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"The Grinnells & Howlands", presentation by James Grinnell

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"Old Dartmouth Roots Symposium", New Bedford Whaling Museum, Sept., 23, 2011.

"Old Dartmouth Roots Symposium", New Bedford Whaling Museum, Sept., 23, 2011.

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  • 1. GRINNELL, HOWLAND, & HMS RESOLUTE A New Bedford Whaling Museum Volunteer Project Dedicated to Peter S. Grinnell, a founder of WHALE and NBWM benefactor (slide 678).Gift of Helen Grinnell King NBWM #2011.3.21 Gift of Helen Grinnell King NBWM #2011.3.1 Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell Captain Cornelius Grinnell 1765-1837 1758-1850 The Arctic ship “RESOLUTE’’ 1857 Published by Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2012 Acquired by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert c. 1857 “The RESOLUTE became trapped in ice in 1852 and remained stuck until rescued by an American whaler in 1855. She was towed back to New London, Connecticut, where she was refitted and eventually handed back to Britain as part of a diplomatic gesture [advocated by Henry Grinnell]. Queen Victoria received the ship on 16 December 1856.” Creator: Meade Brothers (Charles Richard Meade 1826-1858) and Henry WM Meade (1823-1865) http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2932765/the-arctic-ship-resolute-new-york 1
  • 2. Includes: Elisha Kent Kane, Capt. C. F. Hall, Queen Victoria, William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, Hetty Green, Henry Huttleston Rogers, the FLYING CLOUD, the CHARLES W. MORGAN, & the WANDERER Table of Contents Chapter I. Henry Grinnell & the HMS RESOLUTE – slide 4 Chapter II. William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, & the Grinnells – slide 121 Chapter III. Tall Ships, Bradford’s Fairhaven, & Henry H. Rogers – slide 216 Chapter IV. Scrimshaw: Gifts from Weston Howland & Family – slide 304 Chapter V. Grinnell & Howland Old Dartmouth Roots – slide 404 Chapter VI. The FLYING CLOUD & the Yachtsmen – slide 504 Chapter VII. Homes of Old Dartmouth Relatives – slide 567 Chapter VIII. CHARLES W. MORGAN, Colonel Green, & Historic Preservation – slide 621 Chapter IX. Pacific Northwest Descendants & Addenda – slide 679 AcknowledgementsFrom the Whaling Museum, I thank: Trustee Chair John Garfield, President James Russell, Curators MichaelLapides & Michael Dyer, Librarians Laura Pereira & Mark Procknik, Robert Rocha, Arthur Motta, BrianWitkowski, Melanie Correia, Sarah Budlong, and Sarah Mink. For William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas, Ithank Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler; for The New Bedford Yacht Club, I thank Trustee Llewellyn HowlandIII; and for Greetings From Dartmouth, Massachusetts, I thank Curator Judith Lund and Beverly Glennon. I alsothank Paul Cyr & Janice Hodson at the New Bedford Free Public Library, Debbie Charpentier & CarolynLongworth at the Millicent Library, and Jay Avila & Joseph Thomas at Spinner Publications. For their inspirationand love of Old Dartmouth, I thank former Mayor John Bullard (1st WHALE Agent/Director), Prof. Toby Dills,James Lopes, Esq., Seth Mendell, Don Cuddy, Rev. Robert Thayer, Peggi Medeiros, and many other people. Forthe use of their books, I thank Dr. Stuart Frank for Ingenious Contrivances, Curiously Carved: Scrimshaw in theNew Bedford Whaling Museum; Marsha McCabe & Joseph Thomas for Not Just Anywhere; Barbara Fortin forColonel Edward Howland Robinson Green and the World he Created at Round Hill; J. Parkinson, Jr. for TheHistory of the New York Yacht Club; Russell A. Potter for Arctic Spectacles, Ken McGoogan for Lady Franklin’sRevenge & Race to the Polar Sea; R. E. Train for The Bowdoin Family, H. Wahlberg for Reflections on a River; H.L. Satterlee for J. Pierpont Morgan: An Intimate Portrait, J. K. Wright for Geography in the Making: The AmericanGeographical Society 1851-1951, the Grinnell Family Association and E.W. Grinnell for Matthew Grenelle’sDescendants, William M. Emery, Zephaniah Pease, Daniel Ricketson, and many others. My objective has been toshare my love of Old Dartmouth and its artists, architecture, sailing ships, and Whaling Museum. The writer is aretired educator and amateur history “buff” with no formal training or experience in research or genealogy; and this Ancestry of the Grinnell Family: Wm. Emery, 1931 (Note: French Ancestry is not accurate.)digital history has been an independent, volunteer project which has not been professionally vetted or reviewed. 2
  • 3. PrefaceThis digital family history has its roots in the 2011 New BedfordWhaling Museum’s Old Dartmouth Roots Symposium (below),and it is limited primarily to descendants and close relatives ofCornelius and Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell. At first, it may seemodd to include some non-related famous people from OldDartmouth. However, some of these people were neighbors andsome were close relatives like Hetty Green, the only child of AbbyHowland (slide 206, etc.). Henry Huttleston Rogers’ best man andbrother-in-law was a Cornelius Grinnell, who is buried next toWilliam Bradford (slides 178 & 263). Bradford was a next doorneighbor to Capt. Joshua Grinnell in Fairhaven (slide 186), andBradford and Albert Bierstadt had adjoining studios in New York(slide 190). Bierstadt grew up in New Bedford and had a mansionnext door to Moses Grinnell on the Hudson River (slide 209+),and Henry Grinnell was world renowned in the mid 1800’s for hisArctic Expeditions. The first chapter is devoted to Henry and hiscontributions that were posthumously honored by Queen Victoriawith a desk make out of the remains of the H.M.S. RESOLUTE.Much of the material in this family history has been included asbackground for the Museum’s future Evolution of an AmericanPort City project, the July 2014 visit of the CHARLES W. MORGAN,and the 2013 Arctic Visions exhibit. The Whaling Museum wasoriginally named the Old Dartmouth Historical Society. http://www.whalingmuseum.org/explore/exhibitions/upcoming/arctic-visions Curator: Michael Lapides http://www.whalingmuseum.org/programs/past-programs/old-dartmouth-roots-2011 http://www.whalingmuseum.org/explore/exhibitions/upcoming/Symposium sponsored by ECHO (Education through Cultural and Historical Organizations) commerce-industry-evolution-american-port-city a program administered by the U.S. Dept. of Education. Concept, Text, Research, & Design Copyright © 2013 by James B. Grinnell, Jr. All Rights Given to the New Bedford Whaling Museum FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY 3
