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  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
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  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
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  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
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  • ActionAid Nepal
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  • ActionAid Nepal
  • ActionAid Nepal
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Emergency &DRR / Disaster Risk Management k|sf]k hf]lvd Joj:yfkg
    • 2. Disaster Risk Reduction
      • “ action taken to reduce the risk of disasters and the adverse impacts of natural hazards, through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causes of disasters, including through avoidance of hazards , reduced social and economic vulnerability to hazards, and improved preparedness for adverse events ”.
    • 3. Disaster Risk Reduction
      • The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.
      The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries. “ disaster reduction” is sometimes used, the term “disaster risk reduction” provides a better recognition of the ongoing nature of disaster risks and the ongoing potential to reduce these risks
    • 4. Disaster Management
      • A collective term encompassing all aspects of Planning for and Responding to Disasters, including both – pre – and – post disaster activities.
      • It may refer to the management of both the risk and consequences of Disasters
    • 5. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg
      • k|sf]k Joj:yfkgn] ;dli7ut?kdf k|sf]ksf] ljifonfO{ dWogh/ /fvL cjnDjg ul/g] of]hgfx? tyf ;f] sf] kxnsf nflu, k|sf]k k"j{ jf kZrft ckgfOg] pkfo Pj+ ultljwLx?nfO{ j'emfp+b 5 . o;n] b'j} cj:yf, k|sf]ksf hf]lvdx? tyf k|efj tyf c;/x?sf] Joj:yfkgsf] ljifonfO{ ;d]6]sf] x'G5 .
    • 6. Disaster
      • A DISASTER is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing wide spread human, Material or environmental loses which exceed the ability of affected society to cope using only its own resources.
    • 7. k|sf]k
      • k|sf]k Pp6f o:tf] ljifd kl/l:ytLxf] h;n] ;dfh / ;d'bfosf] dfgljo, ef}lts Pj+ jftfj/0fLo s[ofsnfkx?df cs:dft Jojwfg / Jofks -hgwgsf]_ gf]S;fgL k'¥ofO{ hghLjgnfO{ c:tJo:t t'Nofp+5 / h'g ;d'bfosf] cfkmgf] gLxLt ;fwg, >f]t / Ifdtfn] wfGg g;lsg] x'G5 cf} jfXo ;xof]usf] dfWodjf6 cfwf/e't ;]jf / cfjZoQmfx?sf] kl/k'lt{ ul/g' cfjZos x'G5 .
    • 8. k|sf]ksf] kl/efiff
      • k|sf]k eGgfn] e"sDk, cfunfuL, jf9L klx/f], cgfj[i6L, cltj[i6L, clgsfn, dfxfdf/L tyf cGo k|fs[lts k|sf]knfO{ b}lj k|sf]k elgG5 .
      • k|sf]k ljklQk"0f{ kl/l:ytL xf] h'g cj:yfdf w]/} h:tf] hg hLjg cs:dft, c:tJo:t x'g k'U5 . o:tf] kl/l:ytLdf dflg;x?n] w]/} b'Mv kfpF5g . o;sf] kl/0ffd :j?k ;'/Iff, vfgf, gfgf, 5fgf -cfjf;_, cf}iflw pkrf/ tyf ;fdflhs ;]jf h:tf dfG5]nfO{ hLjgdf geO{ gx"g] cGo cfjZoQmfx?sf] k"lt{ ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 .
    • 9. Emergency
      • An extraordinary situation where there are serious and immediate threats to human life as a result of DISASTER, imminent threat of DISASTER, cumulative process of neglect, civil conflict, environmental degradation and socioeconomic conditions.
      • An emergency can encompass a situation in which there is a clear and marked deterioration in the coping abilities of a group or community
    • 10. cfsl:ds / ;+s6sfn
      • k|sf]kx?sf] tfTsfnLs kl/0ffd :j?k kL8fx?sf] k/fsfi6fn] -jf ckx]ngf tyf ;fdfhLs 4Gb tyf jftfj/0fLoxf; jf ljljw ;fdfhLs cfly{s sf/0fn]_ >[hLt Pp6f o:tf] ljifd kl/l:ytL hj Hofgsf] hf]lvd tyf dfgljo ;'/Iff / hghLjgdf k|ToIf ;+s6 cfO kb{5 . / k|i6 Pj+ yfxfx'g] ul/ Pp6f ;d"bfo, ;d"x jf ;dfhsf] hLjggLjf{xdf v:sbf] k|efj kfg{ yfN5 . Tof] cj:yfnfO{ cfsl:ds jf ;+s6sfnsf] ?kdf a'lemG5 .
