"The Grinnells & Howlands", presentation by James Grinnell

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"Old Dartmouth Roots Symposium", New Bedford Whaling Museum, Sept., 23, 2011.

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"The Grinnells & Howlands", presentation by James Grinnell

  1. 1. GRINNELL, HOWLAND, & HMS RESOLUTE A New Bedford Whaling Museum Volunteer Project Dedicated to Peter S. Grinnell, a founder of WHALE and NBWM benefactor (slide 678).Gift of Helen Grinnell King NBWM #2011.3.21 Gift of Helen Grinnell King NBWM #2011.3.1 Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell Captain Cornelius Grinnell 1765-1837 1758-1850 The Arctic ship “RESOLUTE’’ 1857 Published by Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2012 Acquired by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert c. 1857 “The RESOLUTE became trapped in ice in 1852 and remained stuck until rescued by an American whaler in 1855. She was towed back to New London, Connecticut, where she was refitted and eventually handed back to Britain as part of a diplomatic gesture [advocated by Henry Grinnell]. Queen Victoria received the ship on 16 December 1856.” Creator: Meade Brothers (Charles Richard Meade 1826-1858) and Henry WM Meade (1823-1865) http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2932765/the-arctic-ship-resolute-new-york 1
  2. 2. Includes: Elisha Kent Kane, Capt. C. F. Hall, Queen Victoria, William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, Hetty Green, Henry Huttleston Rogers, the FLYING CLOUD, the CHARLES W. MORGAN, & the WANDERER Table of Contents Chapter I. Henry Grinnell & the HMS RESOLUTE – slide 4 Chapter II. William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, & the Grinnells – slide 121 Chapter III. Tall Ships, Bradford’s Fairhaven, & Henry H. Rogers – slide 216 Chapter IV. Scrimshaw: Gifts from Weston Howland & Family – slide 304 Chapter V. Grinnell & Howland Old Dartmouth Roots – slide 404 Chapter VI. The FLYING CLOUD & the Yachtsmen – slide 504 Chapter VII. Homes of Old Dartmouth Relatives – slide 567 Chapter VIII. CHARLES W. MORGAN, Colonel Green, & Historic Preservation – slide 621 Chapter IX. Pacific Northwest Descendants & Addenda – slide 679 AcknowledgementsFrom the Whaling Museum, I thank: Trustee Chair John Garfield, President James Russell, Curators MichaelLapides & Michael Dyer, Librarians Laura Pereira & Mark Procknik, Robert Rocha, Arthur Motta, BrianWitkowski, Melanie Correia, Sarah Budlong, and Sarah Mink. For William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas, Ithank Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler; for The New Bedford Yacht Club, I thank Trustee Llewellyn HowlandIII; and for Greetings From Dartmouth, Massachusetts, I thank Curator Judith Lund and Beverly Glennon. I alsothank Paul Cyr & Janice Hodson at the New Bedford Free Public Library, Debbie Charpentier & CarolynLongworth at the Millicent Library, and Jay Avila & Joseph Thomas at Spinner Publications. For their inspirationand love of Old Dartmouth, I thank former Mayor John Bullard (1st WHALE Agent/Director), Prof. Toby Dills,James Lopes, Esq., Seth Mendell, Don Cuddy, Rev. Robert Thayer, Peggi Medeiros, and many other people. Forthe use of their books, I thank Dr. Stuart Frank for Ingenious Contrivances, Curiously Carved: Scrimshaw in theNew Bedford Whaling Museum; Marsha McCabe & Joseph Thomas for Not Just Anywhere; Barbara Fortin forColonel Edward Howland Robinson Green and the World he Created at Round Hill; J. Parkinson, Jr. for TheHistory of the New York Yacht Club; Russell A. Potter for Arctic Spectacles, Ken McGoogan for Lady Franklin’sRevenge & Race to the Polar Sea; R. E. Train for The Bowdoin Family, H. Wahlberg for Reflections on a River; H.L. Satterlee for J. Pierpont Morgan: An Intimate Portrait, J. K. Wright for Geography in the Making: The AmericanGeographical Society 1851-1951, the Grinnell Family Association and E.W. Grinnell for Matthew Grenelle’sDescendants, William M. Emery, Zephaniah Pease, Daniel Ricketson, and many others. My objective has been toshare my love of Old Dartmouth and its artists, architecture, sailing ships, and Whaling Museum. The writer is aretired educator and amateur history “buff” with no formal training or experience in research or genealogy; and this Ancestry of the Grinnell Family: Wm. Emery, 1931 (Note: French Ancestry is not accurate.)digital history has been an independent, volunteer project which has not been professionally vetted or reviewed. 2
  3. 3. PrefaceThis digital family history has its roots in the 2011 New BedfordWhaling Museum’s Old Dartmouth Roots Symposium (below),and it is limited primarily to descendants and close relatives ofCornelius and Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell. At first, it may seemodd to include some non-related famous people from OldDartmouth. However, some of these people were neighbors andsome were close relatives like Hetty Green, the only child of AbbyHowland (slide 206, etc.). Henry Huttleston Rogers’ best man andbrother-in-law was a Cornelius Grinnell, who is buried next toWilliam Bradford (slides 178 & 263). Bradford was a next doorneighbor to Capt. Joshua Grinnell in Fairhaven (slide 186), andBradford and Albert Bierstadt had adjoining studios in New York(slide 190). Bierstadt grew up in New Bedford and had a mansionnext door to Moses Grinnell on the Hudson River (slide 209+),and Henry Grinnell was world renowned in the mid 1800’s for hisArctic Expeditions. The first chapter is devoted to Henry and hiscontributions that were posthumously honored by Queen Victoriawith a desk make out of the remains of the H.M.S. RESOLUTE.Much of the material in this family history has been included asbackground for the Museum’s future Evolution of an AmericanPort City project, the July 2014 visit of the CHARLES W. MORGAN,and the 2013 Arctic Visions exhibit. The Whaling Museum wasoriginally named the Old Dartmouth Historical Society. http://www.whalingmuseum.org/explore/exhibitions/upcoming/arctic-visions Curator: Michael Lapides http://www.whalingmuseum.org/programs/past-programs/old-dartmouth-roots-2011 http://www.whalingmuseum.org/explore/exhibitions/upcoming/Symposium sponsored by ECHO (Education through Cultural and Historical Organizations) commerce-industry-evolution-american-port-city a program administered by the U.S. Dept. of Education. Concept, Text, Research, & Design Copyright © 2013 by James B. Grinnell, Jr. All Rights Given to the New Bedford Whaling Museum FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY 3