  • 4. DARTMOUTH TOWNSHIP Originally included Westport, Dartmouth, New Bedford, Fairhaven, & Acushnet. Tiverton & Little Compton, R.I. were include until 1746. RHODE ISLAND MASSACHUSETTS ACUSHNET BRISTOL NEW MATTAPOISETT BEDFORD FAIRHAVEN PORTSMOUTH WESTPORT DARTMOUTH TIVERTON Mass. & R.I. JAMESTOWN Wm. Bradford’s Home MIDDLETOWN on New Bedford Harbor NEWPORT Oak Grove LITTLE Cemetery COMPTON Mass. & R.I Howland Homestead at Round HillSylvia (Howland) Grinnell and four preceding generations of Howlands were born at Round Hill Farm, Dartmouth Bristol County Map (H.F. Walling & O.W. Gray, Boston, 1871)(slides 405 & 567+). Capt. Cornelius, Sylvia, Joseph, Cornelia, Lawrence, Frederick, Russell, & 40+ other Grinnells are buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 4
  • 5. Chapter I. Henry Grinnell & the HMS RESOLUTE Gift of Mrs. Peter S. Grinnell NBWM #1983.58.2 Gift of Mrs. Peter S. Grinnell NBWM #1983.58.1 Philanthropist Henry Grinnell QUEEN VICTORIA’S GIFT Born in New Bedford February 18, 1799 NBWM’s Grinnell RESOLUTE Desk “Author/Advocate/Sponsor”: Grinnell Arctic Expeditions 1850-55 Given by Queen Victoria to Sarah (Minturn) Grinnell in “Principal Subscriber”: Isaac I. Hayes 1860 Expedition** gratitude for her husband Henry’s “…great exertions…in theAdvocate/Sponsor/Treasurer: Capt. C. F. Hall Arctic Expeditions (3) search to ascertain the fate of Captain Sir John Franklin.” Founding President: American Geographical Society Henry “exerted” over $5 million & countless hours, 1850-1856. **New York Times, Dec. 18, 1881 (slide 80). This desk represents his two decades of leadership in arctic exploration. 5
  • 6. Henry Grinnell: “FATHER OF AMERICAN ARCTIC DISCOVERY”* 1799-1874 Son of Capt. Cornelius & Sylvia (Howland) Grinnell Henry Howland was a brother of Pilgrim John Howland and Henry Grinnell’s great, great, great, great grandfather. Henry Howland came over from England around 1622 and settled in Duxbury. In 1656, the The Howland Heirs: William M. Emery, 1919, pg. 249 Pilgrims disenfranchised him for holding Quaker meetings, and he purchased land in Dartmouth.Created at 182 Regent St., London NBWM #1983.58.3.6 Hetty Green was also a direct descendant of Henry Howland. Her mother, Abigail Howland was a first cousin of Henry’s mother, Sylvia Howland. According to family mythology, Henry Grinnell and Hetty Green were named after Henry Howland. Henry Howland plaque is in the Water St. entrance to the Wattles Family Gallery, NBWM *Capt. C. F. Hall in Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society 1851-1951: by John K. Wright, 1952, pg. 57 (slide 748) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell 6
  • 7. Presidents’ RESOLUTE Deskttp://www.ierehousemuseum.org/furnishings/resolute-desk.htm “JFK, Jr. peeking out of FDRs panel in the RESOLUTE desk in 1962” Life - Stanley Tretick Oval Office, circa 1996 7
  • 8. PRESIDENTS’ DESK made from the RESOLUTE Library of Congress - Frances Benjamin Johnston“Secretary of State John Hay signs a peace treaty with Spain at the RESOLUTE desk in President McKinleys office, circa 1899.” 8
  • 9. Whaling Museum’s GRINNELL DESK made from the RESOLUTEBadly tarnished Grinnell Desk plaque in process of restoration. Nearly identical inscriptions on the two RESOLUTE Desk plaques. Grinnell RESOLUTE Desk NBWM #1983.58.1_v1sm American Geographical Society President Henry Grinnell “The Constitution of the newly formed American Geographical Society was adopted at a public meeting held in John Disturnells Geographical and Statistical Library, 179 Broadway, New York, on October 9, 1851. Henry Grinnell, eight officers, and an Executive Committee of eight were duly elected.” (slides 745+) The U. S. Grinnell Expedition: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N., 1854 (slide 28) www.amergeog.org//1851.htm “…in 1850, at his own expense [Henry] fitted out an expedition to search for Sir John Franklin…” (Howland Heirs, Emery). The U. S. Grinnell Expedition of 1850-1851 was the first American arctic expedition (slide 28). The Second Grinnell Expedition was in 1853-1855 (slide 42), and Henry Grinnell assisted in the financing, promotion, and management of four other U.S arctic expeditions through 1870. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin 9
  • 10. Henry Grinnell’s fortune originated in New Bedford whaling and his father’s rise to first mate, captain, ship owner, & bank director. NBWM #Mss 2, S-g 3, Series A, Vol 1 William Rotch, Jr. to: “Capt. Cornelius Grinnell master of the Ship Bedford” December 4, 1795Henry was the third son of Cornelius Grinnell and Sylvia Howland. Capt. Cornelius was born in Little Compton on Feb. 11,1758 and died in New Bedford on April 19, 1850 (slides 423 & 501+). He was a poor boy who came to New Bedford to servean apprenticeship as a hatter (slide 425). William Rotch, Jr. came from a prominent whaling family that had transferred theirwhaling business from Nantucket and founded the New Bedford whaling industry. Cornelius was only a private during theRevolution. The fact that he was not promoted beyond that rank, indicates that not only was he poor but he had no political orsocial connections. By 1785, he had worked his way up to first mate of the most celebrated ship in New Bedford at that time,the REBECCA. In the above letter, William Rotch, Jr. wrote: “I hope I shall find a conveyance for a few more casks of oil –Capt. Cornelius Grinnell master of the Ship BEDFORD of this Port being bound to New York to seek a freight if he should notsucceed will probably want to load his Ship with lumber, in which case I have given him liberty to draw upon you for a fewthousand Dollars on my account, should he draw you will oblige me by paying his drafts & informing me thereof.” 10
  • 11. Abolitionist William Rotch, Jr., c. 1845 Cameo: gift of Mrs. Peter S. GrinnellIn addition to being a prominent businessman, William Rotch, Jr.was a well-known abolitionist (slide 428). His family wereQuakers who brought their whaling business from Nantucket toNew Bedford. During the 1820’s (?), he became a Unitarian likemany of New Bedford’s Quakers. As a businessman, he was abanker and the owner of many ships including the BEDFORD, thefirst ship to fly the Stars & Stripes in England after theRevolutionary War. Capt. Cornelius was an owner of 16+ shipswith his sons and Howland relatives. They owned the shipEUPHRATES from its launching in 1809 until it was sunk by thenefarious Confederate Gunboat SHENANDOAH in 1865 (slides 517& 513). William Rotch, Jr. & Capt. Cornelius were businessassociates for decades. They died in the same week in 1850, wereboth over 90 years old and shared an obituary in The New BedfordMercury (slide 501). They were buried near each other in the“Unitarian section” of Oak Grove Cemetery (slides 501 & 502).Capt. Cornelius was visited by former President John QuincyAdams on Sept. 28, 1843 while he was visiting his eldest son,Congressman Joseph Grinnell (slide 476). Thus, the poor armyprivate lived to be accepted at the top level of society. MosesGrinnell, who became the president of the family shippingcompany (Fish, Grinnell & Co. and Grinnell Minturn, & Co.)worked in the Rotch Counting House before he went to New Yorkand developed the family business into an international companyof very high repute in the China Trade and in a strictly scheduledpacket service to London and Liverpool from New York. NBWM #1984.21.3 11