    • 11. k|sf]ksf sf/0fx? (CAUSES OF DISASTER)
      • k|sf]k b'O{ sf/0faf6 x'G5 .
      • k|fs[lts sf/0f (Natural Disaster)
      • dfgj lgld{t (Man Made Disaster)
    • 12. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ( NATURAL DISASTER )
      • s'g} klg k|fs[lts sf/0fn] 36]sf] 36gfaf6 hgwgsf] Iflt eO{ ;fdflhs hghLjgdf c;/ k'¥ofp5 eg] To:tf] 36gfnfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]k (Natural Disaster) elgG5 .
      • pbfx/0fM
      • e"sDk, Hjfnfd'vL, T;'gfdL, af9L OTofbL .
    • 13. Dffgj lgld{t k|sf]k (MAN MADE DISASTER)
      • s'g} klg dfgjsf] sf/0fn] pTkGg x'g] 36gfaf6 wg hgsf] Iflt eO ;fdflhs hghLjgdf c;/ k'¥ofp5 eg] To:tf] 36gfnfO{ dfgj lgld{t k|sf]k
      • (Man Made Disaster) elgG5.
      • pbfx/0fM
      • /f;folgs b'3{6gf, k|ljlwo b'3{6gf, jftfj/0fLo b'3{6gf, oftfoft b'3{6gf, d?e"dLs/0f, O{Toflb .
    • 14. K|fsf]ksf k|sf/x? (TYPES OF DISASTER)
      • ef}ule{s (Geological)
      • jftfj/0fLo (Environmental)
      • k|ljlwo (Technological)
      • /f;folgs (Chemical)
      • hg czflGt (Civil Unrest)
      • df};dL (Climatic)
      • :jf:Yo (Health)
      • H}fljs (Biological)
      • cfunfuL (Fire)
      • cGo (Others)
    • 15. Ef}fu{les (GEOLOGICAL)
      • E"fsDk (Earthquake )
      • T;"gfdL (Tsunami)
      • klx/f] (Landslide)
      • Hjfnfd'vL (Volcano)
      • lxd klx/f] (Avalanches)
    • 16. Df}f;dL (CLIMATIC)
      • cfFwLa]x/L (Cyclone)
      • lxd cfFwL (Snow Storm)
      • cl;gf (Hailstorm)
      • af9L (Flood)
      • lxn] af9L (Mud Flood)
      • lxdtfn la:kmf]6gaf6 cfpg] af9L (GLOF)
    • 17. Df}f;dL (CLIMATIC )
      • v8]/L (Drought)
      • r6of8) (Lightning)
      • tftf] jfo' (Heat Waves)
      • lztnx/ (Cold Waves)
    • 18. jftfj/0fLo (ENVIRONMENTAL)
      • jftfj/0fLo k|b'if0f (Environmental Pollution)
      • jg ljgfz (Deforestation)
      • d?e"dLs/0f (Desertification)
    • 19. : jf:Yo (HEALTH)
      • ;?jf /f]u (Epidemic Disease )
    • 20. /f;folgs (CHEMICAL)
      • / f;folgs b'3{6gf (Chemical Accident)
      • cf0fljs b'3{6gf (Nuclear Accident)
    • 21. h}ljs (BIOLOGICAL)
      • ls6 k|sf]k (Pest Infestation)
      • jGo hGt'sf] cft+s ( Wild Life Threat )
    • 22. k|lalwo (TECHNOLOGICAL)
      • cf}Bf]lus b'3{6gf (Industrial Accident)
      • oftfoft b'3{6gf ( Transport Accident )
    • 23. cfunfuL (FIRE)
      • Efjg cfunfuL (Building Fire)
      • cf}Bf]lus cfunfuL (Industrial Fire)
      • jg cfunfuL (Bush Fire)
      • oftfoft cfunfuL (Transport Fire)
    • 24. hg czflGt (Civil Unrest)
      • ;fdflhs snx (Social Conflict)
      • /fhg}lts snx (Political Conflict)
      • wfld{s snx (Religious Conflict)
    • 25. cGo (Others)
      • le8df lslRrg' (Stampede)
      • ef]sd/L (Famine)
    • 26. k|sf]kaf6 x'g] c;/x? (Effects of Disaster)
      • hg Iflt (Loss of Life)
      • 3fO{t] x'g] (Injury )
      • wg Iflt (Loss of Property )
      • s[lif afnLdf Iflt (Loss of Agriculture Crops )
      • pTkfbgdf xf; (Disruption of Production )
      • hLjg z}lndf c;/ (Disruption of Lifestyle )
      • hLljsf]kfh{gdf sld (Loss of Livelihood )
    • 27. k|sf]kaf6 x'g] c;/x? (Effects of Disaster)
      • cTofjZos ;]jfx?df cj/f]w
      • (Disruption of Essential Services )
      • k"jf{wf/x?sf] Iflt (Damage of Infrastructure )
      • ;/sf/L ;+/rgf k|0ffnLdf cj/f]w (Disruption to Government System )
      • /fli6«o cly{s Iflt (National Economic Loss )
      • ;fdflhs c;/ (Sociological Effects )
      • dgf]j}1flgs c;/ (Psychological Effects )
    • 28. HAZARD vt/f
      • A HAZARD is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that adversely affects human life, property or activities to the extent of causing a DISASTER.
