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NCFEF Historical Analysis of Outside Spending
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NCFEF Historical Analysis of Outside Spending

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"Outside Spending" is nothing new to American politics. This presentation, compiled by the North Carolina FreeEnterprise Foundation, is a historical analysis of the different types of outside groups …

"Outside Spending" is nothing new to American politics. This presentation, compiled by the North Carolina FreeEnterprise Foundation, is a historical analysis of the different types of outside groups and their spending.

Published in News & Politics
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  • 1. Historical Analysis of “Outside Spending”
  • 2. Types of “Outside Money” Groups 501(c) Groups — Nonprofit, tax-exempt groups organized under section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code that can engage in varying amounts of political activity, depending on the type of group. For example, 501(c)(3) groups operate for religious, charitable, scientific or educational purposes. These groups are not supposed to engage in any political activities, though some voter registration activities are permitted. 501(c)(4) groups are commonly called "social welfare" organizations that may engage in political activities, as long as these activities do not become their primary purpose. Similar restrictions apply to Section 501(c)(5) labor and agricultural groups, and to Section 501(c)(6) business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards and boards of trade. Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 3. Types of “Outside Money” Groups 527 Group — A tax-exempt group organized under section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code to raise money for political activities including voter mobilization efforts, issue advocacy and the like. Currently, the FEC only requires a 527 group to file regular disclosure reports if it is a political party or political action committee (PAC) that engages in either activities expressly advocating the election or defeat of a federal candidate, or in electioneering communications. Otherwise, it must file either with the government of the state in which it is located or the Internal Revenue Service. Many 527s run by special interest groups raise unlimited "soft money," which they use for voter mobilization and certain types of issue advocacy, but not for efforts that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a federal candidate or amount to electioneering communications. Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 4. Types of “Outside Money” Groups Super PACs — Super PACs are a new kind of political action committee created in July 2010 following the outcome of a federal court case known as SpeechNow.org v. Federal Election Commission. Technically known as independent expenditure-only committees, Super PACs may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, associations and individuals, then spend unlimited sums to overtly advocate for or against political candidates. Super PACs must, however, report their donors to the Federal Election Commission on a monthly or quarterly basis -- the Super PAC's choice -- as a traditional PAC would. Unlike traditional PACs, Super PACs are prohibited from donating money directly to political candidates. Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 5. Total By Type of Spender Source: Center of Responsive Politics $609,417,654 $256,263,118 $55,360,921 $23,913,873 $255,357,890 $92,821,398 $20,972,525 $4,170,237 $2,062,052 $344,573 $5,869,947 $5,749,805 $0 $100,000,000 $200,000,000 $300,000,000 $400,000,000 $500,000,000 $600,000,000 $700,000,000 Super PACs Social Welfare 501(c)(4) Trade Assns 501(c)(6) Unions 501(c)(5) Parties Other (corporations, individual people, other groups, etc) 2012 2014 (2/26/14) Total equals Federal & State Expenditures combined
  • 6. Historical Summary: 501(c) Groups $0 $50,000,000 $100,000,000 $150,000,000 $200,000,000 $250,000,000 $300,000,000 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Trade Association 501(c)(6) Unions 501(c)(5) Social Welfare 501(c)(4) Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 7. Historical Summary: 501(c) Groups $0 $50,000,000 $100,000,000 $150,000,000 $200,000,000 $250,000,000 $300,000,000 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Liberal Conservative Other Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 8. Historical Summary: 527 Groups $612,015,543 $429,468,398 $480,974,225 $590,550,387 $536,983,511 $0 $100,000,000 $200,000,000 $300,000,000 $400,000,000 $500,000,000 $600,000,000 $700,000,000 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Source: Center of Responsive Politics
  • 9. Historical Summary: Super PACs $24,616,429 $195,508,738 $14,236,239$36,687,362 $405,843,996 $6,340,899 $0 $50,000,000 $100,000,000 $150,000,000 $200,000,000 $250,000,000 $300,000,000 $350,000,000 $400,000,000 $450,000,000 2010 2012 2014* Liberal Conservative Source: Center of Responsive Politics*Amount Spent as of February 27, 2014