“The Sea of the Azores” by Filipe Mora Porteiro, Ph.D. Regional Director of Marine Affairs, Government of the Azores.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

“The Sea of the Azores” by Filipe Mora Porteiro, Ph.D. Regional Director of Marine Affairs, Government of the Azores.

on

  • 1,507 views

A talk about the main issues related to marine science and politics in the Azores. Presented on September 5th, 2013 at the New Bedford Whaling Museum as part of the 7th Annual International Whaleboat ...

A talk about the main issues related to marine science and politics in the Azores. Presented on September 5th, 2013 at the New Bedford Whaling Museum as part of the 7th Annual International Whaleboat Regatta.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,507
Views on SlideShare
710
Embed Views
797

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

5 Embeds 797

http://www.whalingmuseum.org 784
http://www.google.com 7
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 3
http://whalingmuseum.org 2
https://www.google.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

“The Sea of the Azores” by Filipe Mora Porteiro, Ph.D. Regional Director of Marine Affairs, Government of the Azores. “The Sea of the Azores” by Filipe Mora Porteiro, Ph.D. Regional Director of Marine Affairs, Government of the Azores. Presentation Transcript

  • The Sea of the Azores Filipe Mora Porteiro Regional Director of Marine Affairs Government of the Azores
  • Remoteness
  • Geography • Archipelago of 9 islands clustered in three groups • Spread over 600 km • Population ~250.000 Geography
  • AdaptadodeMontesinosetal.,2003;Vogt&Jung,2004;Nunesetal.,2006 Geology - Azores Triple Junction • Triple junction: American, Eurasian and African tectonic plates • Oldest island : 8-10 My; Youngest island: 250 000 y
  • Geomorphology of the Azores plateau
  • -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 0 20 40 60 North Atlantic Circulation
  • Oceanography: Productivity Satellite imagery (year average) Oligotrophic oceanic waters Localised enrichment by upwelling (seamounts, island).
  • Biogeography: Central North-East Atlantic The most oceanic, isolated and young among other Macaronesia archipelagos (AZ, MAD, CAN). An Atlantic Crossroad Coastal and open ocean biological assemblages related to Macaronesia Different for other depths and biologic groups Canaries Azores Madeira G. Meteor Gorringe Cabo-Verde
  • Marine biodiversity • Impoverished comparing to surrounding areas; • Low numbers of coastal species; • Certain level of genetic isolation; • Certain groups particularly diverse; mainly deep-sea.
  • 1883 marine species belonging to 16 groups are listed. Except for fishes (543 sp.), birds and marine mammals, all the other are coastal (most diverse groups: mollusks [353 sp.]; algae [327 sp.]; arthropods [291 sp.]. Portal da Biodiversidade dos Açores; www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/
  • Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) ~1 million km2 319.500 km2 411.000 km2 European Union: 3.000.000 km2
  • Area: 957 292 Km2 (55% Portugal EEZ; 16.3% EU EEZ) Average depth: ~3000m Bottoms < 600 m: 7 715 Km2 (0.8%) Bottoms between 600 - 1500 m: 64 730 Km2 (6.8%) Total fishable bottoms (to 1500m): 72.000 km2 (7.6%). Depth <600m Depth 600m-1500m EEZ Azores sub-area Small territory, a huge SEA (land/sea=410)
  • Extension of Portuguese Continental Platform Proposal submitted to UN (under UNCLOS)
  • Valuing the Azores Sea increasing its usefulness, keeping its magnificence and ensuring their environmental sustainability The DRAM mission • Marine spatial planning (MSF) based on robust scientific criteria; • Recover and promote the environmental quality of the sea • New opportunities for the blue growth / economy; • Promote active informed citizenship.
  • Sustainable development
  • Strategy Best available knowledge Planning ResultsAction Improvements for better sustainable development Opportunities
  • Coastal habitats
  • Sheltered bays; cliffs; coastal lagoons Tide pools Submerged or partially caves Rocky reefs Sandy beaches and bottoms
  • Volcanic islets Madalena, Pico Vila Franca do Campo, S. Miguel Topo islet, S. Jorge Carapacho, Graciosa Formigas Islets & Dollabarat reef Marine Protected Area
  • BANCO D. JOÃO DE CASTRO Shallow-water hydrothermal vents DOM JOÃO DE CASTRO BANK
  • Sheltered bays Mid-passage reefs Exposed coasts Caves Strong currents Sandy areas Various rocky habitats Depth range: 0-200m Volcanic islets Faial-Pico Channel High diversity of habitats and species
  • Black coral Worms MollusksJellies and anemones Crustaceans Equinoderms
  • Sea birds (roseate and common terns; shearwaters) that breed in the Azores (mainly in islets and remote cliffs).
  • The blue surface waters
  • Physeter macrocephalus sperm whale cachalote
  • David Shale / MAR-ECO Diving to the deep High diverse fauna. Small forms. Often with bioluminescence. Highly adapted to the environment, especilally light.
  • David Shale / MAR-ECO
  • David Shale / MAR-ECO
  • David Shale / MAR-ECO
  • MAR-ECO
  • The deep seaflor habitats
  • Azores Deep-Sea bottom Environments Island shelves (to 180m) Island slopes Shallow seamount summits (45-130m) Seamount slopes Deep-sea hydro- thermal vents Abyssal plains Mid-depth seamount summits Deep seamount summits