      • vt/f To:tf] crfgs tyf cltjfXo -r/d;Ldf k|fKt_ dfgj >[hLt jf k|fs[lts-hGo_ 36gf xf] h;sf] lj:tf/ tyf km}nfjn] dfgj hLjg, ;+Dklt tyf b}lgs hghLjgdf k|lts'n c;/ kf/L -b}lj_k|sf]ksf] sf/stTj jGb5 .
    • 29. vt/fsf] ljZn]if0f (HAZARD ANALYSIS)
      •            Damaging Characteristics -gf]S;fg ug]{ ljz]iftf_
      •            Fore Warning -k'j{ r]tgf_
      •            Speed of impact -c;/sf] ult_
      •            Cause -sf/0f_
      •            Impact duration -c;/sf] cjlw_
      •            History -Oltxf;_
      •            Predictability -eljiojf0fL_
      •            Probability -;DefJotf_
      •            Control -lgoGq0f_
      •     Growth -j9g]÷x's{g]_
      • VULNERABILITY is the extent to which a community, structure, service or geographical area is likely to be damaged or disturbed by the Impact of a particular Disaster Hazard, on account of their nature, construction and a proximity to Hazardous terrain or a Disaster prone area.
    • 31. ;+s6fled'vtf
      • ;+s6fled'vtf Pp6f JolQm, ;d'x, ;d'bfo, ;+/rgf, ;]jf jf ef}uf]nLs cjl:yltsf] ;+Defljt xfgL gf]S;fgL jf gf]S;fgf]Gd"v cj:yf xf] h'g s'g} vf; vt/f jf hf]lvd pw{Tjsf] k|efj / c;/ :j?k To;sf], ;+/rgf, b'/L, k|s[lt cflbn] gLwf{/0f u/]sf] x'G5 .
    • 32. ;+s6fled'vtfsf] kl/ro
      • ;+s6fled'v eGgfn] ;fdflhs ;+/rgf, ;]jfsf ;fwgx? jf ef}uf]lns If]q lau|g], cj?4x'g] s'/fsf] cg'dflgt ljgf;sf] dfqfnfO{ a'lemG5 . h'g lglZrt vt/fsf] c;/, j:t'sf] lgdf{0f, k|s[lt, tyf lgs6tfsf] ;fy} vt/fo'Qm If]q ;d]tsf] n]vfhf]vf ;d]tnfO{ a'emfpb5 .
      • OlGhlgol/Ë p2]Zodf ;+s6fled'v eGgfn] s'g} vt/fsf] -vt/fk"0f{_ If]qdf k|sf]kn] s'g} lglZrt tTj jf tTj ;d'xdf Nofpg] ljgf;sf] dfqfnfO{ ;lDemG5 .
    • 33. ;+s6fled'vtf eg]sf] s] xf] <
      • s'g] lglZrt ;dodf klxrfg ul/Psf vt/fx?n] JolQm ;DklQ / jftfj/0fdf kfg{ ;Sg] k|efjsf ;DaGwdf yfxf kfpg] jf ;&quot;rgf k|fKt ug]{ k|lqmof g} ;+s6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f xf] .
