through school Introduced school school school program as an DRR through program as an program as an program as an innovative school program innovative innovative innovative initiative for as an initiative for initiative for initiative for community innovative community community community resilience. initiative for resilience. resilience. resilience. community With the resilience. With the With the With the support of support of support of support of DIPECHO With the DIPECHO DIPECHO DIPECHO successfully support of successfully successfully successfully implemented DIPECHO implemented implemented implemented community successfully community community community resilience implemented resilience resilience resilience building community building building building programs in 3 resilience programs in 3 programs in 3 programs in 3 phases. building phases. phases. phases. Through these programs in 3 Through these Through these Through these programs phases. programs programs programs communities Through these communities communities communities are better programs are better are better are better prepared for communities prepared for prepared for prepared for disaster events are better disaster events disaster events disaster events and the prepared for and the and the and the capacity has disaster events capacity has capacity has capacity has been built to and the been built to been built to been built to mitigate the capacity has mitigate the mitigate the mitigate the impacts of been built to impacts of impacts of impacts of disasters. mitigate the disasters. disasters. disasters. impacts of Successfully disasters. Successfully Successfully Successfully working working working working towards Successfully towards towards towards incorporating working incorporating incorporating incorporating disaster towards disaster disaster disaster education in incorporating education in education in education in 8
  • EARARM – AA Nepal school disaster school school school curriculum. education in curriculum. curriculum. curriculum. school Training curriculum. Training Training Training community in community in community in community in first aid, Training first aid, first aid, first aid, disaster risk community in disaster risk disaster risk disaster risk management, first aid, management, management, management, search and disaster risk search and search and search and rescue to management, rescue to rescue to rescue to effectively search and effectively effectively effectively respond to rescue to respond to respond to respond to disasters and effectively disasters and disasters and disasters and reducing the respond to reducing the reducing the reducing the impact. disasters and impact impact impact reducing the impact. Earthquake preparedness plans are prepared for some communities. Future Improve Improve Conduct Facilitate Improve Improve Possible community community participatory Participatory community community awareness on awareness on vulnerability Vulnerability awareness on awareness and hazards and hazards and Analysis Analysis for hazards and sensitization vulnerability vulnerability ( PVA)which community vulnerability programs on and support for and support for would build analysis of the and support for the causes and better better the vulnerabilities better management preparedness preparedness community and preparedness of fire disasters and risk and risk capacity to addressing the and risk perception perception analyze and root cause of perception Build the through through various address vulnerabilities. through capacity of various programs. conflicts. various community programs. Improve programs. through Train local More community training and Facilitate masons and engagements awareness on Increase the formation of Participatory carpenters in to strengthen hazards and capacity of the local cadres of Vulnerability earth quake the traditional vulnerability community to firefighting Analysis for resistant conflict and support for analyze their volunteers. community house/building resolution better vulnerabilities analysis of the constructions mechanisms preparedness and in Promote vulnerabilities and risk managing the sustainable and Retrofitting the Capacity perception disasters land use addressing the schools to building on through through PVA practices which root cause of resist earth conflict various and other reduces the vulnerabilities. quakes resolution for programs. participatory fire disasters various tools Develop stakeholders Encourage Identify and community Initiating and Conducting community strengthen based disaster Improving the strengthening PVA to build forestry locally preparedness participation the community the capacity of projects for accessible plans of youth in based early community in improved community the conflict warning identifying and community based early Create a cadre mitigation. systems addressing the participation in warning of search and cause of forest fire systems to rescue Peace Work towards vulnerably at fighting 9