  • Geomorphology of the Capelo peninsula (Faial island) Island shelves and slopes F. Tempera © ImagDOP
  • Azores seamount catalogue • Density (total): 3.3 peaks /1000 km2 • Large (h>1000m): 63 • Between 200 ≤ h ≤1000m: 398 • Area covered: ~37% of Azores EEZ Topographic parameters: depth; elevation Morato, T., M. Machete, A. Kitchingman, F. Tempera, S. Lai, G. Menezes, R.S. Santos & T.J. Pitcher. 2008. Abundance and distribution of seamounts in the Azores. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 357: 17-21
  • • Aggregations in the water column above the bottom. • Supported by the enhanced flux of prey organisms L. Gallagher - ImagDOP Seamount aggregating fish Seamount visitor species • Some sharks and tunas; Sea turtle; Seabirds; Some cetacean ImagDOP Spatial Analysis: base on telemetry data and POPA data longer-lived species; slow growth; late maturation; low natural mortality
  • Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett, 1889 Experimental fishery for orange roughy in the Azores seamounts Fishing deeper means fishing for increasingly longer-lived species Intrinsic vulnerability increases with depth Life-span150years,sexuallymatureat30 Overexploitedordepletedinseveralwaters
  • Cold Water Corals Coral gardens and coral reefs On island and seamounts bottoms Ecological importance: Habitat builders and deep-sea biodiversity hot spots for invertebrates and fishes
  • http://www.eol.org/pages/200056
  • http://www.eol.org/pages/200056 Historical and new data revealed a total of 161 coral species so far in the Azores. High regional biodiversity Mapping: where they occur?
  • Catalogue of Cold Water Corals communities (to 3000m): ca. 20 types of coral gardens + 2 types of reefs
  • Climate change / Mining / Cables / Litter / Scientific activities Threats to corals and sponges Fishing: trawls, lines and traps by-catch Habitat destruction
  • L. Gallagher - ImagDOP
  • Condor temporary fishing closure
  • Hydrothermal fields Azores Triple Junction
  • Deep-sea hydrothermal vents
  • Mapping hydrothermal vent fields
  • Methane and sulfide allow maintaining live mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus and their symbiotic bacteria during several months. Pressurized chambers (IPOCAMP) and chemical regulation systems (SYRENE)
  • 10º Rank of the University of the Azores on deep sea hydrothermal vent research (no. of papers 2006-2010) Deep sea ecosystems: 17º
  • MoMAR: Monitoring Mid-Atlantic-Ridge
  • Biotechnology (extremozymes, detoxication, ADN repair mechanisms…); Exploration of mineral deposits Better understanding of the genesis of ore deposits on land Windows on the evolution of life Attract widespread public interest Hydrothermal ecosystems: Major focus of Marine Science and Technology efforts
  • Blue Growth David Shale / MAR-ECO
  • Uses of the sea: fisheries
  • Azores hand-line and long-line bottom fisheries at islands and seamounts
  • Ban of deep water trawling in polygons within the Azorean EEZ sub-area (as well as in Madeira and Canary Islands) 57% of the Azores seamounts and significant elevations fall in the scope of these regulation European Commission Council Regulation No. 1568/2005
  • Life bait Tuna Fishery
  • The top quality of the Azores fish • Total caught (2012): 8,8% total Portugal; 13,4% total values • Total: 13,266 ton; 37,613,000 €
  • Managed by European (CFP), national and regional legislation quotas; fishing effort; gear specifications; minimum size; spatial regulations; seasonal closures;
  • Recreational fishing
  • Tourism and leisure activities Whale Watching; SCUBA diving; underwater photo; nautical sports; etc.
  • Whale Watching WHALE WATCHING – DIRECT USE VALUE Total gross revenue 2010 1.451.450€ (Pico& Faial) 78768€ 27648€ 1584€ 5184€ 2016€ 17280€ 11520€ 3799€ 4899€ 1150€ 2061€ 3626€ 36343€ Canal 61424€ Monte Guia 16199€ 9457€ 12327€ Pico west coast 6480€ Pico around island 880.000€ 93.280€ 233.200€ 209.880€ 1.650€ 33.440€ Azorean Whale Watching Code of Conduct
  • Big Game Fishing BIG GAME FISHING – DIRECT USE VALUE Total gross revenue 2010 144000€ (Pico& Faial) 78768€ 27648€ 1584€ 5184€ 2016€ 17280€ 11520€
  • JustinHart-CWAzores Voluntary code of conduct Partners: Enterprises; Universidade dos Açores; DRT; DRAM 78768€ 27648€ 1584€ 5184€ 2016€ 17280€ 11520€ 3799€ 4899€ 1150€ 2061€ 3626€ 36343€ Canal 61424€ Monte Guia 16199€ 9457€ 12327€ Pico west coast 6480€ Pico around island Increased + 600% between 2010-2013 Shark diving
  • UW Archeology
  • Sand exploitation Regulated commercial activity based on the independent scientific surveys;
  • In:SteveScott–UniversityofToronto Deep Sea Mining
  • Bens a proteger Nautilus technology
  • Biotechnology: Searching for active products for phamarcological and biochemistry industries Bacillus - lectin Hydrothermal fauna; deep-water corals and sponges; algae
  • • 3 Biosphere reserves – UNESCO; • 2 marine Ramsar areas; • 40 EU - Natura 2000 sites; • 12 OSPAR MPA; • 52 MPA Comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
  • Marine Park of the Azores
  • Thank you for your attention Acknowledgements: • DRAM Team • DOP- Uaç team