Taking the Next Step: Using Spreadsheets to ProcessLibrary Statistics & Database Results Gwen Exner – NCknows Lynda Kellam – UNCG Presented at NCLA 2011
Using SpreadsheetsSpreadsheets do very little that you could not domanually, with a calculator, or in a word processor.However, they do it a lot more quickly, and with awhole lot less effort.• Sorting data • Comparing data• Filtering data • Rearranging data• Deriving info • Collating data (Finding maximums, minimums, averages, etc.)
Using SpreadsheetsThis presentation is designed to:• Go over universal terms & concepts.• Give general step-by step instructions on how to perform various tasks.• Introduce project ideas that can be used in your library.Instructions for different programs are availableonline – if yours isn‟t listed, just ask! http://swissarmyspreadsheets.com/NCLA2011
TerminologyRows A row is a horizontal collection of cells.Columns • It is referred to by the number to its left.Cells • There are 8 rows in this example (1-8).Worksheet • Row 2 is highlighted.Formula BarFormulaTextFunction
TerminologyRows A column is a vertical collection of cells.Columns • It is referred to by the letter above it.Cells • There are 5 columns showing in thisWorksheet example (A-E).Formula Bar • Column B is highlighted.FormulaTextFunction
TerminologyRows A cell is the smallest part of a spreadsheet.Columns • It is referred to as the intersection of aCells column and row.Worksheet • It holds a single value or formula.Formula Bar • Cell B2 is highlighted.FormulaTextFunction
TerminologyRows A worksheet is a single „page‟ of cells.Columns • It is identified by the tabs near the bottom.Cells • It can contain cells that are not showing.Worksheet • It can need 100‟s of paper pages to print.Formula Bar • In this example we are in Sheet1.FormulaTextFunction
TerminologyRows The formula bar always shows the formula.Columns • It is generally located above the cellsCells • It is can be preceded by = or fx or formula:Worksheet • It lets you edit the formula in the cell.Formula • In this example it shows 37199. BarFormulaTextFunction
TerminologyRows A formula is the equation behind the result.Columns • They start with = either explicitly orCells implicitly.Worksheet – It can be very simple. =37199Formula Bar – It can be more complicated. =37200-1Formula – It can use functions.Text =concatenate(“$”,37,”,”,199)Function • All of these formulas could yield a cell showing the value $37,199.
TerminologyRows Text is a specific type of formula which canColumns not be evaluated to anything else.Cells • Text formulas start with either „ or =„.Worksheet • Cells will show exactly what is after the „Formula Bar in a text formula, even if it contains mathFormula or a function.Text • This is great when you want 27403-2600 toFunction show as a zip+4, not evaluate to 24803.
TerminologyRows Functions are tools used in formulas.Columns • They can let you do things more easily,Cells such as sum(a1:a3) instead of a1+a2+a3.Worksheet • They can let you do otherwise impossible things, like turning “Robert” and “Frost”Formula Bar into “Robert Frost”.Formula • They require specific pieces of input, in aText specific order, with a specified dividerFunction between each piece of input.
Programs & file typesThere are many spreadsheet formats/programsin existence.MS Excel (.xls / .xlsx) Google SpreadsheetOpen Office Calc (.ods) MS Works Spreadsheet (.wks/.xlr) Etc.These are the only formats which will allow youto retain your formulas. Everything else willonly save the results of the formulas.
Programs & file typesThere are some formats which can be smoothlyimported to / exported from spreadsheets.• Comma Separated Values (.csv) [also known as “comma delimited”]• Tab Delimited Text (.txt) [also sometimes called Tab Separated Values, and saved as .tsv]To import/export you will need to do one of these: • Open / Open as.. / Convert to.. / Import • Save as / Export to
Programs & file typesThere are also data sources which often interactwith spreadsheets, but don’t do so smoothly.• HTML: copy & paste tables to (not from) spreadsheets, and use spreadsheets to create HTML code.• Word processors : best done through c&p of tables• Non-delimited/separated text files: needs functions to parse text
Programs & file typesQuestions about programs or file types?