      • (Vulnerability=People+Condition+Place+Time+Event)
      • ;+s6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f lsg <
      • ;+s6fled'vtfsf] ljZn]if0f u/L k&quot;j{tof/L / Go&quot;gLs/0fsf sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L 9+un] tof/ u/L ;~rfng ug{ jf s'zn 9+uaf6 k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ug{sf nflu o;sf] cjfZostf kb{5 .
    • 34. ul/lj / ;+s6fled'vtf
      • ul/lj / ;+s6fled'vtf Ps} xf]Ogg t/ Pscfk;df cljl5Gg ?kdf uf+l;Psf 5g .
      • tL k/:k/df pTk|]/s x'G5g / ;dfg k|s[ltsf x'G5g .
      • ;j} u/Lj ;+s6fled'v x'G5g t/ ;j} ;+s6fled'vx? u/Lj gx'g klg ;S5g .
      • ul/lj ;+s6fled'vtfsf] cljl5Gg kf6f] xf] .
    • 35. Vulnerability Analysis
      • Vulnerability Analysis is the process of estimating the vulnerability to potential disaster hazards of specified element at risk…
      • Vulnerability analysis involves the analysis of theoretical and empirical data concerning the effects of particular types of phenomenon on particular types of structure.
    • 36. Types of Vulnerability :
      • 1 Physical Vulnerability:
        • Buildings
        • Infrastructure
        • Agricultural
      • 2 Economic Vulnerability:
        • Direct loss potentials
        • Indirect loss potentials
        • Secondary effects
      • 3 Social Vulnerability
        • Critical indicators of perceived risk, ability of response
      • Demographic Considerations
    • 37. ef}ltsM ;fdu|Lut ;+s6fled'vtf M
      • ;+s6fled'vtfsf] Ps kIf ef}lts / ;fdu|Lut kIf klg xf] . hf] dflg;x?sf] yf]/} ef}lts ;fwg x'G5 ltgLx? wgLsf] bf“hf]df k|sf]kaf6 a9L b'Mv kfp“5g . emg To;dfly u/La x'g]x?sf] hdLg cToGt yf]/} x'G5 . oL tTjx?n] ltgLx?nfO{ a9L ;+s6fled'v agfp“5 . o;sf] cy{ cfly{s b[li6sf]0fn] ;DkGg JolQm eGbf o:tf JolQmx?dfly k|sf]kn] k|efj kf/]df af“Rg d':sLn x'G5 .
    • 38. ;fdflhsM;+:yfut ;+s6fled'vtf M
      • ;+s6fled'vtfsf] bf]>f] kIf ;fdflhs / ;+u7gfTds kIf klg xf] . cg'ejn] s] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 eg] ;fdflhs / /fhgLlts b[li6sf]0fn] cToGt Go&quot;g l:yltdf /x]sf JolQmx? ;+u7Lt / Pslqt /x]sf ju{ eGbf k|sf]kaf6 a9L kLl8t x'G5g . ;fdflhs / ;+:yfut If]qdf sdhf]/Lsf sf/0fn] klg w]/} k|sf]kx?nfO{ lgDTofp“5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu ;dfhdf Ps cfk; aLrsf] ulx/f] ljefhgn] åGå / o'4nfO{ lgDTofp“5 .
    • 39. wf/0futM pTk|]/0ffut ;+s6fled'vtf M
      • cGTodf, cg'ejn] s] s'/f b]vfPsf] 5 eg] kl/jt{gnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ Ifdtf sd jf cfzf x/fPsfx? s'g} k|sf]kjf6 kLl8t eO;s]kl5 ltgLx?sf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf w]/} g} x|f; eO;]s]sf] x'G5 . o;sf ljkl/t kl/jt{gnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ Ifdtf ePsf JolQm / cfzfjfbL dfG5]x? k|sf]kjf6 kLl8t cj:yfb]lv cfkm&quot;nfO{ rfx]sf] cj:yf;Dd k'¥ofpg ;Ifd x'G5g .
    • 40. Capabilities :
      • Positive attributes able to be identified that may contribute to an enhanced ability to prevent or mitigate the effects of a disaster or which may strengthen a communities ability to respond effectively to the HAZARDS.