  • 12. William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish & Grinnell, NY: Feb. 17, 1819William R. Rotch & Co. Letter Book: 1818-1837 NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1 The fortune that Henry Grinnell spent on 20+ years of Arctic exploration was made in the firm of Fish, Grinnell & Co. (became Grinnell, Minturn & Co.). Unfortunately, few records of these companies have survived. On Dec. 7, 1885, The New York Times ran a lengthy article on Capt. Preserved Fish, Capt. Cornelius Grinnell’s long-time partner and friend. This article included the following about the origin of Fish & Grinnell: “He [Capt. Fish] quit the sea in 1810, settled down in New-Bedford, formed a partnership with Cornelius Grinnell and under the firm name of Fish & Grinnell carried on a money-making business as shipping merchants.” Other sources state that Fish & Grinnell was founded in 1815 by Preserved Fish and Joseph Grinnell, son of Capt. Cornelius. In Jan. 1826, Henry and brother Moses became partners along with older brother Joseph and the name was changed to Fish, Grinnell & Co. William R. Rotch was a son of William Rotch, Jr. Hand-copying letters in books is how business records were saved before carbon paper was invented. In addition to 70+ ships registered in New Bedford, it has been estimated that the Grinnells owned/managed over 50 ships registered in New York including the Donald McKay built packet ship CORNELIUS GRINNELL and famous clipper ship FLYING CLOUD (see chapter VI). This letter book contains copies of letters that William R. Rotch & Co. wrote to Fish & Grinnell on the following dates: 2/27/1819, 4/16/1819, 5/3/1819, 6/25/1819, 7/3/1819, 8/4/1819, 8/30/1819, 9/21/1819, 11/1/1819, 1/26/1820, 2/24/1820, 3/13/1820, 3/18/1820, 4/11/1820, 6/28/1820, 8/7/1820, 8/16/1820, 8/27/1820, 9/18/1820, 9/27/1820, 11/4/1820, 2/14/1821, 2/26/1821, 4/14/1821, 5/22/1821, 6/18/1821, 8/25/1821, 9/22/1821, 10/2/1821 (2), 10/21821 (2), 2/4/1822, 2/23/1822, 3/4//1822, 6/18/1822, 7/8/1822, 10/4/1823, 10/11/1823, 10/21/1823, 11/23/1823, 11/28/1823, 12/13/1823, 4/17/1824, 5/11/1824, 5/28/1824, 6/1/1824, 10/16/1824, 10/20/1824 (2), 11/20/1824, 12/24/1824, 2/19/1825, 3/8/1825, 7/14/1825 (2), 7/25/1825, 8/26/1825, 10/25/1825 (3), 12/1/1825, 12/8/1825, 1/17/1826, 1/24/1826 (2), 1/28/1826, 2/15/1826, 3/15/1826, 3/18/1826, 3/23/1826, 4/10/1826, 4/13/1826, 4/15/1826 (2), 4/24/1826, 7/29/1826, 8/10/1826, 9/6/1826, 9/23/1826, 9/29/1826, 10/9/1826, 10/18/1826, 12/13/1826, 2/26/1827 (4), 4/18/1827, 4/20/1827, 4/23/1827, 5/11/1827, 5/22/1827, and 6/11/1827. As indicated, multiple letters were sent on some dates. 12
  • 13. William R. Rotch & Co. to Henry Grinnell: Sept. 22, 1821 NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1The above letter marks the beginning of Henry’s career that lead to his partnership in Grinnell, Minturn & Co. Henry wasborn on Feb. 18, 1799, he was just twenty-two years old and a “commission merchant” in New York shipping & sellingwhale oil for one of the most famous whaling families of New Bedford. Henry’s brothers Cornelius, Jr. and Joseph hadpreceded him into the New York shipping trade; and their father, Capt. Cornelius, had begun his career as a ship owner andmerchant in the late 1700’s. Grinnell, Minturn’s roots date back to the ships owned by the Grinnell & Howlands in the early1800’s (slide 446+). Even though he retired from his partnership around the time the FLYING CLOUD was built, Henrycontinued as an investor/member. He spent most of his fortune and the rest of his life promoting and funding Arcticexploration. The Wm. T. Russell mentioned in the above letter was married to Henry’s sister Sylvia, and they lived at 66Bedford St. (slide 606) about half a block from the County St. homes of Cornelius, Jr. and Joseph Grinnell (slides 458 &460). On the following dates William R. Rotch & Co. wrote letters directly to Henry Grinnell: 9/22/1821, 12/4/1821,3/4/1822, 1/29/1823, 10/27/1823, 11/6/23, 4/17/1824, 5/8/1824, 10/4/1824, 10/28/1824, 10/30/1824, 11/13/1824, 2/26/1825,& 5/14/1825. In January 1826, Fish & Grinnell became Fish, Grinnell & Co. and William R. Rotch & Co. ceased sendingletters directly to Henry, and he and younger brother Moses became partners in Fish, Grinnell & Co. with brother Joseph. 13
  • 14. NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1 William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish & Grinnell, 1825In the mid 1820’s Fish & Grinnell became Fish, Grinnell & Co. when Henry and younger brother Moses became partners.Joseph and Capt. Preserved Fish retired and Robert Minturn, Henry’s brother-in-law, became a partner. The name was officiallychanged to Grinnell, Minturn & Co. in 1833. During his “retirement”, Joseph was a congressman, president of the Marine Bank,president of the New Bedford & Taunton Railroad, and president of Wamsutta Mills from 1847 to 1885 (slide 500, etc.). 14
  • 15. Right: first letter from William R. Rotch & Co. to Fish, Grinnell & Co. January 17, 1826(Henry & Moses added as partners.) Fish & Grinnell Incorporation and Name Changes NBWM: Mss 2, s-g 7, Series 1, s-s 1, Folder 1Grinnell, Minturn & Co. Right: first letter from William R. Rotch & Co. to Grinnell, Minturn & Co. October 10, 1837 (Name changed in 1833.) 15
  • 16. Grinnell Brothers’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell ships registered in Connecticut in addition to the 100+ ships in Massachusetts & New York that they owned/managed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grinnell Mystic Seaport George W. Blunt Library The next slide shows that Joseph Grinnell was also an owner of the GEORGE WASHINGTON, which had been built for him (& others) in New Bedford in 1832. As will be shown, Joseph had been a founder of Grinnell, Minturn (originally named Fish & Grinnell) along with their father, Capt. Cornelius Grinnell and uncle, Capt. Preserved Fish. Joseph’s brother, Cornelius, Jr., was also a founder. Cornelius, Jr. suffered a tragic death in 1830 (slide 419). Younger brothers William P. & James M. Grinnell also owned several ships. HENRY GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=11431 MOSES GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=11430 JOSEPH GRINNELL: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuPeople.cfm?PersonId=19461 16