  • EARARM – AA Nepal reduce the loss volunteers in building improving the different levels. due to floods. each villages activities food security of Promoting which brings poor families Initiating and increased Set up village Promote together through strengthening vegetation funds for community different livelihood the community through tree supporting based DRR religious supports. based early plantations poor families activities and groups to Promote warning during mitigation increase the diversification systems disasters measures coexistence of livelihoods as a means to Encourage Support for increase the diversification setting up resilience of of livelihood community communities sources as a managed seed towards crop strategy for banks and failures due to increasing grain banks droughts community’s resilience to Encourage Support for disasters good land use setting up practices community Support the managed seed community Invest on small banks and grain bank scale structural grain banks system for mitigation better infrastructures Promote resilience at the rainwater communities harvesting Preserving practices in the forest and Work towards communities afforestation improving the activities food security of promote poor families drought through resistant livelihood varieties of supports. seeds in the Promote vulnerable diversification communities of livelihoods as a means to Support for increase the small scale resilience of irrigation communities infrastructures. towards crop failures due to Introducing floods improved farming Construction of techniques and disaster inputs which shelters with would reduce basic facilities the to be used in vulnerability of time of farmers to displacement disasters due to floods. Create a cadre of search and rescue 10
  • EARARM – AA Nepal volunteers in each villages Increase awareness on general health and hygiene practices and malnutrition of children through training programs and awareness campaigns. Flood/ Hazards Earthquake Conflict Drought Landslide Fire Flash floods Geographical Areas AAN will cover In Emergency Response Minor crisis In current DA In current DA In current DA In current In current In current DA area area area DA area DA area area Medium In the districts In the districts In the districts In the In the In the districts crisis where AAN has where AAN has where AAN districts districts where AAN presence presence has presence where AAN where AAN has presence has has presence presence National Anywhere in the Anywhere in the Anywhere in Anywhere in Anywhere in Anywhere in crisis country (as country (as the country (as the country the country the country decided by the decided by the decided by the (as decided (as decided (as decided by management) in management) in management) by the by the the coordination with coordination in coordination management management management) other agencies with other with other ) in ) in in coordination agencies agencies coordination coordination with other with other with other agencies agencies agencies Average Number of People to be Assisted in Emergency Response Minor crisis Medium crisis National crisis 11
  • EARARM – AA Nepal Sectors AAN will cover in Emergency Response Flood/ Earthquake Conflict Drought Landslide Fire Flash floods Minor crisis Food Food Food Food Food Food relief Non food Non Food relief Non food relief Nutrition Nutrition Non Food relief Health Psycho social Relief Nutrition Nutrition care Shelter Medium Food Food Food Food Food Food relief crisis Nutrition Nutrition Non Food Nutrition Nutrition Non Food Health Non food Nutrition Health Health Relief Water Health Health Water Sanitation Livelihood Sanitation Water & Psycho social Livelihood Livelihood support DRR Sanitation care DRR DRR DRR Capacity Shelter Livelihood Capacity Capacity Capacity building Livelihood CRR building building Building Psycho social Capacity care building DRR Capacity building National Food Food Food Food Food Food relief crisis Non Food Nutrition Non Food Nutrition Nutrition Non Food Nutrition Non Food Nutrition Health Health Relief Health Health Health Water Sanitation Livelihood Water Water Psycho social Livelihood Livelihood support Sanitation Sanitation care DRR Psycho Social DRR Psycho Psycho social Protection Capacity Care Capacity social care care Livelihood building DRR Building Livelihood Livelihood CRR Capacity DRR DRR Capacity building Capacity Capacity building building building Indicative Budgets Minor crisis Medium crisis National crisis Amount DA/CP allocated for human securities for 2009 is …………£ In a medium level disaster IECT may contribute additional £ 40,000 and £100,000 to be mobilized from other donors In a major level disaster IECT may contribute additional £ 40,000 and £200,000 to be mobilized from other donors 12