  4. 4. DARTMOUTH TOWNSHIP Originally included Westport, Dartmouth, New Bedford, Fairhaven, & Acushnet. Tiverton & Little Compton, R.I. were include until 1746. RHODE ISLAND MASSACHUSETTS ACUSHNET BRISTOL NEW MATTAPOISETT BEDFORD FAIRHAVEN PORTSMOUTH WESTPORT DARTMOUTH TIVERTON Mass. & R.I. JAMESTOWN Wm. Bradford’s Home MIDDLETOWN on New Bedford Harbor NEWPORT Oak Grove LITTLE Cemetery COMPTON Mass. & R.I Howland Homestead at Round HillSylvia (Howland) Grinnell and four preceding generations of Howlands were born at Round Hill Farm, Dartmouth Bristol County Map (H.F. Walling & O.W. Gray, Boston, 1871)(slides 405 & 567+). Capt. Cornelius, Sylvia, Joseph, Cornelia, Lawrence, Frederick, Russell, & 40+ other Grinnells are buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 4
  5. 5. Chapter I. Henry Grinnell & the HMS RESOLUTE Gift of Mrs. Peter S. Grinnell NBWM #1983.58.2 Gift of Mrs. Peter S. Grinnell NBWM #1983.58.1 Philanthropist Henry Grinnell QUEEN VICTORIA’S GIFT Born in New Bedford February 18, 1799 NBWM’s Grinnell RESOLUTE Desk “Author/Advocate/Sponsor”: Grinnell Arctic Expeditions 1850-55 Given by Queen Victoria to Sarah (Minturn) Grinnell in “Principal Subscriber”: Isaac I. Hayes 1860 Expedition** gratitude for her husband Henry’s “…great exertions…in theAdvocate/Sponsor/Treasurer: Capt. C. F. Hall Arctic Expeditions (3) search to ascertain the fate of Captain Sir John Franklin.” Founding President: American Geographical Society Henry “exerted” over $5 million & countless hours, 1850-1856. **New York Times, Dec. 18, 1881 (slide 80). This desk represents his two decades of leadership in arctic exploration. 5
  6. 6. Henry Grinnell: “FATHER OF AMERICAN ARCTIC DISCOVERY”* 1799-1874 Son of Capt. Cornelius & Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell Henry Howland was a brother of Pilgrim John Howland and Henry Grinnell’s great, great, great, great grandfather. Henry Howland came over from England around 1622 and settled in Duxbury. In 1656, the The Howland Heirs: William M. Emery, 1919, pg. 249 Pilgrims disenfranchised him for holding Quaker meetings, and he purchased land in Dartmouth.Created at 182 Regent St., London NBWM #1983.58.3.6 Hetty Green was also a direct descendant of Henry Howland. Her mother, Abigail Howland was a first cousin of Henry’s mother, Sylvia Howland. According to family mythology, Henry Grinnell and Hetty Green were named after Henry Howland. Henry Howland plaque is in the Water St. entrance to the Wattles Family Gallery, NBWM *Capt. C. F. Hall in Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society 1851-1951: by John K. Wright, 1952, pg. 57 (slide 748) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell 6
  7. 7. Presidents’ RESOLUTE Deskttp://www.ierehousemuseum.org/furnishings/resolute-desk.htm “JFK, Jr. peeking out of FDRs panel in the RESOLUTE desk in 1962” Life - Stanley Tretick Oval Office, circa 1996 7
  8. 8. PRESIDENTS’ DESK made from the RESOLUTE Library of Congress - Frances Benjamin Johnston“Secretary of State John Hay signs a peace treaty with Spain at the RESOLUTE desk in President McKinleys office, circa 1899.” 8
  9. 9. Whaling Museum’s GRINNELL DESK made from the RESOLUTEBadly tarnished Grinnell Desk plaque in process of restoration. Nearly identical inscriptions on the two RESOLUTE Desk plaques. Grinnell RESOLUTE Desk NBWM #1983.58.1_v1sm American Geographical Society President Henry Grinnell “The Constitution of the newly formed American Geographical Society was adopted at a public meeting held in John Disturnells Geographical and Statistical Library, 179 Broadway, New York, on October 9, 1851. Henry Grinnell, eight officers, and an Executive Committee of eight were duly elected.” (slides 745+) The U. S. Grinnell Expedition: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N., 1854 (slide 28) www.amergeog.org//1851.htm “…in 1850, at his own expense [Henry] fitted out an expedition to search for Sir John Franklin…” (Howland Heirs, Emery). The U. S. Grinnell Expedition of 1850-1851 was the first American arctic expedition (slide 28). The Second Grinnell Expedition was in 1853-1855 (slide 42), and Henry Grinnell assisted in the financing, promotion, and management of four other U.S arctic expeditions through 1870. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin 9
  10. 10. Henry Grinnell’s fortune originated in New Bedford whaling and his father’s rise to first mate, captain, ship owner, & bank director. NBWM #Mss 2, S-g 3, Series A, Vol 1 William Rotch, Jr. to: “Capt. Cornelius Grinnell master of the Ship Bedford” December 4, 1795Henry was the third son of Cornelius Grinnell and Sylvia Howland. Capt. Cornelius was born in Little Compton on Feb. 11,1758 and died in New Bedford on April 19, 1850 (slides 423 & 501+). He was a poor boy who came to New Bedford to servean apprenticeship as a hatter (slide 425). William Rotch, Jr. came from a prominent whaling family that had transferred theirwhaling business from Nantucket and founded the New Bedford whaling industry. Cornelius was only a private during theRevolution. The fact that he was not promoted beyond that rank, indicates that not only was he poor but he had no political orsocial connections. By 1785, he had worked his way up to first mate of the most celebrated ship in New Bedford at that time,the REBECCA. In the above letter, William Rotch, Jr. wrote: “I hope I shall find a conveyance for a few more casks of oil –Capt. Cornelius Grinnell master of the Ship BEDFORD of this Port being bound to New York to seek a freight if he should notsucceed will probably want to load his Ship with lumber, in which case I have given him liberty to draw upon you for a fewthousand Dollars on my account, should he draw you will oblige me by paying his drafts & informing me thereof.” 10
  11. 11. Abolitionist William Rotch, Jr., c. 1845 Cameo: gift of Mrs. Peter S. GrinnellIn addition to being a prominent businessman, William Rotch, Jr.was a well-known abolitionist (slide 428). His family wereQuakers who brought their whaling business from Nantucket toNew Bedford. During the 1820’s (?), he became a Unitarian likemany of New Bedford’s Quakers. As a businessman, he was abanker and the owner of many ships including the BEDFORD, thefirst ship to fly the Stars & Stripes in England after theRevolutionary War. Capt. Cornelius was an owner of 16+ shipswith his sons and Howland relatives. They owned the shipEUPHRATES from its launching in 1809 until it was sunk by thenefarious Confederate Gunboat SHENANDOAH in 1865 (slides 517& 513). William Rotch, Jr. & Capt. Cornelius were businessassociates for decades. They died in the same week in 1850, wereboth over 90 years old and shared an obituary in The New BedfordMercury (slide 501). They were buried near each other in the“Unitarian section” of Oak Grove Cemetery (slides 501 & 502).Capt. Cornelius was visited by former President John QuincyAdams on Sept. 28, 1843 while he was visiting his eldest son,Congressman Joseph Grinnell (slide 476). Thus, the poor armyprivate lived to be accepted at the top level of society. MosesGrinnell, who became the president of the family shippingcompany (Fish, Grinnell & Co. and Grinnell Minturn, & Co.)worked in the Rotch Counting House before he went to New Yorkand developed the family business into an international companyof very high repute in the China Trade and in a strictly scheduledpacket service to London and Liverpool from New York. NBWM #1984.21.3 11