Freezing rows & columnsSpreadsheets let you “freeze” rows (at the left),and columns (at the top), so they always show.• Useful when working with too much data for 1 screen versus
Freezing rows & columns INSTRUCTIONS1. Go to the cell below & to the right of all the rows & columns you want “frozen”.2. Follow the instructions for your program below.Excel 97: “Window” menu, “Freeze” (Alt-w-f)Excel 2007: “View” tab, “Freeze Panes” submenuOpenOffice: “Window” menu, “Freeze” (Alt-w-f)Google Docs: “View” menu, “Freeze rows” or“Freeze columns”
Special PastesAs values Most spreadsheets have a separateAs Text menu for “special” pasting options.Transpose • Some options are very helpful in multiple contexts. • Context-sensitive menus might offer different options depending on clipboard contents or other factors.
Special Pastes: As ValuesAs Values Pasting “As Values” means just theAs Text results of the formulasTranspose • Formulas are not pasted. • Formatting is not pasted. • Available when pasting from & to a spreadsheet. • Has (mostly) the same effect as pasting to a word processor, & then back again.
Special Pastes: As ValuesAs ValuesAs TextTranspose
Special Pastes: As TextAs Values Pasting as “Text” or “Unicode Text”As Text pastes without formatting or images.Transpose • Available when pasting from HTML or some other non-spreadsheet source. • Pasting from a website to a spreadsheet without this can make a big mess that‟s hard to read and harder to work with -- especially if there‟s graphics.
Special Pastes: As Text Example: Original website table, fromAs Values http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/cities/As TextTranspose This is a screenshot of how it appeared online.
Special Pastes: As Text Example: Website table, pasted normallyAs Values Single cells broken upAs Text Can‟t auto-adjust columnTranspose width without changing “wrap text” formatting. Can‟t sort without un- merging cells. Cities & population are on different rows. Links! Original table source: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/cities/
Special Pastes: As Text Example: Website table, pasted as textAs ValuesAs TextTranspose • Only one separated cell (header) • Easy to auto-adjust column width • No merged cells, so easy to sort • City & population on the same line • No links Original table source: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/cities/
Special Pastes: TransposeAs Values Pasting “Transpose” switches theAs Text columns and rows.Transpose • Cell A1, B2, C3, etc. stay put. • Cell B1 (2nd column, 1st row) moves to cell A2 (1st column, 2nd row). This option may not appear in a converted .csv or .txt file. If so, just “save as” a spreadsheet, close, and re-open.
Special Pastes: TransposeAs ValuesAs TextTranspose B1 moves to A2 C3 stays at C3 Original table source: https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/EDIS/demographics.html
Special PastesAs ValuesAs TextTranspose Questions about special pastes?
RearrangingRearrange You might want to re-arrange data to:Collate • Make it more readableSort • Make it more understandableFilterCompare • Make it easier to manipulateDerive info
Rearranging: TransposingRearrange Transposing is one type of re-arranging.CollateSort It‟s most useful when:Filter • There are few rows, and many columnsCompareDerive info • Column headers are wider than row headers.
Rearranging: TransposingRearrange Example: 2 pieces of data about all 100Collate counties in NCSort You can read it this way:FilterCompareDerive info • columns are too narrow to read headers • Less than 1/10th of 100 counties are visible at any given time Original table source: https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/EDIS/demographics.html
Rearranging: TransposingRearrange Example: 2 pieces of data about all 100Collate counties in NCSort Or you can read it this way:FilterCompareDerive info • columns are wide enough to headers • Only 1/50th of 100 counties are visible at any given time Original table source: https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/EDIS/demographics.html
Rearranging: TransposingRearrange Example: 2 pieces of data about all 100Collate counties in NCSort Or you can transpose it:FilterCompareDerive info Original table source: https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/EDIS/demographics.html
Rearranging: TransposingRearrangeCollateSort Questions about rearrangingFilter by transposing?CompareDerive info
Rearranging: SwitchingRearrange Switching the order of columns or rowsCollate is another type of re-arranging.SortFilter It‟s most useful when:Compare • There are natural sub-groups that areDerive info best viewed together • You‟re comparing the data in two widely separated columns
Rearranging: SwitchingRearrange Example: Many pieces of data about allCollate 100 counties in NCSort Because EDIS lists the counties inFilter alphabetical order, industrial countiesCompare might be next to rural counties.Derive info Example: Wake ($72k average) & Warren ($36k) Original table source: https://edis.commerce.state.nc.us/EDIS/demographics.html
Rearranging: SwitchingRearrange Example: Many pieces of data about allCollate 100 counties in NCSort Switching column/row order lets youFilter group them by region, such as in thisCompare example, where the “Eastern” countiesDerive info have been grouped together.