    • 41. ef}lts Ifdtf
      • w]/} h;f] k|sf]kx?df dflg;x? ef}lts Ifltsf] sf/0fn] b'Mv kfp“5g . h] ePtf klg k|To]s u/La hgtfx? h;sf] 3/x?nfO{ k|sf]kn] gi6 ul/lbPsf] x'G5 cyjf h;sf] afnLx? af9Ln] gi6 ul/lbPsf] x'G5 pgLx? cfkmgf] 3/ jf v]tLaf6 d'lQm kfp“5g . slxn] sf“xL ltgLx?sf] vfBfGg hu]8f x'G5 / slxn] cfkmgf] ePsf] IfltnfO{ af/Ldf k'gM v]tL u/]/ cfkm“&quot;nfO{ gfh's l:yltaf6 ;'wf/ u5{g . s]xL kl/jf/sf ;b:ox? h;df ;Lk x'G5 obL plgx? :yfgfGt/0f ePdf :yfoL jf c:yfoL k|s[ltsf] /f]huf/ kfpg ;Ifd x'G5g .
    • 42. ;fdflhs / ;+:yfut Ifdtf M
      • k&quot;0f{ ?kdf ef}lts Iflt ePtf klg dflg;x?df ;fdflhs / ;+u7gfTds Ifdtf /xG5 g} . pgLx?df ;Lk / 1fg, kl/jf/ / ;d'bfosf] ;+u7g, g]tf, lg0f{o, lg?k0f k|0ffnL / cfkmgf] hflt k|lt ddtf klg x'G5 .
    • 43. wf/0ffut / pTk|]/0ffut Ifdtf M
      • dflg;df ;sf/fTds wf/0ffx? / pRr pTk|]/0ffx? h:t} af“Rg' ;DalGwtnfO{ dfof ug{, axfb'/L k|bz{g ug{ / Ps cfk;df d2t ug{ OR5's x'G5g . ljsf;sf b[li6n] oL klg hgtfsf] ef}lts >f]tsf] ?kdf Ifdtf g} dflgG5g .
    • 44. ljsf; / ljgf;sf] ;+;f/ 07/29/10 ljsf;n] ;+s6fled'vtf 36fpg ;S5 . ljsf;n] ;+s6fled'vtf a9fpg ;S5 . b}lj k|sf]kn] ljsf; k|s[ofnfO{ k5f8L ws]Ng ;S5 . b}lj k|sf]kn] ljsf; k|s[ofsf cj;/x? >[hgf ug{ ;S5 . gsf/fTds ;+;f/ ;sf/fTds ;+;f/
    • 45. dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] clwsf/ k|To]s cTolws vfFrf] k/]sf JolQmnfO{ ;xfotf kfpg] clwsf/ x'g]5 .
      • != /fHox?sf] cfkmgf] /fHoIf]qdf jf cfkmgf] lgolGqt If]qdf lk8Ltx?nfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ st{Jo x'g]5 .
      • @= /fHox?, cGt/fli6«o ;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx? / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ cGo /fHox?df dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] k|:tfj k|:t't ug]{ clwsf/ x'g]5 .
      • #= /fHox?, cGt/fli6«o ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx? / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ ;DalGwt csf{ /fHox?sf] ;xdltdf csf{ /fHosf lk8Lt JolQmx?nfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g]5 – zf;g ;Qfsf] ljv08g jf u[xo'4sf] cj:yfdf – ;Da4 :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?sf] ;xdltdf o:tf] clwsf/ k|fKt x'g]5 .
      • $= /fHox?sf] cGo /fHosf lk8Ltx?nfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ st{Jo x'g] 5}g t/ cGo /fHox? cGt/fli6«o ;/sf/L jf u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfaf6 pknJw u/fOPsf dfgjLo ;xfotfnfO{ ;xh agfpg' ltgLx?sf] st{Jo x'g]5 . olb s'g} /fHosf lj?4 bjfjsf pkfox? cjnDag ul/Psf] /x]5 eg] ltgLx?jf6 cTofjZos dfgjLo cfjZoQmfsf a:t'x? cfk&quot;lt{ ug{ alh{t ul/g]5 .