  • EARARM – AA Nepal SECTORAL DETAILS – POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES/SECTOR Flood/ Earthquake Conflict Drought Landslide Fire Flash floods Possible Need Search and Need Need Search and activities/ Assessment rescue Assessment Assessment rescue Need sector Assessment Quick Search and Quick Assess the Mobilise local assessment to rescue assessment needs of resources for Comprehensive assess the people at risk to people who search and need assessment immediate understand are affected rescue to inform on the needs in the Need the by drought operations. needs of aftermath of Assessment immediate intervention flood and needs during AA Need subsequent Quick aftermath of Imperatives Assessment AA Imperatives comprehensive assessment conflict and assessment for to assess the subsequent Water Quick and rough Food Relief effective immediate comprehensi Provide assessment to Providing food interventions needs in the ve drinking assess the supplies to the aftermath of assessment water for immediate needs most needy and AA Imperatives earthquake for effective needy in the aftermath vulnerable and interventions families. of families, with Food Relief subsequent landslide/mountai special focus on Providing food comprehensi AA Priorities n slip and vulnerable supplies to the ve AA subsequent groups like most needy and assessment Imperatives comprehensive children, vulnerable for effective Livelihood assessment for pregnant women, families, with interventions Food Relief Providing effective disabled elders special focus on Providing support for interventions and PLHA vulnerable AA food supplies restoration of AA Priorities groups like Imperatives to the most livelihood AA Imperatives children, needy and Livelihood pregnant Food Relief vulnerable Promote and Food Relief women, disabled Providing families, with support Providing food Providing elders and food supplies special focus rainwater supplies to the livelihood support PLHA to the most on vulnerable harvesting most needy and to whose needy and groups like projects vulnerable livelihoods are Non Food relief vulnerable children, families, with destroyed in fire Provide non families, with pregnant AA special focus on food relief such special focus women, constants vulnerable Psycho Social as blankets, on vulnerable disabled groups like Care house hold groups like elders and Using PVA to children, Providing psycho utensils, sanitary children, PLHA facilitate pregnant women, social care to the kit for women pregnant community disabled, elders affected families etc. With special women, Non Food action on and PLHA priority to disabled relief preparednes AA constants pregnant elders and Provide non s Non Food relief women, elders PLHA food relief Provide non food Capacity and other such as Capacity relief such as Building vulnerable Non Food blankets, Building blankets, house Establishing and groups relief house hold hold utensils, training to Provide non utensils, Building the sanitary kit for Disaster Health food relief sanitary kit capacity of women etc. With Management such as for women local special priority to Committees Treatment blankets, etc. With community in pregnant women, support for water house hold special dealing with elders and other 13
  • EARARM – AA Nepal borne diseases utensils, priority to droughts vulnerable Early Warning like cholera, sanitary kit pregnant mainly groups Strengthening diarrhoea and for women women, through rain local capacities in skin diseases, etc. With elders and water Health the development provision of special other harvesting and operation of ORS, organising priority to vulnerable techniques Treatment early warning health camps pregnant groups support for systems. women, Early injured people Water elders and Health Warning Disaster Providing clean other Water Preparedness/R drinking vulnerable Treatment Strengthenin Providing clean isk Reduction water/water groups support for g local drinking water to Using PVA and purification injured capacities in needy families REFLECT as a tablets Health people the tool to facilitate Treatment development AA Priorities community action AA Priorities support for AA and on preparedness, injured Priorities operation of Shelter risk reduction Shelter people and Shelter community Provide support and advocacy. Provide support disabled Provide based early for reconstruction for temporary financial warning of collapsed Promoting shelters and Water assistance to systems. houses increased reconstruction of Drinking repair/ vegetation collapsed water/ Water rebuild the Disaster Psycho Social through tree houses purifying destroyed Preparednes Care plantations tablets for houses of s/Risk Educational needy poor families Reduction Providing psycho Improve Support families in social care to the community Provision school the relief Educational Using PVA affected people awareness and supplies and camps. Support as a tool to sensitization jackets to the Provision facilitate Livelihood programs on the needy children, AA school community Providing support causes and teaching – Priorities supplies and action on for restoration of management of learning aid to organising preparednes livelihood ( seed fire disasters affected schools Shelter catch up s, support, etc.) Organising classes for restocking Build the capacity temporary children Establishing livestock, petty of community Psycho Social shelters where formal grain bank trades etc) through training Care Provide education and seed and formation of support for system is banks in Providing support local cadres of Providing reconstructio paralysed. villages to women in firefighting psycho social n of starting volunteers. care to the collapsed Psycho Promote rain supplementary affected houses Social Care water income Promote communities harvesting in generating sustainable land Educational Providing the activities use practices Livelihood Support psycho social communities which reduces Providing care to the AA constants the fire disasters support for Providing affected Support restoration of educational people small Using PVA to Implement livelihood supply to the irrigation facilitate community poor children Livelihood infrastructure community action forestry projects Providing and Providing s. on preparedness, for improved support to organising support for risk reduction community women in transitional alternate Advocacy and advocacy. participation in starting educational livelihoods forest fire fighting supplementary facilities if whose, Advocate Capacity Building income required. regular with generating livelihood government Building the 14
  • EARARM – AA Nepal activities Psycho activities are for proper capacity of local Social Care affected. compensatio community in AA constants n packages dealing with Providing Protection and disasters and aid Using PVA to psycho social increased distribution facilitate care to the Protection of efforts on benefiting the community affected women and drought most vulnerable action on people Children in mitigation in the community preparedness, the camps risk reduction Livelihood and Early Warning and advocacy. Providing communities. support for Strengthening Capacity restoration of Conflict local capacities Building livelihood Mitigation in the development and Building the Providing Partner with operation of capacity of local support to local civil community community in women in society based early dealing with starting groups in warning systems disasters and supplementa promoting primarily on aid distribution ry income non violent debris flow. benefiting the generating means most vulnerable activities Disaster in the Preparedness/Ri community AA AA sk Reduction constants Constants Early Warning Using PVA as a Using PVA to Conflict tool to facilitate Strengthening facilitate Risk community action local capacities community Reduction on preparedness, in the action on risk reduction development preparednes Conflict and advocacy. and operation of s, risk sensitive community reduction programming Strengthening/ based early and Establishing warning advocacy. Activities for grain bank and systems. youth, seed banks in Capacity students and villages Disaster Building women Preparedness/ involvement Advocacy Risk Reduction Building the in conflict capacity of resolution Influencing the Using PVA as a local government to tool to facilitate community in Building the invest on community dealing with local capacity preparedness action on disasters and in conflict and prevention preparedness, aid management risk reduction distribution and peace and advocacy. benefiting the building most vulnerable in Advocacy Establishing/stre the and Alliance ngthening seed community building banks in villages Improving Advocacy for the capacity women’s Setting up of increased village funds for government access to 15