  12. 12. William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish & Grinnell, NY: Feb. 17, 1819William R. Rotch & Co. Letter Book: 1818-1837 NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1 The fortune that Henry Grinnell spent on 20+ years of Arctic exploration was made in the firm of Fish, Grinnell & Co. (became Grinnell, Minturn & Co.). Unfortunately, few records of these companies have survived. On Dec. 7, 1885, The New York Times ran a lengthy article on Capt. Preserved Fish, Capt. Cornelius Grinnell’s long-time partner and friend. This article included the following about the origin of Fish & Grinnell: “He [Capt. Fish] quit the sea in 1810, settled down in New-Bedford, formed a partnership with Cornelius Grinnell and under the firm name of Fish & Grinnell carried on a money-making business as shipping merchants.” Other sources state that Fish & Grinnell was founded in 1815 by Preserved Fish and Joseph Grinnell, son of Capt. Cornelius. In Jan. 1826, Henry and brother Moses became partners along with older brother Joseph and the name was changed to Fish, Grinnell & Co. William R. Rotch was a son of William Rotch, Jr. Hand-copying letters in books is how business records were saved before carbon paper was invented. In addition to 70+ ships registered in New Bedford, it has been estimated that the Grinnells owned/managed over 50 ships registered in New York including the Donald McKay built packet ship CORNELIUS GRINNELL and famous clipper ship FLYING CLOUD (see chapter VI). This letter book contains copies of letters that William R. Rotch & Co. wrote to Fish & Grinnell on the following dates: 2/27/1819, 4/16/1819, 5/3/1819, 6/25/1819, 7/3/1819, 8/4/1819, 8/30/1819, 9/21/1819, 11/1/1819, 1/26/1820, 2/24/1820, 3/13/1820, 3/18/1820, 4/11/1820, 6/28/1820, 8/7/1820, 8/16/1820, 8/27/1820, 9/18/1820, 9/27/1820, 11/4/1820, 2/14/1821, 2/26/1821, 4/14/1821, 5/22/1821, 6/18/1821, 8/25/1821, 9/22/1821, 10/2/1821 (2), 10/21821 (2), 2/4/1822, 2/23/1822, 3/4//1822, 6/18/1822, 7/8/1822, 10/4/1823, 10/11/1823, 10/21/1823, 11/23/1823, 11/28/1823, 12/13/1823, 4/17/1824, 5/11/1824, 5/28/1824, 6/1/1824, 10/16/1824, 10/20/1824 (2), 11/20/1824, 12/24/1824, 2/19/1825, 3/8/1825, 7/14/1825 (2), 7/25/1825, 8/26/1825, 10/25/1825 (3), 12/1/1825, 12/8/1825, 1/17/1826, 1/24/1826 (2), 1/28/1826, 2/15/1826, 3/15/1826, 3/18/1826, 3/23/1826, 4/10/1826, 4/13/1826, 4/15/1826 (2), 4/24/1826, 7/29/1826, 8/10/1826, 9/6/1826, 9/23/1826, 9/29/1826, 10/9/1826, 10/18/1826, 12/13/1826, 2/26/1827 (4), 4/18/1827, 4/20/1827, 4/23/1827, 5/11/1827, 5/22/1827, and 6/11/1827. As indicated, multiple letters were sent on some dates. 12
  13. 13. William R. Rotch & Co. to Henry Grinnell: Sept. 22, 1821 NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1The above letter marks the beginning of Henry’s career that lead to his partnership in Grinnell, Minturn & Co. Henry wasborn on Feb. 18, 1799, he was just twenty-two years old and a “commission merchant” in New York shipping & sellingwhale oil for one of the most famous whaling families of New Bedford. Henry’s brothers Cornelius, Jr. and Joseph hadpreceded him into the New York shipping trade; and their father, Capt. Cornelius, had begun his career as a ship owner andmerchant in the late 1700’s. Grinnell, Minturn’s roots date back to the ships owned by the Grinnell & Howlands in the early1800’s (slide 446+). Even though he retired from his partnership around the time the FLYING CLOUD was built, Henrycontinued as an investor/member. He spent most of his fortune and the rest of his life promoting and funding Arcticexploration. The Wm. T. Russell mentioned in the above letter was married to Henry’s sister Sylvia, and they lived at 66Bedford St. (slide 606) about half a block from the County St. homes of Cornelius, Jr. and Joseph Grinnell (slides 458 &460). On the following dates William R. Rotch & Co. wrote letters directly to Henry Grinnell: 9/22/1821, 12/4/1821,3/4/1822, 1/29/1823, 10/27/1823, 11/6/23, 4/17/1824, 5/8/1824, 10/4/1824, 10/28/1824, 10/30/1824, 11/13/1824, 2/26/1825,& 5/14/1825. In January 1826, Fish & Grinnell became Fish, Grinnell & Co. and William R. Rotch & Co. ceased sendingletters directly to Henry, and he and younger brother Moses became partners in Fish, Grinnell & Co. with brother Joseph. 13
  14. 14. NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1 William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish & Grinnell, 1825In the mid 1820’s Fish & Grinnell became Fish, Grinnell & Co. when Henry and younger brother Moses became partners.Joseph and Capt. Preserved Fish retired and Robert Minturn, Henry’s brother-in-law, became a partner. The name was officiallychanged to Grinnell, Minturn & Co. in 1833. During his “retirement”, Joseph was a congressman, president of the Marine Bank,president of the New Bedford & Taunton Railroad, and president of Wamsutta Mills from 1847 to 1885 (slide 500, etc.). 14
  15. 15. Right: first letter from William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish, Grinnell & Co. January 17, 1826(Henry & Moses added as partners.) Fish & Grinnell Incorporation and Name Changes NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1Grinnell, Minturn & Co. Right: first letter from William R. Rotch & Co. to Grinnell, Minturn & Co. October 10, 1837 (Name changed in 1833.) 15
