NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup
An initiative o...
NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

You can access the recording of the
live webinar presentation at
www.ncih...
Housekeeping

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

- This session is being recorded
- Certificate of Attendanc...
NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

Welcome!
Guest Trainer:

Marjory Bancroft, M.A.
Cultural Incompetence
A Fix-It Seminar for Interpreter Trainers
Marjory Bancroft, MA, for NCIHC Webinar, 1/30/14
Poll Question #1
Do you think the cultural expert on the
patient is:
a)The doctor
b)The interpreter
c)The patient’s spouse...
Learning Objectives

1

• Identify three key concepts about cultural
competence to teach medical interpreters.

2

• List ...
Learning Objective 1

1

• Identify three key concepts about cultural
competence to teach medical interpreters.

2

• List...
The Cultural Competence Journey

Cultural
Competence
Cultural
Sensitivity
Cultural
Awareness

Cultural
Humility
THE EVIL EYE: Part 1
What Is Cultural Competence?
• Around the world, there are
different beliefs about
cultural competence.
• Many interpreter...
Like an iceberg, nine-tenths of culture is unseen—and
out of our conscious awareness.

This “hidden” part of culture has
b...
Culture Is Complex
Physical

Social

Culture
Spiritual
Family

Personal
The Three Concepts
As trainers, we want to be careful to teach interpreters
three simple facts:
•Interpreters are not cult...
Cultural Knowledge vs.
Cultural Awareness
Cultural Competence
The ability of individuals
and systems to respond
respectfully and
effectively to people of
all cultur...
What Is Diversity?

Many people look at culture and diversity in terms of
race and ethnicity. In reality, diversity is mor...
Diversity Is Everything
Ethnicity
Thinkin
g Styles

Language

Religion

Nationality

Physical
Abilities

Perspectives

Exp...
We Are Not Cultural Experts
• Many people treat
interpreters as cultural
experts.
• This is a dangerous
assumption.
• Dive...
The Interpreter: A Cultural
Treasure (Not Expert…)
Teaching Tools

Here are some strategies for convincing your
participants that they are not cultural experts:
1. Diversity...
Diversity Training
• Diversity training activities
expose unconscious bias.
• We assume we know other
human beings.
• Dive...
Video Vignettes
• One film is often worth hours of lectures.
• Some are free on YouTube: e.g., Worlds Apart
(abridged) htt...
Video Vignette #1
Let’s watch the following video from Worlds
Apart (A Series on Cross-Cultural Health
Care), Episode 3.
h...
Poll Question #2
Imagine that you are the interpreter facing a major
cultural barrier like the one in the video, and you k...
Research and Experts
• A growing body of research shows that it is the provider’s role
and responsibility to provide cultu...
Reducing Disparities


Research



Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial &
Ethnic Health Disparities? A Review and
Conce...
Wise Words from IMIA
•

[The interpreter’s] role in such

situations is not to ‘give the
answer’ but rather to help both
p...
The Training of Health
Professionals
• Today most health professions
schools require cultural
competence education.
• Heal...
Legislative Requirements
BLUE

RED

• legislation referred to
committee and/or under
consideration.

YELLOW
https://www.th...
The Cultural Expert

There is only one
cultural expert on
the patient.
And that is…
THE EVIL EYE: Part 2
Learning Objective 2

1

• Identify three key concepts about cultural
competence to teach medical interpreters.

2

• List...
A Sobering Story
• Let’s watch another Worlds Apart
episode.
• This is Episode 1:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v
=K5d_iPaU...
Identify Cultural Barriers—Don’t
Explain Them
• My story…
Three Interpreter Responsibilities

Interpreting: Rendering an oral or signed message from one
language into another, oral...
The Three Responsibilities
Mediation Outside the
Session

Mediation
Interpreting
Mediation Means Intervening
to Address a Communication Barrier
In medical interpreting, you
are essentially responsible
fo...
Sample Learning Activity:
Should I Mediate? Yes or No
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

The patient doesn’t seem to
understand much.
The pr...
How to Mediate: Steps for Mediation

1.