  • 17. Sample of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. ships registered in Connecticut Ship GEORGE WASHINGTON: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=104200 Ship WILLIAM C. NYE: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=112098 Ship CLEMATIS: http://library.mysticseaport.org/initiative/CuVessel.cfm?VesselId=101673 17
  • 18. Creator: Montardier, 1828 Given “In Memory of LLEWELLYN HOWLAND” by Llewellyn Howland, Jr. NBWM #1979.3.3 Ship EUPHRATES Sunk by Confederate Steamer SHENANDOAH on June 23, 1865 Owned by Grinnells & Howlands 1809 to 1865 Owned by Cornelius Grinnell 1809-1850 Owned by Henry Grinnell 1842-1862 18
  • 19. Ship EUPHRATES Joseph Grinnell was the surveyor when this ship was built in 1809. He was just 21, and his success at this important position resulted in his uncle, Capt. John Howland, taking him to New York in 1810 and making him a junior partner in several ships. Through the ownership and management of many ships like the EUPHRATES, Joseph, his father, three of his brothers and many of his relatives became very wealthy men. This wealth enabled Henry to become a major contributor to six Arctic expeditions, and most of the Howland owners on the left were Henry’s uncles or cousins. In fact, the EUPHRATES was owned by the extended Grinnell-Howland family from the time it was built in 1809 until it was burned by the Confederate raider SHENANDOAH on June 22, 1865. Even after the nefarious Captain Waddell of the SHENANDOAH learned on June 23, 1865 that the Civil War had ended, he captured or sank twenty-one additional Union vessels (slide 517). Capt. Cornelius Grinnell was an owner of the EUPHRATES from 1809 until he died in 1850; and his friend, in-law, and partner (Capt. Preserved Fish) was an owner from 1809 to 1815. In addition to many New York ships, Henry Grinnell owned the following New Bedford ships: SARAH (#2829), BRIGHTON (#330), CORNELIA (#664), GEORGE WASHINGTON (#1226), & EUPHRATES (#979). Henry Grinnell became an owner of the EUPHRATES in 1842 and remained an owner until it was sunk in 1865 (left). The Grinnells & Howlands were owners of this ship and many others in New Bedford and New York. The EUPHRATES was one of the 59 New Bedford ships owned by Capt. Cornelius Grinnell and his offspring. One source states that they also owned or leased at least 55 ships in New York.Ship Registers of New Bedford NBWM Research Library 19
  • 20. ONEIDA “Chinese School of Painting” NBWM #1994.53 Owned by Joseph Grinnell (Henry’s brother) & others. Sunk by Confederates on April 24, 1863.New Bedford Ship Registers Error: ONEIDA was sunk by the FLORIDA, not by Capt. Sommes and the ALABAMA NBWM Batchelder File 20
  • 21. FLYING CLOUDTo Messrs Grinnell, Minturn & Co. This Print of their Splendid CLIPPER SHIP “FLYING CLOUD”. Lithograph by: N. CurrierHenry Grinnell was a founding partner of Grinnell, Minturn & Co.; and he was a member until 1864. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Cloud_(clipper) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinnell,_Minturn_%26_Co 21
  • 22. NBWM #1983.58.3.5 NBWM #1983.58.3.11Henry Grinnell was a partner inGrinnell, Minturn & Co., owners of Sarah (Minturn) Grinnell, Henry’sthe China Clipper FLYING CLOUD. wife, was a sister of Robert Minturn,(slides 21 & 504+). On his a partner in Grinnell, Minturn & Co.mother’s side (Howland), Henry (slide 6). On their mother’s sidecame from five generations of (Bowne), the Minturn’s came fromMassachusetts Quakers (Chapter V). generations of New York Quakers. Old Dartmouth Historical Society, 1940 22
  • 23. New Bedford in China Trade by Capt. William L. Hawes, 1940 Old Dartmouth Historical SocietyIncluding the ONEIDA & the FLYING CLOUD Henry Grinnell 23
  • 24. **** ** ** ****** Henry Grinnell Father of U.S. Arctic Exploration*** *** 1850-1870 *** Henry was the sponsor, CEO, treasurer, *** & principal contributor to below expeditions. *** *** *U. S. Grinnell Expedition: 1850-1851 *** **Second Grinnell (Kane) Expedition: 1853-55 *** ***Capt. C. F. Hall Expeditions: 1860-1869 ****Hall Polaris Expedition: 1870-1871 Henry was an advocate/sponsor/contributor only. *****William Bradford’s Art Expedition: 1869 SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, 1879 (slides 95+) Henry’s advice & support were likely but Expeditions marked in red were sponsored/backed by Henry Grinnell. have not been documented. 24
  • 25. “Letter from Lady Franklin to Mr. Grinnell” New York Times, Oct. 2, 1851 http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/franklin-lady-jane-2065 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Franklinhttp://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D05E6DD1431E13BBC4A53DFB667838A649FDE&scp=1&sq=grinnell+lady+franklin&st=p http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin 25
  • 26. U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1851 New York Times November 6, 1851 Part IHenry’s obituary in the July 2, 1874New York Times (slide 111) began asfollows: “By the death of HenryGrinnell, geographical science losesone of its warmest friends, and itsmost enthusiastic advocate andsupporter. The first President of theAmerican geographical Society, theoriginator of the first expedition insearch of Franklin, Henry Grinnell hasalways placed his energies and hispurse at the service of the science towhich he may be said to have been to‘the manner born’ – Arcticnavigation… Although avoiding asmuch as possible any publicity, Mr.Grinnell would spend any amount ofmoney, time, and trouble in advancingthe interests of those who were,socially, his inferiors – especiallysailors…”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kanehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expeditionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Franklin http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CF 26
  • 27. U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1851 New York Times November 6, 1851 Part IIThe following statement is also fromHenry’s obituary in The N.Y. Times(slide 111): “From 1819 to 1849 Mr.Grinnell remained in partnershipwith his brothers. They [Fish &Grinnell and Grinnell, Minturn &Co.] were for many years the largestshippers and consignees of whaleoil, their principal depots being atNew Bedford, New London, andSag Harbor.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kanehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CF&scp=5&sq=grinnell+expedition&st=p 27