  16. 16. Grinnell Brothers’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell ships registered in Connecticut in addition to the 100+ ships in Massachusetts & New York that they owned/managed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grinnell Mystic Seaport George W. Blunt Library The next slide shows that Joseph Grinnell was also an owner of the GEORGE WASHINGTON, which had been built for him (& others) in New Bedford in 1832. As will be shown, Joseph had been a founder of Grinnell, Minturn (originally named Fish & Grinnell) along with their father, Capt. Cornelius Grinnell and uncle, Capt. Preserved Fish. Joseph’s brother, Cornelius, Jr., was also a founder. Cornelius, Jr. suffered a tragic death in 1830 (slide 419). Younger brothers William P. & James M. Grinnell also owned several ships. HENRY GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=11431 MOSES GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=11430 JOSEPH GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=19461 16
  17. 17. Sample of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. ships registered in Connecticut Ship GEORGE WASHINGTON: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=104200 Ship WILLIAM C. NYE: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=112098 Ship CLEMATIS: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=101673 17
  18. 18. Creator: Montardier, 1828 Given “In Memory of LLEWELLYN HOWLAND” by Llewellyn Howland, Jr. NBWM #1979.3.3 Ship EUPHRATES Sunk by Confederate Steamer SHENANDOAH on June 23, 1865 Owned by Grinnells & Howlands 1809 to 1865 Owned by Cornelius Grinnell 1809-1850 Owned by Henry Grinnell 1842-1862 18
  19. 19. Ship EUPHRATES Joseph Grinnell was the surveyor when this ship was built in 1809. He was just 21, and his success at this important position resulted in his uncle, Capt. John Howland, taking him to New York in 1810 and making him a junior partner in several ships. Through the ownership and management of many ships like the EUPHRATES, Joseph, his father, three of his brothers and many of his relatives became very wealthy men. This wealth enabled Henry to become a major contributor to six Arctic expeditions, and most of the Howland owners on the left were Henry’s uncles or cousins. In fact, the EUPHRATES was owned by the extended Grinnell-Howland family from the time it was built in 1809 until it was burned by the Confederate raider SHENANDOAH on June 22, 1865. Even after the nefarious Captain Waddell of the SHENANDOAH learned on June 23, 1865 that the Civil War had ended, he captured or sank twenty-one additional Union vessels (slide 517). Capt. Cornelius Grinnell was an owner of the EUPHRATES from 1809 until he died in 1850; and his friend, in-law, and partner (Capt. Preserved Fish) was an owner from 1809 to 1815. In addition to many New York ships, Henry Grinnell owned the following New Bedford ships: SARAH (#2829), BRIGHTON (#330), CORNELIA (#664), GEORGE WASHINGTON (#1226), & EUPHRATES (#979). Henry Grinnell became an owner of the EUPHRATES in 1842 and remained an owner until it was sunk in 1865 (left). The Grinnells & Howlands were owners of this ship and many others in New Bedford and New York. The EUPHRATES was one of the 59 New Bedford ships owned by Capt. Cornelius Grinnell and his offspring. One source states that they also owned or leased at least 55 ships in New York.Ship Registers of New Bedford NBWM Research Library 19
  20. 20. ONEIDA “Chinese School of Painting” NBWM #1994.53 Owned by Joseph Grinnell (Henry’s brother) & others. Sunk by Confederates on April 24, 1863.New Bedford Ship Registers Error: ONEIDA was sunk by the FLORIDA, not by Capt. Sommes and the ALABAMA NBWM Batchelder File 20
  21. 21. FLYING CLOUDTo Messrs Grinnell, Minturn & Co. This Print of their Splendid CLIPPER SHIP “FLYING CLOUD”. Lithograph by: N. CurrierHenry Grinnell was a founding partner of Grinnell, Minturn & Co.; and he was a member until 1864. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Cloud_(clipper) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinnell,_Minturn_%26_Co 21
  22. 22. NBWM #1983.58.3.5 NBWM #1983.58.3.11Henry Grinnell was a partner inGrinnell, Minturn & Co., owners of Sarah (Minturn) Grinnell, Henry’sthe China Clipper FLYING CLOUD. wife, was a sister of Robert Minturn,(slides 21 & 504+). On his a partner in Grinnell, Minturn & Co.mother’s side (Howland), Henry (slide 6). On their mother’s sidecame from five generations of (Bowne), the Minturn’s came fromMassachusetts Quakers (Chapter V). generations of New York Quakers. Old Dartmouth Historical Society, 1940 22
  23. 23. New Bedford in China Trade by Capt. William L. Hawes, 1940 Old Dartmouth Historical SocietyIncluding the ONEIDA & the FLYING CLOUD Henry Grinnell 23
  24. 24. **** ** ** ****** Henry Grinnell Father of U.S. Arctic Exploration*** *** 1850-1870 *** Henry was the sponsor, CEO, treasurer, *** & principal contributor to below expeditions. *** *** *U. S. Grinnell Expedition: 1850-1851 *** **Second Grinnell (Kane) Expedition: 1853-55 *** ***Capt. C. F. Hall Expeditions: 1860-1869 ****Hall Polaris Expedition: 1870-1871 Henry was an advocate/sponsor/contributor only. *****William Bradford’s Art Expedition: 1869 SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, 1879 (slides 95+) Henry’s advice & support were likely but Expeditions marked in red were sponsored/backed by Henry Grinnell. have not been documented. 24
  25. 25. “Letter from Lady Franklin to Mr. Grinnell” New York Times, Oct. 2, 1851 http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/franklin-lady-jane-2065 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Franklinhttp://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D05E6DD1431E13BBC4A53DFB667838A649FDE&scp=1&sq=grinnell+lady+franklin&st=p http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin 25
  26. 26. U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1851 New York Times November 6, 1851 Part IHenry’s obituary in the July 2, 1874New York Times (slide 111) began asfollows: “By the death of HenryGrinnell, geographical science losesone of its warmest friends, and itsmost enthusiastic advocate andsupporter. The first President of theAmerican geographical Society, theoriginator of the first expedition insearch of Franklin, Henry Grinnell hasalways placed his energies and hispurse at the service of the science towhich he may be said to have been to‘the manner born’ – Arcticnavigation… Although avoiding asmuch as possible any publicity, Mr.Grinnell would spend any amount ofmoney, time, and trouble in advancingthe interests of those who were,socially, his inferiors – especiallysailors…”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kanehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expeditionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CF 26
