Walk Through Time: 11,000 years of people in the Northeast

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This presentation is based on the book titled "The First Peoples of the Northeast" by Esther K. Braun and David P. Braun. Presented by the Massachusetts Archaeological Society Robbins Museum of Archaeology, 17 Jackson Street, P.O. Box 700, Middleborough, MA 02346. www.massarchaeology.org

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Walk Through Time: 11,000 years of people in the Northeast

  1. 1. “This presentation is based on the abovenamed book.”
  2. 2. The Northeast: ca.22,000 to 18,000 BP • Wisconsinian ice sheet • Ice – over 1 mile thick in Eastern MA • Land depressed by weight of ice • Water bound in ice form • Sea level 200 ft lower
  3. 3. ca.18,000 to 13,000 BP by 15,000 BP by 14,000 BP by 13,000 BP • Environment changing with the recession of the glaciers. • Glacial lakes: Lake Hitchcock, Lake Taunton, Lake Cape Cod, etc.
  4. 4. ca.13,000 to 12,000 BP • Ice melting – water level rising and land rebounding • Champlain Sea • Land form – Tundra treeless plains north of MA, forest to the south, mainly pine, spruce
  5. 5. Mammoths and Mastodons • • • Mammoths – Grazers, up to 14 feet tall and 8 tons Mastodons – Browsers, up to 9 feet tall and 5 tons Modern elephant – up to 13 feet tall and 7 tons Mammoth Mastodon
  6. 6. Angus, Nebraska (1931) – 14 feet Photograph from the Mammoth Trumpet
  7. 7. Paleo: ca.13,000 to 9,000 BP • Oldest known site in the Northeast: in northern Maine ca. 12,700 BP • Small bands, 10 to 15 people, frequently moving their camps • Preference for high quality stone from exotic sources
  8. 8. Paleo dwelling Adkins Site - Maine
  9. 9. An Important Paleo Site
  10. 10. Paleo Tools
  11. 11. Early Archaic: ca. 9,000 – 8,000 BP • Environment still evolving • Hotter and drier than today • Sites typically are found by navigable bodies of water
  12. 12. A new weapon – the Atl - Atl
  13. 13. Early Archaic Tools
  14. 14. Middle Archaic: ca. 8,000 – 6,000 BP • Vegetation similar to today • Seasonal camps revisited • Widespread populations in this area for the first time • Fishing tools more prominent
  15. 15. Middle Archaic Seasonal Life
  16. 16. Middle Archaic Tools
  17. 17. Food Animals ca. 8,000 BP
  18. 18. Late Archaic: ca. 6,000 – 3,700 BP • Climactic optimum • Population increase in the Northeast with greater dispersal • Larger camp sizes • Quartz much more prominent in tool manufacturing
  19. 19. Boylston Street Fish Weir ca. 5000 – 3000 BP 40,000 to 60,000 stakes
  20. 20. Late Archaic Tools
  21. 21. Transitional Archaic: ca. 3,700 – 2,700 BP • New cultural influences in the Northeast • Ceremonialism increases • Environmental fluctuations • Ceramic & steatite bowls used during the period
  22. 22. Steatite - Soapstone
  23. 23. Transitional Archaic Tools
  24. 24. Early Woodland: ca. 2,700 – 2,000 BP • Probable population decline, fewer sites • Environmental conditions less erratic • Coastline stabilizes • Less ceremonialism • Small Stemmed points continue (from the Late Archaic)
  25. 25. Early Woodland Tools
  26. 26. Middle Woodland: ca. 2,000 – 1,200 BP • Introduction of the bow and arrow • Population increase • Trade networks for exotic tool stone (jasper, hornfels, etc.) • Decorated pottery
  27. 27. Middle Woodland Tools
  28. 28. Late Woodland: ca. 1,200 – 500 BP • Agriculture fuels population growth, density highest since Late Archaic • Modern tribal groups, some at the chiefdom level, appear • Tribal territories form in river basins • Less variety in point types
  29. 29. Wigwams (wetus)
  30. 30. Agriculture The Three Sisters (Maize, Beans, and Squash)
  31. 31. Late Woodland Tools
  32. 32. Contact: 1498 – 1619 A.D. • 1524 Verrazano spends 2 weeks in Narragansett Bay • Epidemics: Samuel de Champlain 1605 Map of Plymouth / Duxbury Harbor – 1616 to 1619 – 1633 – 90% mortality in Southeastern MA
  33. 33. Contact Period Artifacts
  34. 34. OUR PURPOSE To stimulate the study of archaeology and Native American cultural history, especially in Massachusetts, and serve as a bond between students of archaeology. To foster public understanding through educational programs To promote scientific research, careful, welldirected archaeological activity and the conservation of sites, data, and artifacts To seek to prevent the collection of specimens for commercial purposes.
  35. 35. Facts Founded in 1939 Excavated landmark sites such as Bull Brook, Titicut and Wapanucket Built an impressive collection of over 150,000 artifacts spanning 11,000 years of history
  36. 36. Educational Programs School groups Scouts Adults – Programs designed to instruct people in the lifeways of the first Americans.
  37. 37. Lectures Annual and SemiAnnual Meeting Speakers Program Seasonal Lecture Series – Professional and avocational archaeologists discuss current topics in the study of the history of the first people of New England.
  38. 38. Publications Books and Pamphlets
  39. 39. Chapters Andover Greenfield Worcester Plymouth
  40. 40. The Robbins Museum of Archaeology Dedicated to the Native Cultures of New England
  41. 41. The Museum 4,550 square feet of display space More than 4,500 artifacts on display, some are over 10,000 years old Native American portrait gallery Research library Gift shop
  42. 42. The Doyle Collection of Native American Dolls
  43. 43. Diorama of a 4,400 year old Native American Village
  44. 44. Mishoon
  45. 45. Walk Through Time 11,000 years of people in the Northeast
  46. 46. Massachusetts Archaeological Society Robbins Museum of Archaeology 17 Jackson Street P.O. Box 700 Middleborough, MA 02346 Telephone #508-947-9005 e-mail: info@massarchaeology.org Website: www.massarchaeology.org Museum Hours: Wednesday: 10:00AM - 4:00PM Saturday: 10:00AM – 2:00PM

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