  • 28. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition 28
  • 29. Historical Society of Pennsylvania http://digitallibrary.hsp.org/index.php/Detail/Object/Show/object_id/2137 USS ADVANCE Owned by Henry Grinnell & loaned/given to the U. S. Navy 1850-1855 (Destroyed in the Arctic) “The first USS ADVANCE was a brigantine in the United States Navy which participated in an arctic rescue expedition. Advance was built in 1847 as Augusta and loaned to the Navy on 7 May 1850 by Mr. Grinnell to participate in the search for Sir John Franklins arctic expedition which had been stranded in the frozen north since 1847. After last-minute preparations, the ship, under the command of Lieutenant Edwin J. DeHaven and in company with RESCUE, put to sea from New York on 23 May 1850.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Advance_(1847) 29
  • 30. USS RESCUE “The first USS RESCUE was a brig in service with the U. S. Navy. The brigs RESCUE and ADVANCE specially reinforced and fitted out for Arctic service, were offered on loan to the U.S. Government by Henry Grinnell in 1850 for use in a rescue mission tracing the ill-fated expedition which, in May 1845, had sailed from England under Sir John Franklin in search of a northwest passage. Two years later the Admiralty dispatched relief expeditions. Since there was still no news of the expedition by 1 May 1850, the U. S. Congress authorized the president to accept Mr. Grinnells offer. In accordance with the wishes of both Congress and Mr. Grinnell, both ships were manned by volunteers from the U.S. Navy.” (Destroyed in the Arctic) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Rescue_(1850) Creator: James Hamilton Seneca Falls Historical Society “The RESCUE in Her Arctic Dry Dock”USS RESCUE: owned by Henry Grinnell & given to the U. S. Navy 1850-1851 http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/hamilton_james.html http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=9888 30
  • 31. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “The ‘Rescue’ nipped in Melville Bay, August 1850” “Drawn by J. Hamilton from a Sketch by Dr. E.K. Kane, U.S.N.” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 31
  • 32. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “Grounded Berg near Cape York” “Drawn by J. Hamilton from a Sketch by Dr. E.K. Kane, U.S.N.” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 32
  • 33. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELL Dr. Kane’s “Entering Lancaster Sound” The USS ADVANCE and the USS RESCUE Drawn by J. Hamilton after a sketch by Dr. E .K. Kane, USN THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 33
  • 34. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “ICE-BERG IN MOTION, JULY 29, 1850: Melville Bay” THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 34
  • 35. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “ARCTIC GLACIER, MELVILLE BAY” The USS ADVANCE and the USS RESCUE THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 35
  • 36. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, U.S.N. Dr. Kane’s “Beechy Island, Franklin’s first Winter Quarters” http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/gravesimage.html http://www.yachtfiona.com/northwestpassage2009/newsletter1.html 36
  • 37. U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1850-51: Edwin J. De Haven, Commander Official U. S. Navy Expedition funded by Henry Grinnell, the “author/advocate/sponsor”. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FIRST_GRINNELL_EXPEDITION HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/HENRY_GRINNELLJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane Dr. Kane’s “FISKENAES FROM THE GOVERNOR’S HOUSE” SOUTH GREENLAND THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. 37
  • 38. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N.Grinnell, Minturn & Co. ran ships from New York to Liverpool and London and had offices in those cities. Henry and his brothers frequently traveled toEngland on business, and Henry’s son Cornelius lived there. Capt. Cornelius had spent his younger years in the merchant service on the North Atlanticrun and had visited England and France on business. This long association with England might be why Henry took such an interest in the Lost FranklinExpedition and Arctic exploration. Since Henry was a very private person who avoided speaking to reporters and attending functions honoring him, hisinterest does not seem to have been driven by personal aggrandizement. Regardless of his motivation, Henry Grinnell had the experience, knowledge,connections, wealth, and generosity to be the leading sponsor/patron of U. S. Arctic Exploration for twenty years. The first Grinnell Expedition left theBrooklyn Navy Yard on May 22, 1850. http://archive.org/details/usgrinnellexped00kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition 38
  • 39. THE U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION IN SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN: by Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I http://archive.org/details/usgrinnellexped00kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Grinnell_Expedition by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 Both Lieutenant De Haven, commander of the first Grinnell Expedition, and Dr. Kane, commander of the second Grinnell Expedition, were officers in the U. S. Navy. The two Grinnell Expeditions were officially supported by Congress and included a contingent of U. S. Navy personnel. Undoubtedly, this was the result of lobbying by Henry and his brothers Moses and Joseph, who were both U. S. Congressmen. Moses was a New York Congressman from 1839-1841 and Joseph a New Bedford Congressman from 1843-1851. 39
  • 40. USS DE HAVEN (DD727)“Navy Photo 2128-47, broadside view of USS De Haven (DD 727) off Mare Island on 5 Nov 1947. Shewas in overhaul at the yard from 10 Sep to 18 Nov 1947.” Image from the USS DeHaven Association.”http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/0572726.jpg http://destroyerhistory.org/fletcherclass/ns_dehaven/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_De_Haven 40