  27. 27. U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1851 New York Times November 6, 1851 Part IIThe following statement is also fromHenry’s obituary in The N.Y. Times(slide 111): “From 1819 to 1849 Mr.Grinnell remained in partnershipwith his brothers. They [Fish &Grinnell and Grinnell, Minturn &Co.] were for many years the largestshippers and consignees of whaleoil, their principal depots being atNew Bedford, New London, andSag Harbor.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kanehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CF&scp=5&sq=grinnell+expedition&st=p 27
  28. 28. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition 28
  29. 29. Historical Society of Pennsylvania http://digitallibrary.hsp.org/index.php/Detail/Object/Show/object_id/2137 USS ADVANCE Owned by Henry Grinnell & loaned/given to the U. S. Navy 1850-1855 (Destroyed in the Arctic) “The first USS ADVANCE was a brigantine in the United States Navy which participated in an arctic rescue expedition. Advance was built in 1847 as Augusta and loaned to the Navy on 7 May 1850 by Mr. Grinnell to participate in the search for Sir John Franklins arctic expedition which had been stranded in the frozen north since 1847. After last-minute preparations, the ship, under the command of Lieutenant Edwin J. DeHaven and in company with RESCUE, put to sea from New York on 23 May 1850.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Advance_(1847) 29
  30. 30. USS RESCUE “The first USS RESCUE was a brig in service with the U. S. Navy. The brigs RESCUE and ADVANCE specially reinforced and fitted out for Arctic service, were offered on loan to the U.S. Government by Henry Grinnell in 1850 for use in a rescue mission tracing the ill-fated expedition which, in May 1845, had sailed from England under Sir John Franklin in search of a northwest passage. Two years later the Admiralty dispatched relief expeditions. Since there was still no news of the expedition by 1 May 1850, the U. S. Congress authorized the president to accept Mr. Grinnells offer. In accordance with the wishes of both Congress and Mr. Grinnell, both ships were manned by volunteers from the U.S. Navy.” (Destroyed in the Arctic) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Rescue_(1850) Creator: James Hamilton Seneca Falls Historical Society “The RESCUE in Her Arctic Dry Dock”USS RESCUE: owned by Henry Grinnell & given to the U. S. Navy 1850-1851 http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/hamilton_james.html http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=9888 30
  31. 31. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “The ‘Rescue’ nipped in Melville Bay, August 1850” “Drawn by J. Hamilton from a Sketch by Dr. E.K. Kane, U.S.N.” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 31
  32. 32. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “Grounded Berg near Cape York” “Drawn by J. Hamilton from a Sketch by Dr. E.K. Kane, U.S.N.” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 32
  33. 33. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “Entering Lancaster Sound” The USS ADVANCE and the USS RESCUE Drawn by J. Hamilton after a sketch by Dr. E .K. Kane, USN THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 33
  34. 34. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “ICE-BERG IN MOTION, JULY 29, 1850: Melville Bay” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 34
  35. 35. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “ARCTIC GLACIER, MELVILLE BAY” The USS ADVANCE and the USS RESCUE THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 35
  36. 36. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N. Dr. Kane’s “Beechy Island, Franklin’s first Winter Quarters” http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/gravesimage.html http://www.yachtfiona.com/northwestpassage2009/newsletter1.html 36
  37. 37. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “FISKENAES FROM THE GOVERNOR’S HOUSE” SOUTH GREENLAND THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 37
  38. 38. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N.Grinnell, Minturn & Co. ran ships from New York to Liverpool and London and had offices in those cities. Henry and his brothers frequently traveled toEngland on business, and Henry’s son Cornelius lived there. Capt. Cornelius had spent his younger years in the merchant service on the North Atlanticrun and had visited England and France on business. This long association with England might be why Henry took such an interest in the Lost FranklinExpedition and Arctic exploration. Since Henry was a very private person who avoided speaking to reporters and attending functions honoring him, hisinterest does not seem to have been driven by personal aggrandizement. Regardless of his motivation, Henry Grinnell had the experience, knowledge,connections, wealth, and generosity to be the leading sponsor/patron of U. S. Arctic Exploration for twenty years. The first Grinnell Expedition left theBrooklyn Navy Yard on May 22, 1850. http://archive.org/details/usgrinnellexped00kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition 38
  39. 39. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I http://archive.org/details/usgrinnellexped00kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 Both Lieutenant De Haven, commander of the first Grinnell Expedition, and Dr. Kane, commander of the second Grinnell Expedition, were officers in the U. S. Navy. The two Grinnell Expeditions were officially supported by Congress and included a contingent of U. S. Navy personnel. Undoubtedly, this was the result of lobbying by Henry and his brothers Moses and Joseph, who were both U. S. Congressmen. Moses was a New York Congressman from 1839-1841 and Joseph a New Bedford Congressman from 1843-1851. 39
  40. 40. USS DE HAVEN (DD727)“Navy Photo 2128-47, broadside view of USS De Haven (DD 727) off Mare Island on 5 Nov 1947. Shewas in overhaul at the yard from 10 Sep to 18 Nov 1947.” Image from the USS DeHaven Association.”http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/0572726.jpg http://destroyerhistory.org/fletcherclass/ns_dehaven/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_De_Haven 40
  41. 41. Edwin Jesse De Haven Commander U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION“Edwin Jesse DeHaven, born in 1819 in Pennsylvania wasappointed Acting Midshipman at the age of 10 and PassedMidshipman 5 years later. He served in Vincennes, flagship ofthe Wilkes Exploring Expedition in its historic cruise of 1838to 1842 to the Antarctic and among the Pacific Islands. DeHaven served in the Mexican War, assisting in the capture ofthe Mexican schooner Creole. In command of the GrinnellExpedition in 1850, he led the search for Sir John Franklinlost in the Arctic. Only traces of the party were found, but DeHaven discovered and named Grinnell Land, and wascommended for the valuable scientific data he collectedconcerning the winds and currents of the ocean. He served inthe Coast Survey Service until placed on the retired list inFebruary 1862. He died at Philadelphia, Pa., 1 May 1865. Nimitz Library United States Naval Academy http://www.usna.edu/Library/sca/findingaids/dehaven/index.html 41