Interpret what was just said or signed.

2.

Identify yourself as the interpreter...
Strategic Mediation

This step is
VERY EASY
to forget!

If you are not
brief, you will
get stuck.

Interpret
the last
thin...
Mental Scripts

• To practice strategic
mediation, you need to help
participants plan.
• Otherwise they will freeze.
• The...
Crash Class in Script Writing!
Trainers, what would YOU say as
an interpreter if there was a
serious cultural deadlock abo...
Sample Scripts
1. “As the interpreter I’m
concerned there may be
a misunderstanding
about what a kidney is.”
2. “The inter...
Weighing Roles
Mediation role:
Maybe…

Interpreting role:
YES!

Please guide interpreters to think carefully before they i...
Ethical Decision-Making
The CHIA guidelines (adapted) come in six steps.
(www.chiaonline.org)

Decide if
there is a
proble...
Example of Cultural Mediation
• You see red marks on a child that show the parent applied a
cultural remedy (like cupping,...
The Interpreter:
A Cultural Treasure
•
•
•
•
•

Interpreters provide cultural
information when it is truly
needed.
Teach t...
Teaching the Concept of
Autonomy
• The patient has the right to
self-determination.
• We need to show
interpreters how not...
Learning Objective 3

1

• Identify three key concepts about cultural
competence to teach medical interpreters.

2

• List...
The LEARN Model
L

Listen
with sympathy and
understanding to
the /patient’s
perception of the
problem.

E

A

R

N

Explai...
“Crossing Cultures”
• Let’s watch a short film about the LEARN
model from The Medicine Box Project
(www.medicinebox.org)
The LEARN Model
• The LEARN model was
developed by physicians
and medical researchers.
• It has helped to
revolutionize ou...
LEARN vs. Stereotypes
Stereotypes are usually defined as simplifying generalizations
people use when they think about and/...
Stereotypes vs. Generalizations
Stereotypes

Generalizations

– Stereotypes are based on
opinions, not facts.

– Generaliz...
Stereotypes as End Points
“A stereotype is an ending point. No attempt is made to learn
whether the individual in question...
How Cultural Competence
Works
• Let us not teach interpreters to
ask questions like, “Do you
understand?”
• Instead, the k...
Interpreters don’t have to solve cultural barriers.
But they can do
three big things
• Remember that each patient
is cultu...
Recommended Reading
• De facto national standards for cultural competence
training and education by Jean Gilbert:
http://w...
“We Are All Human”
Questions?
Marjory Bancroft, MA, Director
Cross-Cultural Communications, LLC
10015 Old Columbia Road, Suite B-215
Columbia...
Announcements
NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

- Future events
- Session Evaluation

- Follow up via email...
Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup
An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee

NATIONAL ...
NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE

You can access the recording of the
live webinar presentation at
www.ncih...
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NCIHC Home for Trainers - Cultural Incompetence

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Calling all interpreter trainers! Join us for this live webinar for interpreter trainers on teaching cultural competency in health care interpreter training programs. This webinar will present a pedagogical framework and practical strategies that interpreter trainers can use to teach interpreters how to perform cultural mediation, rather than act as cultural arbiters themselves.

After attending this 90-minute webinar, interpreter trainers will be able to:
1. Identify three key concepts in cultural competence to teach to medical interpreters.
2. List and become familiar with the steps, sample scripts and framework for teaching interpreters to perform safe, effective cultural mediation (AKA culture brokering).
3. Explore the LEARN model as a framework for teaching cultural mediation.