  • EARARM – AA Nepal emergency institution in justice. supports. preparing and Programs Discourage responding aiming at just people from to future and settling in flood disasters. Democratic plane governance, Disaster where Encourage Preparedne increased diversification of ss/Risk participation livelihood Reduction of women in sources as a decision strategy for Using PVA making increasing as a tool to dialogues. community’s facilitate resilience to community Co-ordination disasters action on with other preparednes intervening Promote good s, risk agencies land use reduction practices and Integration of advocacy. Conflict Risk Engage in small Reduction in scale structural Facilitating development mitigation works creation of work local Advocacy committees for Advocate with community- government for level disaster River response improvement works, floodway, Increase the flood retarding awareness basin among the community Work towards a about good better land use practices of management earthquake system at the proof house/ vulnerable building communities constructions Advocate for Support for better disaster small scale management structural policies and mitigations practices in such as place. retrofitting the school. Organize PVA s to develop Advocacy community based disaster Advocate for plan timely relief and recovery Profile the assistance experience and from 16
  • EARARM – AA Nepal use it as a tool government for convincing the government Advocate for and other good agencies about governance the importance in disaster of communities’ relief participation in interventions disaster management. Advocate for appropriate legislations to Insist on earth proof resistant buildings Project I. Approach Design AAN believes that poor people have the right to protection, to human security and to access assistance to survive and recover from disasters. Based on this belief, AAN will work towards building capacities to ensure a more strategic and rapid response to disasters- before, during and after they occur. Intervention would follow a rights based approach and would aim at building the capacity of the community in dealing with the disasters affecting their life. Community participation, Transparency and Downward accountability would be key principles in the program interventions. Downward accountability would be ensured through transparency boards, community reviews, PRRPs, social audits and other accountability processes. Rights and needs of women and vulnerable groups would guide the program planning and the interventions would be based on the needs of the community and the expertise and resources of ActionAid. Programs would be implemented in coordination with government and other humanitarian agencies. Relief distribution will be done respecting the dignity of the affected people. II. Targeting Programs would prioritize the needs of vulnerable and excluded groups like widows, pregnant women, elderly, children and disabled. These groups would be given priority during relief distributions as well as long term recovery interventions. Targeting will be done by the community, and ensure that the support reaches the neediest vulnerable population. During conflicts interventions will be planned which would not aggravate the conflict or trigger new conflicts. III. Implementation Programs would be implemented in coordination with local partners and government administrations. Need assessment and targeting would be done by the community and would be monitored by AAN to make sure that needs of vulnerable families are addressed. Capacity of community groups would be strengthened to lead an effective implementation and monitoring and impact assessment of the programs. Programs would adhere to international humanitarian standards such as Sphere standards and IASC guidelines. III a. Food and Non Food relief Essential food items and non food items which are culturally accepted would be distributed through Community committees. Warehouses would be identified in villages and distribution would be done systematically ensuring transparency and accountability. Special attention would be given to address the malnourishment of children through supplementary food distribution. Similarly the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating mothers’ women would be given priority during food distribution. III b. Water Packaged drinking water, trucking of potable water and supply of water purification tablets would be done where ever required. Supporting rehabilitation/construction of water sources and rainwater harvesting structure would be another intervention to ensure availability of hygienic water to the people. 17