  42. 42. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I: by Elisha K. Kane, MD, 1856http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane 42
  43. 43. Dr. Kane promoted to Commander SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION Assist. Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane, USN U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1850-1852 Commander Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. Second Grinnell Expedition, 1853-1855 http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/ek-kane.htmU.S. Naval Academy Museum Collection, Annapolis 43
  44. 44. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION “Kane expedition” funded by Henry Grinnell 1853-1855 Including the mythical “Open Polar Sea” and Kane’s discovery of the Great Humboldt Glacier Humboldt GlacierArctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati02kanegoog 44
  45. 45. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf Commander Kane’s “CROSSING THE ICE BELT AT COFFEE GORGE” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 92+ 45
  46. 46. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://ia600700.us.archive.org/27/items/arcticexploratio02kane/arcticexploratio02kane.pdf http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.3/ Expedition Commander Kane’s “The look-out from Cape George Russell” Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 102+ 46
  47. 47. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane Commander Kane’s “MIDNIGHT IN SEPTEMBER” USS ADVANCE USS ADVANCE owned by Henry Grinnell & loaned to the U. S. Navy 1850-1854. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 140+ 47
  48. 48. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.4/ James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane Commander Kane’s “THE PACK OFF SYLVIA HEADLANDS” (USS ADVANCE) Henry Grinnell’s mother and daughter were named Sylvia. Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 180+ 48
  49. 49. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.6/ Commander Kane’s “THE OPEN WATER FROM CAPE JEFFERSON” [Open Polar Sea] Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 306+ 49
  50. 50. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “BEAR HUNT” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 336+ 50
  51. 51. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “LIFE IN THE BRIG, SECOND WINTER” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 442+ http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf 51
  52. 52. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellArctic Exploration, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati02kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition “The Great Glacier of Humboldt” 52
  53. 53. Photographer: Matthew Brady Library of Congress: LC-USZ62-110168 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog Arctic Explorations, Vol. II: by Elisha K. Kane, U.S.N., 1856 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 53
  54. 54. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.7/ Commander Kane’s Kane’s “ICEBERGS NEAR KOSOAK” Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 56 54
  55. 55. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf (Elisha Kent Kane) Commander Kane discovers the “Great Glacier of Humboldt” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 152+ 55
  56. 56. Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog 56
  57. 57. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell The NBWM has a copy of this volume with notes by William Bradford regarding Kane’s descriptions & illustrations (slide 125).Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 57
  58. 58. from back of book Prof. Agassiz offers a “scientific review” of Dr. Kane’s Arctic ExplorationsTo most scientists, the discovery of the Humboldt Glacier (Great Glacier) was far more significant than discovering the remains of theFranklin Expedition. The Humboldt Glacier confirmed Agassiz’s theories of the ice age and glaciation. Dr. Kane studied geology and civilengineering at the University of Virginia under William Barton Rodgers (1st president of MIT) before he graduated the University ofPennsylvania medical school. Unfortunately, Kane was never given the credit he deserved for the Humboldt Glacier discovery. Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 58
  59. 59. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Left: Kane’s “TENNYSON’S MONUMENT” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I, pg. 224 Proofs courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute (slide 124). http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.5/ http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.1/Creator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane 59
  60. 60. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCommander Kane’s “THE ESCAPE OFF WEARY MEN’S NEST” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 60
  61. 61. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “The Broken Floes Nearing Pikantlik” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 236 61
  62. 62. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/pga.04114/“Second Grinnell Expedition” at the Library of Congress Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-04114 (digital file from original print) LC-USZ62-40359 Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA 62
  63. 63. Dr. Kane at the New York Historical SocietyArtist: Peter Reniers, 1857 New York Historical Society Artist: Thomas Hicks, 1858 New York Historical Society Elisha Kent Kane, M. D., U.S.N. (1820-1857) “Dr. Kane, famous Arctic explorer, was born in Philadelphia to John Kintzing Kane and Jane Duval (Leiper) Kane. His world travels began with his assignments to medical missions in China and in Africa. He served in the Mexican War in which he was wounded and contracted typhus, but by 1850 he had returned to duty with an expedition sent to the Arctic to search for a missing British explorer. The story of this journey is told in The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin (1853).” http://www.nyhistory.org/node/44187 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=3998 63