Rearranging: SwitchingRearrange INSTRUCTIONSCollate 1. Insert a column where you want theSort column moved to.Filter Excel 97: “Insert” menu, “Column” Excel 2007: “Home” tab, “Insert” menu,Compare “Insert Sheet Column”Derive info OpenOffice: “Edit” menu, “Paste Special” Google Docs: “Insert” menu, “Column left” or “Column right” 2. Copy old column, paste into new column 3. Delete original column
Rearranging: SwitchingRearrangeCollateSort Questions about switchingFilter column or row order?CompareDerive info
Collating dataRearrange Collate means “put together in order”.Collate • Two kinds that are easier in spreadsheetsSortFilter – Combining data from a single sourceCompare – Combining data from multiple sourcesDerive info • Note: A “source” is a single file, or a single copy/paste.
Collating data: single sourceRearrange Example: Author namesCollate Imagine that you have a list of authors,SortFilter and want to search for them in a database.Compare • The names are in two columns: one forDerive info first name, and one for last. • The database needs them as “last, first”.
Collating data: single sourceRearrange Solution: Author namesCollate 1. Go to any blank column.Sort 2. Use the concatenate function toFilter combine the two cells on the same row.CompareDerive info 3. Extend/fill/paste the formula down for the rest of the list.
Collating data: single sourceRearrange More on concatenateCollate • Concatenate just puts together whateverSortFilter you tell it to, as text, like a toy train.Compare • In this it puts together B2‟s value, then aDerive info comma & space, then A2‟s value.
Collating data: single sourceRearrange comma<space>CollateSort =concatenate(B2, “, ” ,A2)FilterCompareDerive info
Collating data: single sourceRearrangeCollateSort Questions on collating dataFilterCompare from a single source?Derive info
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrange • Example: MorningstarCollate • You can print, but not export.Sort • Available data is split among 5 “views”FilterCompare • Many lists have more than 1 page.Derive info Original data source: https://www.morningstar.com, “Terrific 10-Year Records” screen
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrange Solution: Morningstar (part 1 of 4)Collate • Spreadsheet (SS): Insert worksheetsSort until you have a total of 7 (one per view,Filter plus 2).CompareDerive info • Site: Highlight & copy the entire page for the first view. (Ctrl-A, Ctrl-C.) • SS: Paste as text in sheet1. • Repeat previous 2 steps for remaining views, pasting in sheet2 through sheet5.
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrange Solution: Morningstar (part 2 of 4)Collate • SS: In sheet 6, create simple formulas toSort pull the data from the other sheets.Filter • Note: It may be best to type the headers.CompareDerive info
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrange Solution: Morningstar (part 3 of 4)Collate • SS: Copy the contents of Sheet6.Sort • SS: Paste as values into Sheet7.FilterCompare • Note: The cells look the same, but theDerive info formula bar in Sheet7 will have the value, not the reference.
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrange Solution: Morningstar (part 4 of 4)Collate • If there is more than one page per view,Sort repeat parts 1 & 3, EXCEPT that youFilter should paste the values in Sheet7Compare immediately below the previouslyDerive info existing values. • When pasting a second set of values you do not need to re-copy the headers.
Collating data: multiple sourcesRearrangeCollateSort Questions aboutFilterCompare collating data fromDerive info multiple sources?
Sorting dataRearrange Many databases allow you to sort.Collate However, spreadsheets let you:SortFilter • sort column order, instead of row order.Compare • sort using multiple criteria.Derive info • save multiple sort orders. • sort by more than numbers & letters.
Sorting data: Column orderRearrange Example: Many pieces of data about allCollate 100 counties in NCSort • You can manually shift 90+ countiesFilter into their categories, OR…CompareDerive info • You can insert a row, enter the region names, and then transpose, sort by region name, & transpose back. Note: Some spreadsheets allow you to sort column orders without transposing.