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NCIHC Home for Trainers - Cultural Incompetence

  1. 1. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee Cultural Incompetence: A Fix-It Seminar for Interpreter Trainers Guest Trainer: Marjory Bancroft, M.A. Webinar Work Group Hosts: Rachel Herring & Erin Rosales January 30, 2014 www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers WWW.NCIHC.ORG
  2. 2. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE You can access the recording of the live webinar presentation at www.ncihc.org/trainerswebinars Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers
  3. 3. Housekeeping NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE - This session is being recorded - Certificate of Attendance trainerswebinars@ncihc.org - Audio and technical problems - Questions to organizers (“Chat”) -Q&A - Twitter #NCIHCWebinar Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers
  4. 4. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE Welcome! Guest Trainer: Marjory Bancroft, M.A.
  5. 5. Cultural Incompetence A Fix-It Seminar for Interpreter Trainers Marjory Bancroft, MA, for NCIHC Webinar, 1/30/14
  6. 6. Poll Question #1 Do you think the cultural expert on the patient is: a)The doctor b)The interpreter c)The patient’s spouse or family member d)The patient e)Any combination of the above
  7. 7. Learning Objectives 1 • Identify three key concepts about cultural competence to teach medical interpreters. 2 • List and become familiar with the steps, sample scripts and framework for teaching interpreters to perform safe, effective cultural mediation (AKA culture brokering) 3 • Explore the LEARN model as a framework for teaching cultural mediation.
  8. 8. Learning Objective 1 1 • Identify three key concepts about cultural competence to teach medical interpreters. 2 • List and become familiar with the steps, sample scripts and framework for teaching interpreters to perform safe, effective cultural mediation (AKA culture brokering) 3 • Explore the LEARN model as a framework for teaching cultural mediation.
  9. 9. The Cultural Competence Journey Cultural Competence Cultural Sensitivity Cultural Awareness Cultural Humility
  10. 10. THE EVIL EYE: Part 1
  11. 11. What Is Cultural Competence? • Around the world, there are different beliefs about cultural competence. • Many interpreters believe that their cultural role is to know and explain facts about a specific culture as needed. • But what does research and medical practice tell us about cultural competence?
  12. 12. Like an iceberg, nine-tenths of culture is unseen—and out of our conscious awareness. This “hidden” part of culture has been termed “deep culture.”
  13. 13. Culture Is Complex Physical Social Culture Spiritual Family Personal
  14. 14. The Three Concepts As trainers, we want to be careful to teach interpreters three simple facts: •Interpreters are not cultural experts. – The interpreter’s job is NOT to explain culture but rather to facilitate cultural dialogue. •They may IDENTIFY and disclose cultural barriers. – I.e., instead of explaining a cultural issue, they may point out what might have triggered the misunderstanding. •The only cultural expert on the patient is…
  15. 15. Cultural Knowledge vs. Cultural Awareness
  16. 16. Cultural Competence The ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, in a manner that affirms the worth and preserves the dignity of individuals, families, and communities. -Ohmens, P. (1996) Recommendations from Six Steps Toward Cultural Competence: How to Meet the Needs of Immigrants and Refugees. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Health Advocates.
  17. 17. What Is Diversity? Many people look at culture and diversity in terms of race and ethnicity. In reality, diversity is more diverse.
  18. 18. Diversity Is Everything Ethnicity Thinkin g Styles Language Religion Nationality Physical Abilities Perspectives Experiences Culture Job Level Skills Sexual Orientation Gender Race Age
  19. 19. We Are Not Cultural Experts • Many people treat interpreters as cultural experts. • This is a dangerous assumption. • Diversity it too diverse: no one can know it all, and every individual is culturally unique. • No one is a cultural expert on another human being. • But how can you convince training participants?
  20. 20. The Interpreter: A Cultural Treasure (Not Expert…)
  21. 21. Teaching Tools Here are some strategies for convincing your participants that they are not cultural experts: 1. Diversity training activities 2. Video vignettes 3. Research and experts 4. The training of health professionals 5. The LEARN model
  22. 22. Diversity Training • Diversity training activities expose unconscious bias. • We assume we know other human beings. • Diversity activities (some of them famous) expose those assumptions. • For interpreter training, try to find shorter diversity activities. • Try to attend diversity trainings.