  64. 64. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D07E5D81438E334BC4153DFB1668388649FDE http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A04E0DF1238EE3BBC4051DFBF66838F649FDE 64
  65. 65. “Henry Grinnell… father of the Kane expedition.” Daniel Ricketson “The Second Grinnell Expedition” in search of Franklin was popularly known as the Kane expedition. The History of New Bedford, Daniel Ricketson, 1858, pg. 141 ***************************************************************************************************** The Lost Franklin Expedition Library and Archives Canada http://kenmcgoogan.blogspot.com/p/home.htmlSIR JOHN FRANKLINWaterloo Place, London http://www.martechpolar.com/Lost%20Expedition/Lost%20Expedition.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition 65
  66. 66. The Illustrated London News, December 27, 1856 Refitted HMS RESOLUTE Returns to England in 1856 In 1856, Henry Grinnell was instrumental in having the recently salvaged HMS RESOLUTE restored at the expense of the United States government, and returned to Great Britain as a goodwill gesture.” [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell] This chapter is primarily about Henry Grinnell and how he made a fortune in the his family’s shipping firm and attained a world-renowned reputation in Arctic exploration. 66
  67. 67. “a large silver vase which British Government presented to Mr. Henry Grinnell [in 1855-56]” Given after the HMS RESOLUTE was returned to England. NBWM Collection 67
  68. 68. Philanthropist Henry Grinnell Lady Franklin’s Revenge, by Ken McGoogan, p. 349Arctic scholar Ken McGoogan wrote that Henry Grinnell hadspent over $5 million searching for Franklin by 1856. Afterbeing forced by financial reversals to curtail his expendituresand stop donating ships, Henry was the treasurer for the HayesExpedition and sponsor/treasurer of the three Hall expeditions. http://www.harpercollins.ca/author/sites/kenmcgoogan/rttps.html Henry Grinnell U. S Naval Lyceum Honorary Member April 1, 1854 Henry http://www.usna.edu/Museum/history.htm This honorary Lyceum membership was a high honor that the U. S. Navy bestowed on civilians in 1854. Today, this Lyceum is housed at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis. NBWM Research Library 68
  69. 69. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B01E4D71039E134BC4B53DFB766838C649FDE 69
  70. 70. Henry Grinnell Founder & President American Geographical and Statistical SocietyAccording to an article about his funeral in The New York Times (July 4, 1874), Henry “…had been for many years President,Vice President, and member of the Executive Committee of the American Geographical Society.” As can be seen above, hewas a vice president in 1857; and his brother Moses and sons Cornelius & William were also members at that time. Moses wasalso a contributor to several Arctic expeditions. Much more on American Geographical Society on slides 745+. Michigan Historical Reprint Series, Univ. of Michigan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell 70
  71. 71. Additional Grinnell Expedition Art at the University of Cambridge, England “…pencil sketches and one watercolour of Arctic scenes. They may be by E. K. Kane during one of the Grinnell Franklin Search expeditions. Courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute (slide 124) http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.9.1// http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.9.3/“CAPE GRINNELL” 71
  72. 72. “THE DEATH OF DR. KANE” Creator: Mathew Brady, National Archives and Records Administration http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/kanedeath.htmlBelow: New York Times Articles on the Grinnell Expeditionshttp://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9805E7D8153DE334BC4E52DFB667838E649FDE&scp=2&sq=grinnell+exedition&pst=phttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CFhttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B01E4D71039E134BC4B53DFB766838C649FDE 72
  73. 73. Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, pg. 299“The death of ‘Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas’ caused perhaps a greater publicoutpouring of grief than that of any other figure between Washington and Lincoln.After his death in Havana, where he had gone in a fruitless effort to recover his health,Dr. Kanes remains were transported by boat to the mainland, where they progressedby steam-train and boat throughout the heart of the United States, before arriving inPhiladelphia for the final obsequies. At every train station and dock where his casketpassed, it was met by crowds of civic dignitaries, wearing black as well as speciallymade badges and armbands. Pictures of Dr. Kane, draped with black crepe, appearedin every store-window, and flags flew at half-mast from town halls and statehouses.” (quotation from Prof. Russell A. Potter) http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/kanedeath.html The Ice Finders, by Edmund B. Bolles, pages 210 & 211 http://ebbolles.com/IceFinders/Reviews.html 73
  74. 74. Creator” De Witt Clinton Baxter http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/17/hh17g.htm http://www.librarycompany.org/laurelhill/image/10-16.jpg“The Dead Watch” Remains of Dr. Kane Lying in State, Independence Hall, Philadelphia 74
  75. 75. USS Kane (Destroyer # 235), 1920-1946“USS Kane was named in honor of Assistant Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane USN, (1820-1857), who gained fame as an Arctic explorer during the 1850s.” DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD -- U.S. NAVY SHIPS http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-k/dd235.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/ek-kane.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Kane_(DD-235) 75
  76. 76. USNS Elisha Kent Kane (T-AGS-27) Genoa, Italy, 27 May 1987“The second Kane (T-AGS-27) was launched 20 November 1965 by the Christy Corp., Sturgeon Bay, Wis. assigned to MSTS; and placed in service 26 May 1967 for scientific operations under the Atlantic.” http://www.navsource.org/archives/09/10/09102703.jpg 76