Sorting data: Column orderRearrange Questions about sortingCollateSort column order?FilterCompareDerive info
Sorting data: Multiple criteriaRearrange Most spreadsheets let you sort 3 orCollate more columns.Sort • First column gets first priority, like theFilter first part of a call number.CompareDerive info • Second column gets sorted within the identical entries in the first results.
Sorting data: Multiple criteriaRearrange Questions about sortingCollateSort using multiple criteria?FilterCompareDerive info
Sorting data: Storing sortsRearrange If you must often re-build complicatedCollate sorts, concatenate can help.Sort • Choose your priorities for the sort.Filter • Concatenate your list of priorities.CompareDerive info =concatenate(priority1,priority2, etc.) • Paste formula the length of the table. Note: This must be adjacent to the text you want to sort.
Sorting data: Storing sortsRearrange Questions about usingCollateSort concatenate to save sortingFilter rules?CompareDerive info
Sorting data: non-alphanumericRearrange Example: House-huntingCollate Imagine you‟re helping a house-hunter.Sort • They want to focus on houses that areFilter priced within 10% of their assessedCompareDerive info value. • If a house is in that category, they want it ranked by square footage, not by the percentage.
Sorting data: non-alphanumericRearrange Example: House-huntingCollate Solution: Use a sort column with an “if”.SortFilter • General syntax: if(condition,then,else)Compare • In other words, if “condition” is true,Derive info “then” show X, “else” show Y. Note: Some spreadsheets allow you to sort by formatting, which can also work when combined with conditional formatting.
Sorting data: non-alphanumericRearrange Example: House-huntingCollate Solution step-by-step:Sort • Insert two columns, called “percentage”Filter and “sort”.CompareDerive info • In percentage: =abs(price-value)/value • In sort: =if(percentage<=.1,sqft, “zz”) • That will show “zz” for everything outside of 10%, and the numerical square feet for everything within 10%
Sorting data: non-alphanumericRearrange Questions about sortingCollateSort using non-alphanumericFilter criteria?CompareDerive info
Filtering dataRearrange Filtering:Collate • Hides, but doesn‟t delete dataSort • Makes it easy to visually group dataFilter without re-sorting itCompareDerive info • Is best used with repeating fields • Allows grouping using Boolean logic • Can be faster than sorting large datasets • Lets you download a single large dataset, and filter from there.
Filtering dataRearrange INSTRUCTIONSCollate Most spreadsheets allow you to filter bySort clicking on the column header after youFilter have activated filtering.Compare Excel 97: “Data” menu, “Filter”, “Autofilter”Derive info Excel 2007: “Home” tab, “Editing” group, “Sort & Filter” menu, “Filter” OpenOffice: “Data” menu, “Filter” submenu, “Standard Filter” Google Docs: “View” menu, “List view”
Filtering data: Example1Rearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Imagine you want to check the accuracySort of your link resolver.Filter • The resolver has 100,000+ journal titlesCompareDerive info listed • Sorting will take FOREVER. • Filtering lets you extract each host, to sort separately
Filtering data: Example1Rearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution:Sort 1. Get list of hosts from “filter” options.FilterCompare 2. Group these hosts, if needed.Derive info 3. Add new worksheets (1 per host) 4. Filter data to show one host group. 5. Copy displayed data 6. Paste data into blank worksheet
Filtering data: Example2Rearrange Example: Team TeachingCollate Imagine you‟re recording class statisticsSort • You have a list of librarians who taughtFilter classes, BUT...CompareDerive info • When two teachers co-taught, they‟re listed in the same cell as “Teacher1 and Teacher2”
Filtering data: Example2Rearrange Example: Team TeachingCollate Solution:Sort • Go to the filter menuFilterCompare • Select all options that include the nameDerive info of the teacher you‟re checking • Manually add, or copy & paste results into blank worksheet to use functions.
Filtering data: Example3Rearrange Example: Business planningCollate Imagine helping a patron who wants toSort open a new restaurant.Filter • Patron hasn‟t decided whereCompareDerive info • Patron hasn‟t decided type • Patron wants to evaluate multiple factors and consider multiple scenarios before deciding.