  23. 23. Video Vignettes • One film is often worth hours of lectures. • Some are free on YouTube: e.g., Worlds Apart (abridged) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5d_iPaUrWw; , Silent Beats, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76BboyrEl48; Ask me 3 (for health literacy), http://www.npsf.org/for-healthcareprofessionals/programs/ask-me-3/ , • Some are not free, e.g.: World of Differences: Understanding Cross-Cultural Communication; Kaiser Permanente, Clinical Cultural Competency Series; Crossing Cultures: Five Simple Steps to Improve Health by Improving Communication.
  24. 24. Video Vignette #1 Let’s watch the following video from Worlds Apart (A Series on Cross-Cultural Health Care), Episode 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MkOiWJdoTI
  25. 25. Poll Question #2 Imagine that you are the interpreter facing a major cultural barrier like the one in the video, and you know the cultural reasons for it. The healthcare provider is angry and upset at the parent’s refusal to perform heart surgery on the child. Would you: a) Simply interpret what was is being said? b) Intervene to explain the religious concern? c) Suggest that the healthcare provider contact a cultural specialist on the issue? d) None of the above?
  26. 26. Research and Experts • A growing body of research shows that it is the provider’s role and responsibility to provide culturally responsive services. • The organization is also responsible. • This approach goes to the very heart of patient-centered care—and the interpreter should not interfere with it. • Research also shows that interpreters who interfere with patient-centered care cause difficulties.
  27. 27. Reducing Disparities  Research  Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial & Ethnic Health Disparities? A Review and Conceptual Model. Brach C, Frazer I. (2000) Medical Care Research and Review 57, Suppl. 1:181-217.  Cultural Competence: A Systematic Review of Health Care Provider Educational Interventions. Beach M.C. et al (2005) Medical Care 43(4):356-373.  Setting the Agenda for Research on Cultural Competence in Health Care: Final Report Fortier JP, Bishop D, eds (2004). Resources for Cross Cultural Health Care. HHS Office of Minority Health and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Rockville, MD  Reality
  28. 28. Wise Words from IMIA • [The interpreter’s] role in such situations is not to ‘give the answer’ but rather to help both provider and patient to investigate the intercultural interface that may be creating the communication problem. • Interpreters… have no way of knowing where the individual facing them in that specific situation stands along a continuum from close adherence to the norms of a culture to acculturation into a new culture. - MMIA/IMIA Standards of Practice
  29. 29. The Training of Health Professionals • Today most health professions schools require cultural competence education. • Health professionals are taught that they and the healthcare organization are responsible for asking the patient (not the interpreter) for cultural and health belief information relevant to the encounter. • Please teach your interpreters about this fact: culture is a collective responsibility. • It is not the burden of the interpreter.
  30. 30. Legislative Requirements BLUE RED • legislation referred to committee and/or under consideration. YELLOW https://www.thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/Content/Legislatin gCLAS.asp • legislation has passed requiring (CA, CT, NJ, NM, WA) or strongly recommending (MD) cultural competence training for health professionals. • legislation dead in committee or vetoed. Source: DHHS
  31. 31. The Cultural Expert There is only one cultural expert on the patient. And that is…
  32. 32. THE EVIL EYE: Part 2
  33. 33. Learning Objective 2 1 • Identify three key concepts about cultural competence to teach medical interpreters. 2 • List and become familiar with the steps, sample scripts and framework for teaching interpreters to perform safe, effective cultural mediation (AKA culture brokering). 3 • Explore the LEARN model as a framework for teaching cultural mediation.
  34. 34. A Sobering Story • Let’s watch another Worlds Apart episode. • This is Episode 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =K5d_iPaUrWw • The patient in this true film will die sooner than expected. • As you watch, try to decide what caused the communication problem. Cultural competence can be a matter of life and death!
  35. 35. Identify Cultural Barriers—Don’t Explain Them • My story…