  77. 77. http://www.usstampgallery.com/view.php?id=8393e8e13cf2a84516f7146cc2f58dbc8f771a3bDr. Kane graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School in 1842. On September 14, 1843, he became Assistant Surgeon in theNavy. He served in the China Commercial Treaty mission under Caleb Cushing, in the Africa Squadron, and in the United States Marin Corpsduring the Mexican American War. Kane was appointed senior medical officer of the U.S. Grinnell Expedition of 1850-1851 under thecommand of Lieutenant Edwin de Haven, which searched unsuccessfully for the lost expedition of Sir John Frankin. The crew discoveredFranklin’s first winter camp [and returned to New York in 1851]. Kane then organized and headed the Second Grinnell Expedition which sailedfrom New York on May 31, 1853… Dr. Kane received medals from Congress, the Royal Geographic Society, and the Societe de Geographie…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane 77
  78. 78. Brothers Henry & Moses: Backers of 1860 Hayes Expedition Henry was first president of The Geographical and Statistical Society and contributor to the Hayes Expedition. Dr. Isaac Hayes Photo: J. W. Black NBWM #1985.24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Israel_HayesDr. Hayes began his Arctic career on the Second Grinnell Expedition. “Undeterred by the extreme hardships he had endured as ships surgeon on ElishaKent Kanes Second Grinnell Expedition in 1853-55, Dr. Isaac Israel Hayes could not resist the lure of further Arctic exploration. He was a firm believer inthe Open Polar Sea. Following his return from the second Grinnell expedition, Hayes had raised money by lecturing and succeeded in finding a number ofvolunteers for his proposed expedition to the Open Polar Sea. In 1860, he took his tiny schooner, the UNITED STATES, to the north… He wrote in hisjournal ‘All the evidence showed that I stood upon the shores of the Open Polar Sea’. He convinced himself without definite proof that this was indeed thecase. Not only was Hayes subsequently proven wrong, but it was also learned that many of his measurements and calculations were erroneous. Some evenaccused him of falsifying his data. His land trip had covered 1300 miles, but he had achieved essentially nothing.” by Dr. Ralph A. Meyerson.http://www.ekkane.org/Biographies/BioHayes.htm Reference: http://www.amergeog.org/archives/1851.htm http://www.nytimes.com/1860/03/23/news/new-arctic-expedition-dr-haryes-proposed-exploration-polar-sea-meeting.html?scp=70&sq=grinnell%20arctic&st=p&pagewante 78
  79. 79. Henry Grinnell: Hayes Expedition treasurer and principal subscriber. 79
  80. 80. Henry Grinnell “principal subscriber” 1860 Hayes Expeditionhttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9403E2DE163DE533A2575BC1A9649D94609FD7CF 80
  81. 81. Grinnell Brothers: Partners & Friends Moses Grinnell to Abraham Lincoln http://www.nytimes.com/1860/03/20/news/a-new-york-merchant.htm (Partial Article) The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/309/3099700/malpage.db&recNum=0 81
  82. 82. Library of Congress, Abraham Lincoln, and Moses H. Grinnell Lincoln at Moses Grinnell’s Home “When President Lincoln came to Washington, he was invited to, and did, breakfast with Moses at his house in New York.” http://www.mrlincolnandnewyork.org/inside.asp?ID=46&subjectID=3 Moses, Henry, and Joseph Grinnell were Republicans and strong supporters of Lincoln. The Library of Congress has 38 items regarding Moses, 72 regarding Joseph, and 95 regarding Henry. It also has 6 items related to their niece, Cornelia Grinnell Willis, who paid for the freedom of Abolitionist Harriet Jacobs (slides 168-172, 483-493, & 671+). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnellhttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/scsmbib:@field(DOCID+@lit(scsm000609)) 82
  83. 83. November 5, 1864 http://www.nytimes.com/1864/11/05/news/mass-meeting-merchants -bankers-monied-men-city-declare-for-lincoln-great.htmlCongressman Moses H. Grinnell (NY) was the fifth son of Capt. Cornelius andSylvia Grinnell, and he was born in New Bedford on March 23, 1803 (slide508). He was president of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. for most of his career anddeveloped it into a leading world-wide shipping firm. Even though hepermanently moved to New York in 1825, he owned a pew at the New BedfordUnitarian Church and a home in New Bedford. One source states that Moseshelped fund the Grinnell Arctic Expeditions, and Joseph probably helped, too. The Howland Heirs: Wm M. Emery, 1919, p. 250 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell 83
  84. 84. Article to Right Capt. C. F. Hall to Henry Grinnell, 1860 (Partial Article)http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F20D17FC3E54157493C3AA1789D95F4C8685F9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall 84
  85. 85. “Donations to the Hall Franklin Expedition 1860” Henry Grinnell Treasurer/Sponsor Hall Expeditions 1860-1871 Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871 G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport “The collection is limited to an 11 year period, primarily to the years 1860-1871 and the Charles F. Hall polar expedition. Included are letters to Grinnell from C. F. Hall in New London, Connecticut, and Washington, D.C., regarding Arctic exploration and Halls work in obtaining a Congressional appropriation for an expedition. Included also is a list of donations to the Hall Franklin expedition of 1860.” Other documents state that Moses Grinnell was a donor to Capt. Hall, too. Third on the list, Cyrus Field, had a mansion in Irvington, N.Y. along with Moses, Albert Bierstadt, Washington Irving, Jay Gould, and other notables (slides 209+). Field was a financier and one of the founders of the American Telegraph Co. (AT&T, today). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_West_Field “Halls motives for his first voyage—Arctic Study—Limited resources— Reasons for believing that some of Franklins men still lived… Generous aid by Mr. Grinnell” American Explorations in the Ice Zones. by Prof. J. E. Nourse, 1884, pg. 8 http://www.archive.org/details/americanexplorat00nourialahttp://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/coll/coll008.cfm 85
  86. 86. Capt. Hall to Henry Grinnell on North Pole Expedition: Feb. 2, 1870 Re: Meeting with President Grant at White House Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=1&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2http:// library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=2&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2 http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=3&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2 86
  87. 87. Capt. Hall to Henry Grinnell on North Pole Expedition: July 6, 1870 Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=2&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=3&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 87

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