Filtering data: Example3Rearrange Example: Business planningCollate Solution:Sort • 1) Download the full data setFilterCompare • 2) Prepare the spreadsheet (transpose ifDerive info needed, freeze headers) • 3) Decide on most important criteria • 4) Filter by most important criteria • 5) Repeat 3-4 as needed
Filtering data: Example3Rearrange Example: Business planningCollate Example:Sort • Filtered by average HH breakfastFilter spending (>=$95), then by total 25-34CompareDerive info population (>=10,000, <100,000) Data source: SimplyMap
Filtering dataRearrange Questions about filtering?CollateSortFilterCompareDerive info
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange There are many functions which allowCollate you to compare one piece of data toSort another.Filter • ifCompareDerive info • countif (not count!) • match • find • isnumber
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange Syntax:Collate • if (condition,“is match”,“not match”)SortFilter Behavior:Compare • Returns “is match” if condition is true.Derive info • Returns “not match” if false Example: • =if(a1=“y”, “is y”, “is not y”) • If a1=“x” then it will return “is not y”.
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange Syntax:Collate • countif (range, testvalue)SortFilter Behavior:Compare • Returns the # of cells in the range thatDerive info equal the testvalue. Example: • If a1=“a”, a2=“b”, a3=“c” etc. then countif(a1:a26,“b”) would return 1.
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange Syntax:Collate • match(testvalue, range,0)SortFilter Behavior:Compare • Returns the location of the first cellDerive info matching testvalue within the range. • Returns an error if no cell matches. Example: • If a1=2,a2=4,a3=6, etc, then match(“6”, a1:a9,0) would return “3”.
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange Syntax:Collate • find(testvalue, cell)SortFilter Behavior:Compare • Returns the location of the firstDerive info occurrence of testvalue in the cell. • Returns an error if it doesn‟t occur. Example: • If a1=“book” then =find(“k”,a1) would return “4”
Comparing data: FunctionsRearrange Syntax:Collate • isnumber(cell)SortFilter Behavior:Compare • Returns true if cell contains a number,Derive info and false if it doesn‟t Example: • isnumber(“a”) returns false. • isnumber(1) returns true.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Even within a single platform there mightSort be thousands of journals.FilterCompare • Checking them all by hand is slooow.Derive info • Data can be checked quickly against list from host, if it‟s in the same order. • Variant titles can cause lists to be in different orders.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 1 of 5)Sort 1. Insert 3 columns between the dataFilter sets, label 1st “sort1”, and 3rd “sort2”.CompareDerive info Explanation: – 1st column will hold the “sort” for 1st data set. – 3rd column will hold the “sort” for 2nd data set. – 2nd column will stay blank, so the sets can be sorted independently.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 2 of 5):Sort 2. In “sort1”: =if(isnumber(match(titles1,Filter titles2)), “match”, “zz”)CompareDerive info Explanation for match(titles1,titles2): • This takes the value in titles1 that‟s on the same row as the formula, and looks for it in titles2. It returns a number if it finds a match, and an error if not.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 2 of 5):Sort 2. In “sort1”: =if(isnumber(match(titles1,Filter titles2)), “match”, “zz”)CompareDerive info Explanation for isnumber(match()) : • This returns true if match returned a number, and false if match returned an error.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 2 of 5):Sort 2. In “sort1”: =if(isnumber(match(titles1,Filter titles2)), “match”, “zz”)CompareDerive info Explanation for if(is#(), “match”, “zz”): • If isnumber returned true, this returns “match” • If isnumber returned false, this returns “zz”
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 2 of 5):Sort 2. In “sort1”: =if(isnumber(match(titles1,Filter titles2)), “match”, “zz”)CompareDerive info Result: • The 1st data set can now be sorted so that all the titles with matches go to the top, and the ones without go to the bottom.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 3 of 5):Sort 3. In “sort2”: =if(isnumber(match(titles2,Filter titles1)), “match”, “zz”)CompareDerive info Explanation/Result: • Same as Step 2, except it‟s checking for the title from titles2 in the range titles1.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 4 of 5):Sort 4. Sort the data sets, with “sort” first andFilter the title column secondCompareDerive info Explanation/Result: • The matching journal titles in the two data sets should now be lined up with each other. • The shorter list of non-matching titles is easier to check for common (fixable) variants.