  • EARARM – AA Nepal III c. Sanitation Temporary toilets would be constructed at relief camps in time of major emergencies and sanitation and hygiene awareness programs would be organised. III d. Health Support would be given for treatment of diseases like cholera and injuries during flood. Health awareness programs would be implemented to improve the health and hygiene during emergencies. Provision of bed nets would be done for preventing mosquito born diseases. Organising medical camps would be done if situation demands. III e. Education Educational supplied will be provided for reducing drop outs and transitional educational facilities would be organised if necessary. III f. Livelihood Livelihood restoration would be prioritised for ensuring food security of the poor families. Provision of basic start ups for livelihood activities like agriculture, livestock, petty trades (mainly for women). Efforts will be made to strengthen the existing livelihoods and to diversify the livelihood sources as a strategy for livelihood resilience. III g. Shelter Support will be provided to the neediest families for setting up transitional shelters and repairing the damaged houses in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. III h. Psycho Social Care In order to address the trauma of the affected people, a community based psycho social care would be implemented. III i. Building capacity of Community Structure Capacity building programs would be conducted for Disaster Management Committees (DMC) and other community structures for engaging in disaster response and disseminating messages on risk reduction. Building the capacity of the government disaster management machinery would also be targeted on a long term basis. IV. Long Term Programs for Rehabilitation and Recovery Depending on the availability of funds AAN would support the community in different sectors like Health, Livelihood, Shelter, Capacity Building, Disaster/Conflict Risk reduction and preparedness. Improving the community capacity to analyse and mitigate disasters and conflicts would be a key area of intervention. Participatory tools such as Participatory vulnerability Analysis ( PVA) and REFLECT will be used for this purpose. V. Monitoring and Evaluation A community based participatory monitoring and evaluation would be carried out to improve the quality and effectiveness of the program. Technical We will adhere to the relevant international standards such as SPHERE standards and IASC Guidelines in Standards our disaster interventions. , if any SPHERE Standards Requirements by sector FOOD • 2100 Kcal/person/day • 10-12% of total energy is provided by protein • 17% of total energy is provided by fat • Micro nutrients intake through fresh or fortified food 18
  • EARARM – AA Nepal WATER • 2.5 to 3 litres/person/day SANITATION • One toilet for maximum 20 people • Separate toilets for males and females Inter- Action Aid Nepal works on 3 foundation themes; Women’s Rights; Right to Education and Right to Food. Thematic Human Security in Emergencies and Just and Democratic Governance cuts across all the above 3 Linkages themes. While planning activities in other thematic areas, efforts would be made to make it sensitive to the issues around disasters and conflict. Also the emergencies and conflict program planning would be done with a built in component of other thematic areas such as education, women’s right, food rights and governance. Our interventions on education will also address the disaster risk reduction issues which can be in the form of promoting disaster education at schools, school safety or making school a locus of DRR activities in the community. REFLECT will be used as a major tool for disaster preparedness and risk reduction in the communities. Women’s right thematic interventions would also identify the vulnerabilities of women in disasters and conflict and would develop strategies to address those issues with a long term perspective. Identifying and addressing the factors which make women vulnerable especially during a crisis would be a key intervention by women rights unit. Same way while humanitarian interventions are made in an emergency context, needs of women and children would be given priority. Women’s involvement would be ensured in the critical decision making process. Food security themes will analyse the vulnerability factors which decrease the food security of poor families whom we work with, in the context of disasters and emergencies and identify ways to address it. Working towards economic empowerment and food security through sustainable livelihood approach would be a priority in improving the resilience of communities to recurring natural disasters and other emergencies. HIV/AIDS project interventions would try to incorporate the special needs of People living with HIV and AIDS in a disaster/conflict context and reduce their vulnerabilities to emergencies. Governance theme would equally address the policy issues which makes the poor more vulnerable to disasters and conflict and to address the root cause, in coordination with other themes. Governance theme would engage with the government and other power structures in order to address the issues related to disasters and conflict and to bring their focus to effective disaster/conflict reduction and mitigation measures at the national/regional and