      • %= ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] a8fkqsf] kl/R5]b & sf cfwf/df ;'/Iff kl/ifbn] cGt/fli6«o zflGt / ;'/Iffdf dfgjLo ljof]un] kf/]sf] c;/sf] kl/df0f lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Sg]5 / kL8Ltx?nfO{ dfgjLo ;xfotf k'/ofpgsf nflu cfjZos ;a} pkfox? cjnDag ug{ /fHox? jf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o ;]gfnfO{ clVtof/ k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
      • ^= cGt/fli6«o sfg&quot;g adf]lhd /fHox?sf] cGo /fHox?, cGt/fli6«o ;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx? jf u}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx? jf6 k|bfg ul/Psf dfgjLo ;xfotf u|x0f ug]{ st{Jo x'g]5 . ltgLx?n] :j]R5frf/L 9+un] cfkmgf] k&quot;a{ ;xdltnfO{ O{Gsf/ ug{ x'Fb}g .
      • &= /fHo h:sf] lgoGq0fdf JolQmx?n] kfpg] dfgjLo ;xfotf /x]sf] x'G5 To; /fHo lj?4 JolQmx?sf] clwsf/ x'g]5 . To;}u/L /fHosf] dfgjLo ;xfotf pknJw u/fpg] jf lgod #,$ / ^ adf]lhd dfgjLo ;xfotf ljt/0f ug]{ cg'dlt k|bfg ug]{ st{Jo x'g]5 .
      • dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] clwsf/ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3Lo z}lIfs a}1flgs tyf ;f+:s[lts kl/ifb, k]l/; !((%
    • 46. /0fgLlts p2]Zox?M
      • Ifdtf clea[l4 M k|d'v k|sf]ksf 36gfx?df :yfgLo ;/sf/ / ;d'bfox?nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ cfkmgf sfo{ut If]qx?df k&quot;a{ tof/L / tfnLd k|fKt hgzlQmsf] pknJwtfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug]{ .
      • ;d&quot;x / ;~hfn lgdf{0f M p4f/, /fxt, k'g:yf{kgf / k&quot;a{ tof/L sfo{ x'Fbfsf avt k|efjsf/L ;/f]sf/sf nflu / ;xsfo{sf nflu u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf /;d&quot;bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfsf cltl/Qm :yfgLo ;/sf/sf lgsfo -k|lhc / lhlj; / uflj;_ ;+u ;'b[9 ;d&quot;x / ;Ghfn lgdf{0f ug]{ .
      • gLltut k|efj / hgjsfnt M gLlt lgdf{tf / ;Grf/ hutnfO{ k|efljt u/L k|sf]k kLl8t ul/j hgtfsf] clwsf/sf] ;dy{g ub}{ k|sf]k ;DaGwL sfo{df lnË / clwsf/sf] wf/0ffnfO{ PSoj4 ug]{ .
      • ;+s6 ;/f]sf/ / >f]t kl/rfng M cfjZoQmfg';f/ /fxt, k'g:yf{kgf / k&quot;a{ tof/L ;DaGwL sfo{x?sf] sfof{Gjog u/]/ kLl8t ;d'bfok|lt ;/f]sf/ b]vfpg] / ltgsf] ;dy{g ug]{ .
      • 1fg / ;'rgf Joj:yfkg M cGo /fi6«sf sfo{s|dx? vf;u/L PS;gP8 Plzofsf sfo{s|d;+u d&quot;n 1fg / cEof;sf] cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ .
    • 47. k|sf]k Joj:yfkg rqm (Disaster Management Cycle) 07/29/10 k|sf]k Disaster k&quot;j{ ;&quot;rgf Early Warning p2f/ tyf /fxt Rescue & Relief /f]syfd Prevention Go&quot;lgs/0f Mitigation k&quot;j{ tof/L Preparedness k|sf]k k&quot;j{ Pre Disaster k|sf]k kZrft Post Disaster k'g:yf{kg / k'glg{df{0f Reconstruction & Rehabilitation
    • 48. ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f ljsf;qmd ;g !(*( sf] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] ;fwf/0f ;efn] ()sf] bzsnfO{ k|fs[lts ljkb Go&quot;gLs/0f bzs dgfpg] lg0f{o ;g !(($ df Kf|fs[lts ljkb Go&quot;gLs/0f ljZj ;Dd]ng of]sf]xfdfdf ;DkGGf . o; sfo{of]hgfn] ljkb /f]syfd, cNkLs/0f / k&quot;j{tof/Ldf hf]8 lbPsf] . ;g !((( df o'PgcfOP;l8cf/sf] :yfkgf . ;g @))% hgj/L !* b]lv @@ ;DDf hfkfgsf] sf]a] zx/df ePsf] ljZj ;Dd]ngaf6 xof]uf] sfo{of]hgf @))%–@)!% tof/ ul/Psf] .