  36. 36. Three Interpreter Responsibilities Interpreting: Rendering an oral or signed message from one language into another, orally or in sign language. Mediation: Any act or utterance of the interpreter that goes beyond interpreting and is intended to address barriers to understanding. Mediation outside the session: Mediation that takes place before or after the session, typically to address patient follow-up, provider education, a pre-conference, debriefing or advocacy.
  37. 37. The Three Responsibilities Mediation Outside the Session Mediation Interpreting
  38. 38. Mediation Means Intervening to Address a Communication Barrier In medical interpreting, you are essentially responsible for two tasks or roles: 1.Interpreting 2.Mediating (intervening) At any given time, you are either interpreting or mediating.
  39. 39. Sample Learning Activity: Should I Mediate? Yes or No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The patient doesn’t seem to understand much. The provider or patient uses a term or phrase you don’t know. The provider is rude. A doctor is prescribing medications to a patient who is fasting for religious reasons—and the doctor clearly does not know this. The provider is speaking in very high register that seems impossible to interpret in a way that makes sense to the patient .
  40. 40. How to Mediate: Steps for Mediation 1. Interpret what was just said or signed. 2. Identify yourself as the interpreter. 3. Address one party briefly. 4. Interpret or report your mediation. 5. Continue interpreting.
  41. 41. Strategic Mediation This step is VERY EASY to forget! If you are not brief, you will get stuck. Interpret the last thing said. If you don’t follow this step, you will get locked in a side conversation. Identify yourself as the interpreter. Address one party briefly. Interpret or report your mediation. Remember to do so for BOTH parties. Continue interpreting. Do not forget this step!
  42. 42. Mental Scripts • To practice strategic mediation, you need to help participants plan. • Otherwise they will freeze. • They may have no idea what to say. • So help them plan ahead and develop mental scripts. • As a trainer—prepare examples in your own voice.
  43. 43. Crash Class in Script Writing! Trainers, what would YOU say as an interpreter if there was a serious cultural deadlock about: 1.The patient clearly (to you) doesn’t know what a kidney is. 2.The patient has no understanding that the session will be kept confidential. 3.The patient doesn’t want to know he’s going to die in 6 months. 4.The patient thinks a blood draw may let in bad spirits that could kill him.
  44. 44. Sample Scripts 1. “As the interpreter I’m concerned there may be a misunderstanding about what a kidney is.” 2. “The interpreter senses a break in communication about the idea of patient privacy.” 3. “The interpreter suggests you may wish to verify the patient’s preference for who will receive medical information.” 4. “As the interpreter I’m concerned there may be cultural differences regarding the safety of drawing blood.”
  45. 45. Weighing Roles Mediation role: Maybe… Interpreting role: YES! Please guide interpreters to think carefully before they intervene!
  46. 46. Ethical Decision-Making The CHIA guidelines (adapted) come in six steps. (www.chiaonline.org) Decide if there is a problem. Identify and state the problem: consider ethical principles. Clarify your personal values. Consider alternative actions, with their benefits and risks. Decide on an action. Evaluate the outcome: what would you do differently?
  47. 47. Example of Cultural Mediation • You see red marks on a child that show the parent applied a cultural remedy (like cupping, coining or spooning). • The provider knows nothing about it. You are very aware that she may report the parent possible child abuse. To provider: Excuse me, as the interpreter I wanted to mention a common practice called “coining.” You might want to ask the patient about it. To patient: Excuse me, as the interpreter I just mentioned “coining” to the provider and suggested she might want to ask you about it.
  48. 48. The Interpreter: A Cultural Treasure • • • • • Interpreters provide cultural information when it is truly needed. Teach them to use their cultural awareness to identify the key issues. Urge them to let the provider and patient ask questions or explain. Remind them that the culture of the system is a culture too. Ask them never to speak about the patient’s beliefs: we are not mind-readers. There is no need to explain any aspect of culture that the patient or provider can explain.
  49. 49. Teaching the Concept of Autonomy • The patient has the right to self-determination. • We need to show interpreters how not to influence a patient’s decision by supporting clear communication. • We want to show interpreters how to mediate rarely promote autonomy, not dependence. • “When in doubt—stay out!”