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Example: Checking link resolverCollate Solution (step 5 of 5):Sort 5. In the middle blank column, enter anFilter “if” checking whatever you want.CompareDerive info Example: if(url1=url2,“good”,“check”) Explanation/Result : • All journals with correct URLs labeled “good”. • If all journals are “good”, you‟re done! • If not, you still have a fewer to check by hand!
Comparing data: Function exampleRearrange Questions about comparingCollateSort data using functions?FilterCompareDerive info
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange • Intuitive understanding can be moreCollate important than perfect accuracy.Sort • Graphs and charts can convey moreFilter information at a glance than a largeCompare table full of numbersDerive info
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange Example: Available space analysisCollateSortFilterCompareDerive info
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange Spreadsheets make it easy to createCollate simple graphs and charts.Sort 1. Select the data to be includedFilter 2. Click on the icon that looks like aCompareDerive info graph, or use menus to “insert chart” 3. Select the type of chart you want (bar, line, pie, etc.) 4. Click the button to complete
Comparing data: Graphs Title Data point Plot area Chart areaRearrange SeriesCollateSort Gridline LegendFilterCompare Y-axis X-axisDerive info Data table Y-axis label Tick mark X-axis label
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange General tipsCollateSort • To change elements: Right click it.Filter • To add elements: Right-click on theCompare chart area and look for something likeDerive info “chart options” to activate it. • To change the axis maximum: Right click on the axis.
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange Example: Historial racial census dataCollate • Original data:SortFilterCompareDerive info Data source: American Factfinder
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange Example: Historial racial census dataCollate • Charts:SortFilterCompareDerive info Data source: American Factfinder
Comparing data: GraphsRearrange Questions aboutCollateSort charts & graphs?FilterCompareDerive info Data source: American Factfinder
Deriving informationRearrange Deriving information is done usingCollate formulas and functions.Sort In general, functions are what you do…Filter • Add up cash on hand for parking /lunchCompare • Calculate a waiter‟s tipDerive info • Figure out how much time is left …and formulas are how you do it. • Total * 20% = tip If you calculate something, you’ve derived information.
Deriving informationRearrange Commonly used functions:Collate • sum(range) - adds up all the numbersSort • average(range) - calculates meanFilterCompare • median(range) - finds the middleDerive info • max(range) - finds the largest number • min(range) - finds the smallest number These functions all work on groups (ranges) of cells.
Deriving informationRearrange Excel has a statistical analysis add-inCollate which analyzes data many differentSort ways (average, standard deviation,Filter kurtosis, t-tests, etc.)CompareDerive info • Included, but you have to activate it. • More advanced statistical functions might use approximations – if precision is important, use R, SAS, SPSS, etc.
Deriving informationRearrange Questions about derivingCollateSort information usingFilterCompare functions and formulas?Derive info
Sample projectsBibliographic Instruction StatisticsLibrary: North Carolina A&T• Lists teacher(s), student numbers and type, date, requesting department, etc.• Manually updated after classes are taught.• Automatically extracts and formats data for multiple monthly and end-of-year reports.
Sample projectsE-resource ManagementLibrary: Appalachian State University• Lists e-resource name, source, coverage, cost, renewal date, etc.• Usage statistics updated regularly using SUSHI, resource info updated as needed.• Allows easier analysis of e-resource value• Allows easier comparison of resources• Allows easier budgeting
Sample projectsBackend development (one-time)Source: NCknows• Used concatenate function and known values to generate large amounts of code for website during LibraryH3lp rollout.• Reduced amount of time needed• Reduced likelihood of typos• Easily corrected, adapted, and expanded
Thank you! Questions?Links to step-by-step instructions for doing varioustasks in different programs are available at: http://swissarmyspreadsheets.com/NCLA2011 Copies of the handout, or new ones customized for your library‟s needs, can be gotten by contacting Gwen Exner (firstname.lastname@example.org)