    • 49. ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f s] xf] t <
      • ljkbsf sf/stTjx?nfO{ ljZn]if0f u/L ;d'bfosf ;Defljt ljkbsf vt/fx?, tyf ;+s6fled'vtf sd ug]{, jftfj/0f tyf e&quot;pkof]u plrt tl/sfn] ug]{ / ljkb ;fdgfsf nflu k&quot;j{tof/L ug]{ Ps Jojl:yt cjwf/0ff tyf cEof; ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f xf] . of] ljkb /lxt ljsf; jf lbuf] ljsf;sf] ;Gbe{df ;d]l6Psf] cjwf/0ff xf] .
    • 50. ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f
      • ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f g]kfnsf] lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu clgjfo{ zt{ xf], h;af6 ljsf;df ul/Psf] nufgLnfO{ ljgfz x'gaf6 /f]Sg ;lsG5 .
      • ljsf;sf sfo{x?n] yk ljkb fO{ glgDTofcf]; eGg] s'/fdf ;'lglZrt aGg ;lsG5 .
      • Hfnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 kg]{ gsf/fTds c;/af6 aRg jf cg&quot;s'ng aGg ;lsG5 .
      • ;+s6f;Gg tyf Kf|sf]k k|efljtx?sf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ ;lsG5 .
      • ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft cyf{t ljkb pTyfgzLn agfpg ;lsG5 .
    • 51. d:of}bf /fli6«o /0fgLltsf s]xL k|d¬v a¬“bfx?
      • ljBdfg sdL sdhf]/Lx?sf] klxrfg
      • @( j6f /0fgLlts ultljlw (Strategic Activity) x?sf] k|:tfj
      • If]qut (Sectoral) sdL–sdhf]/Lx¿sf] klxrfg Pj+ k|fyldstfk|fKt lqmofsnfkx?sf] k|:tfj
      • ljkb hf]lvd Joj:yfkgnfO{ /fHosf] k|d'v bfloTjsf] ?kdf /fVg] u/L gofF ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] k|:tfj
    • 52. ljkb hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ljBdfg sfg&quot;gL Pj+ ;+:yfut Joj:yf
      • b}jL k|sf]k p¢f/ tyf /fxt P]g @)#(
        • d&quot;ntM p¢f/ / /fxt ljt/0fdf s]lGb|t
        • tTsfnLg ;dodf cToGt cu|ufdL Pj+ ;fs{ If]qd} klxnf] k|oTg
        • t/ hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f, k&quot;j{tof/L Pj+ jt{dfgdf ;j{ :jLs[t dfGotfsf] ?kdf km}nFbf] “ljkb /lxt ljsf;” (Disaster Free Development) jf
        • “ ljkb yfDg ;Sg] ljsf;” (Disaster Resilient Development) sf] cjwf/0ff g;d]l6Psf]
    • 53. ljkb hf]lvd Joj:yfkgsf] ljBdfg Joj:yfdf kl/jt{gsf nflu eO/x]sf k|oTgx?
      • ljkb hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL ljZj ;Dd]ngx?df g]kfnsf] pkl:ylt -;/sf/L, u}/ ;/sf/L_ Pj+ k|lta4tf
        • ;g !(($ of]sf]xfdf / ;g @))% sf]a]
        • sf]a] ;Dd]ngaf6 “xof]uf] sfo{of]hgf M@))%–@)!%” sf] th'{df
        • xof]uf] sfo{of]hgf clxn]sf] ljZjJofkL d&quot;ndGq
      • u[x dGqfnoaf6 ;'wf/sf s]xL k|oTgx? ePsf
        • sfo{/t ljleGg ;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu lg/Gt/ ;dGjo q}dfl;s j]7s
        • ljkb hf]lvd Joj:yfkg /fli6«o d~r (National Platform on DRR) sf] kxnsbdL
        • Focal desk sf] Joj:yf
    • 54. WCDR II – HFA 2005 -2015
      • Xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf ;g @))%—@)!% n] lglb{i6 u/]sf d&quot;n nIox¿
      • ljkb hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf /0fgLltx¿ tyf of]hgf th{'df df PsLs/0f ug{]
      • k|sf]kx¿af6 pTyfgzLntf (resilience) sf] ljsf; ug{sf nflu ;+:yf, ;+oGq tyf Ifdtfx¿sf] ljsf; tyf ;'b[9Ls/0f ug]{, / hf]lvd Go&quot;gLs/0f;DaGwL cjwf/0ffx¿nfO{ cfkTsfnLg k&quot;j{–tof/L (Preparedness), k|ltsfo{ (Response) tyf k'gnf{e (Recovery) ;DaGwL sfo{qmddf Jojl:yt ¿kdf ;dfj]z ug]{ .