  • 41. Edwin Jesse De Haven Commander U. S. GRINNELL EXPEDITION“Edwin Jesse DeHaven, born in 1819 in Pennsylvania wasappointed Acting Midshipman at the age of 10 and PassedMidshipman 5 years later. He served in Vincennes, flagship ofthe Wilkes Exploring Expedition in its historic cruise of 1838to 1842 to the Antarctic and among the Pacific Islands. DeHaven served in the Mexican War, assisting in the capture ofthe Mexican schooner Creole. In command of the GrinnellExpedition in 1850, he led the search for Sir John Franklinlost in the Arctic. Only traces of the party were found, but DeHaven discovered and named Grinnell Land, and wascommended for the valuable scientific data he collectedconcerning the winds and currents of the ocean. He served inthe Coast Survey Service until placed on the retired list inFebruary 1862. He died at Philadelphia, Pa., 1 May 1865. Nimitz Library United States Naval Academy http://www.usna.edu/Library/sca/findingaids/dehaven/index.html 41
  • 42. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I: by Elisha K. Kane, MD, 1856http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane 42
  • 43. Dr. Kane promoted to Commander SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION Assist. Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane, USN U. S. Grinnell Expedition, 1850-1852 Commander Elisha Kent Kane, M.D. Second Grinnell Expedition, 1853-1855 http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/ek-kane.htmU.S. Naval Academy Museum Collection, Annapolis 43
  • 44. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION “Kane expedition” funded by Henry Grinnell 1853-1855 Including the mythical “Open Polar Sea” and Kane’s discovery of the Great Humboldt Glacier Humboldt GlacierArctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati02kanegoog 44
  • 45. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf Commander Kane’s “CROSSING THE ICE BELT AT COFFEE GORGE” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 92+ 45
  • 46. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://ia600700.us.archive.org/27/items/arcticexploratio02kane/arcticexploratio02kane.pdf http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.3/ Expedition Commander Kane’s “The look-out from Cape George Russell” Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 102+ 46
  • 47. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane Commander Kane’s “MIDNIGHT IN SEPTEMBER” USS ADVANCE USS ADVANCE owned by Henry Grinnell & loaned to the U. S. Navy 1850-1854. Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 140+ 47
  • 48. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnellhttp://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.4/ James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane Commander Kane’s “THE PACK OFF SYLVIA HEADLANDS” (USS ADVANCE) Henry Grinnell’s mother and daughter were named Sylvia. Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 180+ 48
  • 49. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellJames Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.6/ Commander Kane’s “THE OPEN WATER FROM CAPE JEFFERSON” [Open Polar Sea] Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 306+ 49
  • 50. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “BEAR HUNT” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 336+ 50
  • 51. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “LIFE IN THE BRIG, SECOND WINTER” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 442+ http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf 51
  • 52. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellArctic Exploration, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati02kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition “The Great Glacier of Humboldt” 52
  • 53. Photographer: Matthew Brady Library of Congress: LC-USZ62-110168 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog Arctic Explorations, Vol. II: by Elisha K. Kane, U.S.N., 1856 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 53
  • 54. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.7/ Commander Kane’s Kane’s “ICEBERGS NEAR KOSOAK” Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge (slide 124). Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 56 54
  • 55. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0308/PG0308_feature1.pdf (Elisha Kent Kane) Commander Kane discovers the “Great Glacier of Humboldt” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 152+ 55
  • 56. Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog 56
  • 57. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell The NBWM has a copy of this volume with notes by William Bradford regarding Kane’s descriptions & illustrations (slide 125).Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 57
  • 58. from back of book Prof. Agassiz offers a “scientific review” of Dr. Kane’s Arctic ExplorationsTo most scientists, the discovery of the Humboldt Glacier (Great Glacier) was far more significant than discovering the remains of theFranklin Expedition. The Humboldt Glacier confirmed Agassiz’s theories of the ice age and glaciation. Dr. Kane studied geology and civilengineering at the University of Virginia under William Barton Rodgers (1st president of MIT) before he graduated the University ofPennsylvania medical school. Unfortunately, Kane was never given the credit he deserved for the Humboldt Glacier discovery. Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 58
  • 59. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Left: Kane’s “TENNYSON’S MONUMENT” Arctic Explorations, Vol. I, pg. 224 Proofs courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute (slide 124). http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.5/ http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.1/Creator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane 59
  • 60. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCommander Kane’s “THE ESCAPE OFF WEARY MEN’S NEST” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 60
  • 61. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell Commander Kane’s “The Broken Floes Nearing Pikantlik” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 236 61
  • 62. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/pga.04114/“Second Grinnell Expedition” at the Library of Congress Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-04114 (digital file from original print) LC-USZ62-40359 Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA 62
