"Teaching Swimming to Children with Autism" by Maricarmen Saleta- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012

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"Teaching Swimming to Children with Autism" by Maricarmen Saleta- Adapted Aquatics Conference 2012

  1. 1. 5/7/2012 Maricarmen Saleta Miren OcaEducational Support Specialist Director UM-NSU CARD Ocaquatics Swim School 1
  2. 2. 5/7/2012Clinical Characteristics 2
  3. 3. 5/7/2012Autism Spectrum Disorders:What We Know Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurological disorders that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. ASDs are "spectrum disorders." That means ASDs affect each person in different ways, and can range from very mild to severe. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and social history Lifelong disability Outcomes are better with early identification and intensive intervention No known cause/No known cure Often occurs along with other disabilities 3
  4. 4. 5/7/2012Prevalence: How Common is ASD? 1 in 88 children has been identified with an ASD ASDs are reported to occur in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. 5 times more common among boys (1 in 54) than among girls (1 in 252). Reasons for the increase: • Changes in diagnostic criteria • Increased public awareness • US Dept of Education added autism as diagnostic category in 1991 • Laws promoting early intervention services • Research continuing to explore more reasons for increase in ASD*CDCs Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network 4
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  6. 6. 5/7/2012The Autism Spectrum “Umbrella”:Pervasive Developmental Disorders 5 separate diagnoses Autistic Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Disorder Asperger’s Rett’s Disorder Disorder PDD-NOS 6
  7. 7. 5/7/2012RED FLAGS No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions by six months or thereafter No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles, or other facial expressions by 9 months or thereafter No babbling by 12 months No back-and-forth gestures, such as pointing, showing, reaching, or waving by 12 months Greenspan, S.I., Prizant, B.M., Wetherby, A, and First Signs, Inc. http://www.first signs.org/healthydev/milestones.htm 7
  8. 8. 5/7/2012RED FLAGS No words by 16 months No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitating or repeating) by 24 months Any loss of speech or babbling or social skills at any age Some children and older individuals repeatedly flap their arms or walk on their toes. Some suddenly freeze in a position. Sometimes they may be disruptive and physically aggressive Greenspan, S.I., Prizant, B.M., Wetherby, A, and First Signs, Inc. http://www.first signs.org/healthydev/milestones.htm 8
  9. 9. 5/7/2012Main Areas Affected Restricted & Social Communication/ Repetitive Interaction Play BehaviorsChallenges Sensory Processing Motor Skills Attention Organization Motivation Learning Co-Morbid Conditions (anxiety, depression, seizures, mental retardation) *Affected individuals will vary in the number and severity of specific symptoms exhibited 9
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  12. 12. 5/7/2012Teaching Strategies Reinforcement Prompting Modeling 12
  13. 13. 5/7/2012Positive Reinforcement “When a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and, as a result, occurs more often in the future” (Cooper, Heron, Howard, 1987) 13
  14. 14. 5/7/2012PromptingStimuli used to increase the likelihood that a correct response will be emitted. Special cues before or during the performance ofa behavior in order to directattention to an activity andhelp the behavior to occur. 14
  15. 15. 5/7/2012Types of Prompts Physical Prompts Modeling Gestural Prompts Verbal Prompts Visual Prompts (pictures, words) 15
  16. 16. 5/7/2012Visual PromptsAnything that we see that: Enhances the communication process Helps us gain information Improves organization 16
  17. 17. 5/7/2012Why use visuals?Children with autism learn visuallyReduces anxiety and fearsEnhances comprehensionHelps reduced inappropriate behaviorsHelps them to predict what is comingTeaches independenceHelps with attention and learning 17
  18. 18. 5/7/2012Introductory Books Called Social Stories-Created by Carol Gray Short stories to visually convey expectations Use for self-help, changes in routine, behavior, etc. Introduce to a new event or activity 18
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  20. 20. 5/7/2012 An Introductory Book for our Swimming Lessons Welcome to Ocaquatics Swim School!The mission of Ocaquatics Swim School is to teach families to love swimming and to become safer, more comfortable and responsible around the water. This introductory book will help your child come more relaxed, excited, and prepared for his/her swimming lessons. The Schedule goes as follow: Welcome and warm-up Arms/Rainbows and Rollovers Kicking Backstroke kicks Arms/Rainbows Backstroke arms/rainbows Back floating Jumps Rollovers Playtime/ Rings Please print this book at least a week before the lessons starts and read it with him/her everyday. We can’t wait to have FUN in the water! 20
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  30. 30. 5/7/2012Positive Behavior Support Environmental Design Boundaries Visual Supports Schedules Choice boards Show them what to do (task strips) Clarify Expectations First /Then (verbal or visual) Timer, count down (verbal or visual) Be prepared ( know your goals, have materials ready) CATCH THEM BEING GOOD!!!!!!!!!! 30
  31. 31. 5/7/2012Schedules-Choice Boards Why?Give information on What is going to happen When it’s going to happenIncrease Independence Structure of the environment PredictabilityDecrease Fear and anxiety Surprises 31
  32. 32. 5/7/2012Responses to Challenging Behaviors Ignoring Redirecting Removal from current activity or remove desired item Reinforce appropriate behaviors 32
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  35. 35. 5/7/2012Pilot Swimming Program 24 Children (Autism and other disabilities) split into 3 groups 10 Week program. Swimmers came once per week. 35
  36. 36. 5/7/2012Pilot Swimming Program4 Ocaquatics staff in thewater. 1 Ocaquatics staffmember on deck. 1 fromUM-NSU CARD. 2-3 fromBeyond ExpectationsSchool in and out of thewater for support.Before the programstarted, UM-NSU CARDprovided training forOcaquatics staffmembers. 36
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  38. 38. 5/7/2012Waiting for a Turn WAIT BOARD Preferred toy Squeeze ball Ring to STOP ring to GO STOP sing Give verbal cues (one or two words) Peers (buddy system) Bobs First-Then 38
  39. 39. 5/7/2012Bubbles Model Prompt Peers (buddy system) Straw for blowing 39
  40. 40. 5/7/2012How Many Laps Numbers on board Instructional Tools Ducks First-Then 40
  41. 41. 5/7/2012Kicking Model Prompt Doll Peers (buddy system) 41
  42. 42. 5/7/2012Back and Front Floating Model Prompt Doll Peers (buddy system) Sensory-Squeeze forehead “Shuuu” sound Mirror Kickboard Float under mat 42
  43. 43. 5/7/2012Front and Back Arms Model Prompt Doll Peers (buddy system) 43
  44. 44. 5/7/2012Jumps and Diving Model Prompt Instructional Tools Peers (buddy system) Hoola Hoop 44
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