    • 55. k|sf]k k&quot;j{tof/L (Disaster Preparedness):
      • k|sf]k k&quot;j{tof/L eGgfn] ;fdfGotof k|sf]kjf6 pTkGg x'g] kl/l:yltsf nflu klxnf g} tof/ eP/ j:g' xf] .
      • cfjZos j:t'sf] tof/L ;fy ;fdfgf ug]{ .
      • ;+s6led'vsf] klxrfg ug'{ .
      • of]hgf th{df ug'{ .
      • ;+u7fgfTds :j?k tof/ ug'{ .
      • ;'rgf k|0ffnL lglZrt ug'{ .
      • >f]t Jofj:yfkg .
      • k&quot;j{ r]tgfjnL k|0ffnL .
      • p4f/ tyf /fxft Jofj:yfkg .
      • hglzIff tyf tflnd .
      • cEof; .
    • 56.    k|sf]k k&quot;j{tof/L M
      • k|sf]k k&quot;j{tof/L eGgfn] ;fdfGotof k|sf]kjf6 pTkGg x'g] kl/l:yltsf nflu klxng} g} tof/ eP/ a:g' xf] . h:t} M k|sf]k ;DaGwdf k&quot;jf{g'dfg -eljiojf0fL_ ug{, /f]syfd ug{, o;jf6 x'g] c;/sf] Go&quot;gLs/0f tyf k|sf]k kl//x]sf] Pj+ To;jf6 pTkGg kl/l:ytLsf] ;fdgf ug{ tof/ eP/ a:g' xf] .
    • 57.   p4f/ tyf /fxtM
      • p4f/ tyf /fxt -;]jf_ eGgfn] hLjg /Iff tyf p4f/÷pksf/df To:tf sfo{x? kb{5g h'g k|sf]k kgf{ ;fy / k/]kl5 klg dfgj hLjg arfpg], wg ;DklQsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ tyf k|sf]kaf6 tTsfn x'g] IOflt jf wghgsf] ljgf;nfO{ /f]Sg] jf 36fpg] -sld u/fpg]_ p2]Zon] ul/Psf x'G5g .
    • 58.   k'gM:yfkg M
      • k'gM:yfkg eGgfn] dfgj, pBf]u, oGq, s'g} sfo{, ljifo, k/Dk/f, d&quot;No cflbnfO{ km]l/ g8udufpg] lx;fan] cfjZos 7f“pdf a;fpg], h8fg ug]{ jf km]/L gof“ ?kdf kl/0ft ug]{ sfo{ eGg] a'lemG5 .
    • 59. k'gMlgdf{0f M
      • k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfodf cfktsflng ;]jfx?sf] ;~rfng kZrft k'glgdf{0f sfo{ ;~rfng ul/G5.
      • k'glgdf{0f sfo{ eljiodf x'g ;Sg] k|sf]ksf] vt/fnfO{ ;d]t Wofgdf /fvL ;d'bfosf] klxn]sf] cj:yf eGbf Ps sbd cuf8L a9]/ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ul/G5 .
    • 60. k|sf]ksf] klxrfg - k|fs[lts jf dfgjs[t jf >[lht_ (Community–based Disaster management Process) 07/29/10 ^ of]hgf sfof{Gjog tyf d'NofÍg % ;dfwfgsf] nflu s:tf] of]hgf 7Ls xf]nf < k|lt/f]w jf Go&quot;lgs/0f jf k'j{ tof/L $ k|sf]k 36]df s] x'g ;S5 < kg{ ;Sg] Ifltsf] c;/ / k|efj # k|sf]ksf] j0f{g k|sf]ksf] :t/, /km f/, cjlw, cflbsf] k'j{ d'NofÍg @ k|sf]k ;'rs gS;f tof/L :yfg ljz]if ! k|sf]ksf] klxrfg k|fs[lts jf dfgjs[t jf ldl>t
    • 61.
      • wGojfb .