  • 63. Dr. Kane at the New York Historical SocietyArtist: Peter Reniers, 1857 New York Historical Society Artist: Thomas Hicks, 1858 New York Historical Society Elisha Kent Kane, M. D., U.S.N. (1820-1857) “Dr. Kane, famous Arctic explorer, was born in Philadelphia to John Kintzing Kane and Jane Duval (Leiper) Kane. His world travels began with his assignments to medical missions in China and in Africa. He served in the Mexican War in which he was wounded and contracted typhus, but by 1850 he had returned to duty with an expedition sent to the Arctic to search for a missing British explorer. The story of this journey is told in The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin (1853).” http://www.nyhistory.org/node/44187 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=3998 63
  • 64. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D07E5D81438E334BC4153DFB1668388649FDE http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A04E0DF1238EE3BBC4051DFBF66838F649FDE 64
  • 65. “Henry Grinnell… father of the Kane expedition.” Daniel Ricketson “The Second Grinnell Expedition” in search of Franklin was popularly known as the Kane expedition. The History of New Bedford, Daniel Ricketson, 1858, pg. 141 ***************************************************************************************************** The Lost Franklin Expedition Library and Archives Canada http://kenmcgoogan.blogspot.com/p/home.htmlSIR JOHN FRANKLINWaterloo Place, London http://www.martechpolar.com/Lost%20Expedition/Lost%20Expedition.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklins_lost_expedition 65
  • 66. The Illustrated London News, December 27, 1856 Refitted HMS RESOLUTE Returns to England in 1856 In 1856, Henry Grinnell was instrumental in having the recently salvaged HMS RESOLUTE restored at the expense of the United States government, and returned to Great Britain as a goodwill gesture.” [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell] This chapter is primarily about Henry Grinnell and how he made a fortune in the his family’s shipping firm and attained a world-renowned reputation in Arctic exploration. 66
  • 67. “a large silver vase which British Government presented to Mr. Henry Grinnell [in 1855-56]” Given after the HMS RESOLUTE was returned to England. NBWM Collection 67
  • 68. Philanthropist Henry Grinnell Lady Franklin’s Revenge, by Ken McGoogan, p. 349Arctic scholar Ken McGoogan wrote that Henry Grinnell hadspent over $5 million searching for Franklin by 1856. Afterbeing forced by financial reversals to curtail his expendituresand stop donating ships, Henry was the treasurer for the HayesExpedition and sponsor/treasurer of the three Hall expeditions. http://www.harpercollins.ca/author/sites/kenmcgoogan/rttps.html Henry Grinnell U. S Naval Lyceum Honorary Member April 1, 1854 Henry http://www.usna.edu/Museum/history.htm This honorary Lyceum membership was a high honor that the U. S. Navy bestowed on civilians in 1854. Today, this Lyceum is housed at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis. NBWM Research Library 68
  • 69. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B01E4D71039E134BC4B53DFB766838C649FDE 69
  • 70. Henry Grinnell Founder & President American Geographical and Statistical SocietyAccording to an article about his funeral in The New York Times (July 4, 1874), Henry “…had been for many years President,Vice President, and member of the Executive Committee of the American Geographical Society.” As can be seen above, hewas a vice president in 1857; and his brother Moses and sons Cornelius & William were also members at that time. Moses wasalso a contributor to several Arctic expeditions. Much more on American Geographical Society on slides 745+. Michigan Historical Reprint Series, Univ. of Michigan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Grinnell 70
  • 71. Additional Grinnell Expedition Art at the University of Cambridge, England “…pencil sketches and one watercolour of Arctic scenes. They may be by E. K. Kane during one of the Grinnell Franklin Search expeditions. Courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute (slide 124) http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.9.1// http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.9.3/“CAPE GRINNELL” 71
  • 72. “THE DEATH OF DR. KANE” Creator: Mathew Brady, National Archives and Records Administration http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/kanedeath.htmlBelow: New York Times Articles on the Grinnell Expeditionshttp://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9805E7D8153DE334BC4E52DFB667838E649FDE&scp=2&sq=grinnell+exedition&pst=phttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E03E2DD153EE13AA15756C0A9679D946092D7CFhttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B01E4D71039E134BC4B53DFB766838C649FDE 72
  • 73. Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, pg. 299“The death of ‘Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas’ caused perhaps a greater publicoutpouring of grief than that of any other figure between Washington and Lincoln.After his death in Havana, where he had gone in a fruitless effort to recover his health,Dr. Kanes remains were transported by boat to the mainland, where they progressedby steam-train and boat throughout the heart of the United States, before arriving inPhiladelphia for the final obsequies. At every train station and dock where his casketpassed, it was met by crowds of civic dignitaries, wearing black as well as speciallymade badges and armbands. Pictures of Dr. Kane, draped with black crepe, appearedin every store-window, and flags flew at half-mast from town halls and statehouses.” (quotation from Prof. Russell A. Potter) http://www.ric.edu/faculty/rpotter/kanedeath.html The Ice Finders, by Edmund B. Bolles, pages 210 & 211 http://ebbolles.com/IceFinders/Reviews.html 73
  • 74. Creator” De Witt Clinton Baxter http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/17/hh17g.htm http://www.librarycompany.org/laurelhill/image/10-16.jpg“The Dead Watch” Remains of Dr. Kane Lying in State, Independence Hall, Philadelphia 74
  • 75. USS Kane (Destroyer # 235), 1920-1946“USS Kane was named in honor of Assistant Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane USN, (1820-1857), who gained fame as an Arctic explorer during the 1850s.” DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD -- U.S. NAVY SHIPS http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-k/dd235.htm http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-k/ek-kane.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Kane_(DD-235) 75
  • 76. USNS Elisha Kent Kane (T-AGS-27) Genoa, Italy, 27 May 1987“The second Kane (T-AGS-27) was launched 20 November 1965 by the Christy Corp., Sturgeon Bay, Wis. assigned to MSTS; and placed in service 26 May 1967 for scientific operations under the Atlantic.” http://www.navsource.org/archives/09/10/09102703.jpg 76