  50. 50. Learning Objective 3 1 • Identify three key concepts about cultural competence to teach medical interpreters. 2 • List and become familiar with the steps, sample scripts and framework for teaching interpreters to perform safe, effective cultural mediation (AKA culture brokering) 3 • Explore the LEARN model as a framework for teaching cultural mediation.
  51. 51. The LEARN Model L Listen with sympathy and understanding to the /patient’s perception of the problem. E A R N Explain Acknowledge Recommend Negotiate your perceptions of the problem. and discuss the differences and similarities. a course of action. agreement. Adapted from Berlin EA. & Fowkes WC, Jr. (1983). A teaching framework for cross cultural health care--Application in family practice. Western Journal of Medicine 139 (6): 934-938.
  52. 52. “Crossing Cultures” • Let’s watch a short film about the LEARN model from The Medicine Box Project (www.medicinebox.org)
  53. 53. The LEARN Model • The LEARN model was developed by physicians and medical researchers. • It has helped to revolutionize our understanding of how to work with patients from diverse cultures. • LEARN can be used effectively as a tool to help train medical interpreters.
  54. 54. LEARN vs. Stereotypes Stereotypes are usually defined as simplifying generalizations people use when they think about and/or act toward other individuals or groups. -Jan Kubik, Rutgers University Even positive stereotypes have negative effects. Stereotypes often lead to bias and discrimination. The LEARN model avoids stereotyping by approaching each patient as a culturally unique individual.
  55. 55. Stereotypes vs. Generalizations Stereotypes Generalizations – Stereotypes are based on opinions, not facts. – Generalizations are more neutral. – They suggest that everyone in a group is the same. – They tend to be based on facts, research or assessment. – They are often derogatory or negative.” – They are not personal opinions. – The intent behind them is often to help or educate.
  56. 56. Stereotypes as End Points “A stereotype is an ending point. No attempt is made to learn whether the individual in question fits the statement.” “A generalization… is a beginning point. It indicates common trends, but further information is needed to ascertain whether the statement is appropriate to a particular individual.” -Geri-Ann Galanti http://www.ggalanti.com/concepts.html
  57. 57. How Cultural Competence Works • Let us not teach interpreters to ask questions like, “Do you understand?” • Instead, the key is guide the provider—not the interpreter!—to ask the right questions. • When you train, give examples of the questions that providers should be asking: – – – – “What do you call your problem?” “What do you think caused it?” “Why has it happened to you?” “Why now?”
  58. 58. Interpreters don’t have to solve cultural barriers. But they can do three big things • Remember that each patient is culturally unique. • Guide the provider to ask the right cultural questions. • Practice safe, effective cultural mediation. Teach interpreters to understand that the provider’s best source of relevant cultural information is the PATIENT.
  59. 59. Recommended Reading • De facto national standards for cultural competence training and education by Jean Gilbert: http://www.calendow.org/uploadedfiles/principles_standa rds_cultural_competence.pdf • The LEARN Model: http://etl2.library.musc.edu/cultural/communication/comm unication_4.php • http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/culture/curriculum/resources/mod els/ • An article entitled a “crash course” in cultural competence geared for providers; a wonderful read: http://www.ishib.org/journal/16-2s3/ethn-16-2s3-29.pdf.
  60. 60. “We Are All Human”
  61. 61. Questions? Marjory Bancroft, MA, Director Cross-Cultural Communications, LLC 10015 Old Columbia Road, Suite B-215 Columbia, MD 21046 410-312-5599 (voice) 410-750-0332 (fax) mbancroft@cultureandlanguage.net www.cultureandlanguage.net
  62. 62. Announcements NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE - Future events - Session Evaluation - Follow up via email TrainersWebinars@ncihc.org Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers
  63. 63. Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE Thank you! Cultural Incompetence: A Fix-It Seminar for Interpreter Trainers Guest Trainer: Marjory Bancroft, M.A. January 30, 2014 www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers WWW.NCIHC.ORG
  64. 64. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON INTERPRETING IN HEALTH CARE You can access the recording of the live webinar presentation at www.ncihc.org/trainerswebinars Home for Trainers Interpreter Trainers Webinars Workgroup An initiative of the Standards and Training Committee www.ncihc.org/home-for-trainers
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