local levels. How Will RBA/ALPS Principles/Women’s Rights Be Incorporated In Emergency Programming • Protecting and promoting rights of vulnerable in accessing basic survival needs like food, shelter, water, and health as well as physical and psychological security; and rights to development like participation, information and education etc. • Using emergency operation as a means to promote over all rights of the excluded and marginalised people. • Ensuring that quality assistance reaches those affected and that their rights and dignity are protected even in the midst of emergencies • Taking sides with vulnerable and poor people including women ,children ,People with disability (PWD s) etc • Effort to put women’s right at centre of all actions. • Identifying different roles of other stakeholders and ensuring that partnerships are mutually re-enforcing. 19
  • EARARM – AA Nepal • By working in close coordination with government, influencing the government to assign the primary responsibility of addressing the needs of people during disasters and emergencies. • Ensuring that we work in a transparent and accountable manner especially to vulnerable and affected people through tools like transparency boards, social audits, PRRP s. • Being sensitive to local cultural differences and respecting them • Promoting participation and ensuring decision making at levels where the greatest impact would be felt • Strengthening active agency of marginalised and excluded group of people to influence the policy and practices. SECTOR IV: HUMAN RESOURCES ISSUES Additional human resource requirements locally, sources of quick recruitment and lead times During Medium Emergencies Major Emergencies Will manage with the existing staff of AAN and partners. Through local partners/CSO network Will maintain a database of potential candidates for quick recruitment Would utilise the service of local volunteers who have been trained in various aspects of disaster management though various DRR projects implemented by AAN Additional human resource requirements from E-FAST/internationally During medium emergencies Major emergencies No requirement IECT Advisor Experts in Need assessment, Fund raising and Donor communication IDP resettlement expert Psycho social care expert Water and sanitation specialist Public health specialist Capacity-Building Needs, Plans and Budget for Disaster Management for 2009 Training on Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA) for conflict and disaster vulnerability analysis Training on SPHERE and other standards in humanitarian response Psycho social care Communication/documentation in disasters and emergency context Capacity building of Disaster Management Committees formed in communities and relief camps Capacity building staff of ActionAid and partners in emergency programs (“Bicycle lane to Express lane” training by IECT) Security trainings for the newly-recruited staff SECTIONV: LINKAGE ANALYSIS 20
  • EARARM – AA Nepal i) Local Partners Available local 1. Lumanti, Katmandu (DA6) partners for 2. Jana Sewa Samaj Nepal (JSSN), Khotang (DA 8) sector/areas 3. Underprivileged Children’s Association- Nepal (UPCA), Sansurai ( DA 10) 4. Sustainable Livelihood Forum (SLF), Purbat (DA 11) 5. Community Support Group (CSG), Kailali (DI 12 ) 6. Radha Krishna Tharu Jana Sewa Kendhra (RKJS), Bardiya (DI 12) 7. Bhumeshwar Community Development Organisation (BCD) ), Baitadi (DI 13) 8. Manekor Society Nepal (MSN), Rasuwa (DI 14) 9. Nepal Agro Forestry Foundation (NAF), Rasuwa (DI 14) 10. Ecology Agriculture and rural Development Society (ECARDS) Dolakha (DI 15) 11. Human Rights Awareness Centre and Rural Development Society (HURADEC) ( DI 15) 12. Siddhartha Social Development Centre (SSDC), Kapilabastu (DI16) 13. Sahaj Nepal (SN) Kapilabasthu ( DI16) 14. Divya Yuva Club (DYC) Parsa (DI 17) 15. Arunoday Youth Club (AYC) Parsa (DI 17) 16. Dalit Jana Kalyan Yuva Club (DJKYC), Siraha (DI 18) 17. Society for Environment and Education Development (SEED) (DI 19) 18. Boat for Community Development (BCD), Dang (DI 19) 19. Community Self Reliance Centre (CSRC), Kathmandu (DI 20) 20. Dhanusha Sewa Samithi (DSS), Dhanusha (DI 21) 21. Social Development Path, Nepal (SODEP), Dhanusha (DI 21) 22. Sustainable adn Equitable Development Academy (SEDA), Jumla (DI 22) 23. Rural Development Group Program (RDGP), Jumla (DI 22) 24. Suddhartha Club (SC), Kaski (DI 23) 25. Children adn Women Empowerment Society (CWES), Pokhra (DI 23) 26. Friends of Hope (FoH) , Pokhra, Kaski (DI 23) 27. Community Support Group (CSG) Kaski (DI23 ) 28. Vijaya development Resource Centre (VDRC) Nawalparasi (DI 24) 29. Majhi, Musahar, Bote Kalyan Sewa Samiti (MMBKSS), Nawalparasi (DI 24 ) 30. Sahamati, Nawalparasi (DI 24) 31. Indreni Social Development Forum (ISDF), Nawalparasi (DI 24) 32. Community Development Organisation ( CDO) (DI 24) 33. Rashtriya Dalit Network (RDN) Kailali (DI 25) 34. Rural development Centre (RDC), Bara (DI 26) 35. Ney Young Star Club (NYSC), Bara (DI 26) 36. Janachetana Jagaran Abhiyan (JJA), Bara (DI 26) 37. Madan Bhandari Memorial Academy, Nepal (MBMAN), mangalbare (DI 27) 38. Nari Bikas Sangh (NBS) Morang (DI 27) 39. Nepal Social Development People Empowerment Centre (NESPEC), Gaighat (DI 27) 40. Chelibeti Club (CC) , Boske (DI 28) 41. Apang Vikas Sangh, Udaypur (DI 28) 42. Muldhar Mahila Sewa Kendra, Udaypur ( DI 28) 43. Feminist Dalit Organisation , Gaighat (DI 28) 44. Dalit Network, Udaypur (DI 28) 45. Nawa Prabhat Samajsebi Pariwar , Udaypur (DI 28) 46. Human Resource Centre , Bajura (DI 29) 47. Peacewin, Bajura (DI 29) Sectors/region s for which no current partner 21
  • EARARM – AA Nepal Plans to AAN will initiate relief interventions in areas where we it doesn’t have presence, through government develop agencies and Nepal Red Cross Society. As a preparedness measure AAN would identify and initiate partners contacts with potential partners in the hazard prone areas (where AAN doesn’t have presence currently but would prefer to intervene in future) in order to implement relief programs swiftly. ii) In-country Donors Relationship Analysis Received money No money regular Little or no Donors before interaction interaction DFID ECHO X UNDP AUSAID CIDA Plans to Cultivate Relationships with Donors Assistance Needed from IECT/IPD in Doing So  Advice on how best to align human security Complete the donor scoping and identifying potential country strategy to donor strategies in donor and their agenda in the country emergencies. Build relationship through visits, sharing reports,  Link with IPD Brussels to access ECHO strategies and updating AAN activities and funds and donor intelligence information. achievements  Liaise with ECHO-Nepal office (support from Invite the donors for visits to our projects IPD ARO/ IECT advisor). Attend coordination meetings and joint assessments  Explanation and engagement with the IASC Build Profile and increase the visibility for more Cluster system. recognition from donors iii) In-Country Media Relationship Analysis Media Agency Strong Medium Weak BBC Kanthipur TV Nepal Tele Vision (NTV) Radio Nepal Times FM Nepal News (Daily Newspaper) The Kathmandu Post (Daily Newspaper) The Rising Nepal (Daily Newspaper) Plans to Cultivate Relationships with Media Assistance Needed from IECT/Int’l Communications Dept.  Write case studies and reports  Link AAN with those media groups not in Nepal.  Share research reports with the media  Create publications, publish research reports etc.  Write press releases and news articles on our  Invite international journalists on field trips and emergency and long-term development work. visits.  Undertake impact assessment on all projects and  AAN to link up with Communications teams in document evidence ARO, London and IECT  Build the capacity of the local media, in  Enhance involvement of media in development investigative journalism and reporting and emergency issues and responses (write to BBC World Service Trust). 22
  • EARARM – AA Nepal  Training in communications, both for emergency and long-term development work.  Information on how to write and publish blogs.  Publish information on European AAI country websites to aid with fundraising. iii) Government Agencies Relationship Status Govt. Agency Strong Medium Weak Ministry of Home Affairs Disaster Management Section X Ministry of Health X Ministry of Agriculture X Ministry of Social Welfare X District administrations X Department of Hydrology and Meteorology X Central / Regional/District Natural Disaster Relief Committees Plans to Develop Relationships further with Government Agencies  Attend coordination meetings  Engage with government in relevant M&E activities  Design appropriate capacity building programmes  Communicate better (ideas, development philosophy etc.)  Share plans and reports with relevant government agencies  Attach experts/advisors to different government agencies  Contribute to the National Platform on Disaster Management set up by government iv) Relationships with other Relevant Non-Governmental Agencies Agency Strong Medium Weak CARE OXFAM PRACTICAL ACTION NEPAL REDCROSS SAVE THE CHILDREN UNITED MISSION TO NEPAL LUTHERAN WORLD SERVICE NEPAL PLAN Nepal NORAD GTZ Plans to Develop Relationships Further with Non-Government Agencies  Create cross-learning environment  Attend coordination meetings  Arrange regular meetings.  Involve them in strategic planning processes  Be involved in any consortium groups  Share reports 23
  • EARARM – AA Nepal  Continue the engagement with DPNet Annexure 1: AAN intervention Areas 24