  • 77. http://www.usstampgallery.com/view.php?id=8393e8e13cf2a84516f7146cc2f58dbc8f771a3bDr. Kane graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School in 1842. On September 14, 1843, he became Assistant Surgeon in theNavy. He served in the China Commercial Treaty mission under Caleb Cushing, in the Africa Squadron, and in the United States Marin Corpsduring the Mexican American War. Kane was appointed senior medical officer of the U.S. Grinnell Expedition of 1850-1851 under thecommand of Lieutenant Edwin de Haven, which searched unsuccessfully for the lost expedition of Sir John Frankin. The crew discoveredFranklin’s first winter camp [and returned to New York in 1851]. Kane then organized and headed the Second Grinnell Expedition which sailedfrom New York on May 31, 1853… Dr. Kane received medals from Congress, the Royal Geographic Society, and the Societe de Geographie…” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Kent_Kane 77
  • 78. Brothers Henry & Moses: Backers of 1860 Hayes Expedition Henry was first president of The Geographical and Statistical Society and contributor to the Hayes Expedition. Dr. Isaac Hayes Photo: J. W. Black NBWM #1985.24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Israel_HayesDr. Hayes began his Arctic career on the Second Grinnell Expedition. “Undeterred by the extreme hardships he had endured as ships surgeon on ElishaKent Kanes Second Grinnell Expedition in 1853-55, Dr. Isaac Israel Hayes could not resist the lure of further Arctic exploration. He was a firm believer inthe Open Polar Sea. Following his return from the second Grinnell expedition, Hayes had raised money by lecturing and succeeded in finding a number ofvolunteers for his proposed expedition to the Open Polar Sea. In 1860, he took his tiny schooner, the UNITED STATES, to the north… He wrote in hisjournal ‘All the evidence showed that I stood upon the shores of the Open Polar Sea’. He convinced himself without definite proof that this was indeed thecase. Not only was Hayes subsequently proven wrong, but it was also learned that many of his measurements and calculations were erroneous. Some evenaccused him of falsifying his data. His land trip had covered 1300 miles, but he had achieved essentially nothing.” by Dr. Ralph A. Meyerson.http://www.ekkane.org/Biographies/BioHayes.htm Reference: http://www.amergeog.org/archives/1851.htm http://www.nytimes.com/1860/03/23/news/new-arctic-expedition-dr-haryes-proposed-exploration-polar-sea-meeting.html?scp=70&sq=grinnell%20arctic&st=p&pagewante 78
  • 79. Henry Grinnell: Hayes Expedition treasurer and principal subscriber. 79
  • 80. Henry Grinnell “principal subscriber” 1860 Hayes Expeditionhttp://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9403E2DE163DE533A2575BC1A9649D94609FD7CF 80
  • 81. Grinnell Brothers: Partners & Friends Moses Grinnell to Abraham Lincoln http://www.nytimes.com/1860/03/20/news/a-new-york-merchant.htm (Partial Article) The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/309/3099700/malpage.db&recNum=0 81
  • 82. Library of Congress, Abraham Lincoln, and Moses H. Grinnell Lincoln at Moses Grinnell’s Home “When President Lincoln came to Washington, he was invited to, and did, breakfast with Moses at his house in New York.” http://www.mrlincolnandnewyork.org/inside.asp?ID=46&subjectID=3 Moses, Henry, and Joseph Grinnell were Republicans and strong supporters of Lincoln. The Library of Congress has 38 items regarding Moses, 72 regarding Joseph, and 95 regarding Henry. It also has 6 items related to their niece, Cornelia Grinnell Willis, who paid for the freedom of Abolitionist Harriet Jacobs (slides 168-172, 483-493, & 671+). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnellhttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/scsmbib:@field(DOCID+@lit(scsm000609)) 82
  • 83. November 5, 1864 http://www.nytimes.com/1864/11/05/news/mass-meeting-merchants -bankers-monied-men-city-declare-for-lincoln-great.htmlCongressman Moses H. Grinnell (NY) was the fifth son of Capt. Cornelius andSylvia Grinnell, and he was born in New Bedford on March 23, 1803 (slide508). He was president of Grinnell, Minturn & Co. for most of his career anddeveloped it into a leading world-wide shipping firm. Even though hepermanently moved to New York in 1825, he owned a pew at the New BedfordUnitarian Church and a home in New Bedford. One source states that Moseshelped fund the Grinnell Arctic Expeditions, and Joseph probably helped, too. The Howland Heirs: Wm M. Emery, 1919, p. 250 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell 83
  • 84. Article to Right Capt. C. F. Hall to Henry Grinnell, 1860 (Partial Article)http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F20D17FC3E54157493C3AA1789D95F4C8685F9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall 84
  • 85. “Donations to the Hall Franklin Expedition 1860” Henry Grinnell Treasurer/Sponsor Hall Expeditions 1860-1871 Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871 G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport “The collection is limited to an 11 year period, primarily to the years 1860-1871 and the Charles F. Hall polar expedition. Included are letters to Grinnell from C. F. Hall in New London, Connecticut, and Washington, D.C., regarding Arctic exploration and Halls work in obtaining a Congressional appropriation for an expedition. Included also is a list of donations to the Hall Franklin expedition of 1860.” Other documents state that Moses Grinnell was a donor to Capt. Hall, too. Third on the list, Cyrus Field, had a mansion in Irvington, N.Y. along with Moses, Albert Bierstadt, Washington Irving, Jay Gould, and other notables (slides 209+). Field was a financier and one of the founders of the American Telegraph Co. (AT&T, today). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_West_Field “Halls motives for his first voyage—Arctic Study—Limited resources— Reasons for believing that some of Franklins men still lived… Generous aid by Mr. Grinnell” American Explorations in the Ice Zones. by Prof. J. E. Nourse, 1884, pg. 8 http://www.archive.org/details/americanexplorat00nourialahttp://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/coll/coll008.cfm 85
  • 86. Capt. Hall to Henry Grinnell on North Pole Expedition: Feb. 2, 1870 Re: Meeting with President Grant at White House Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=1&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2http:// library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=2&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2 http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=3&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=2 86
  • 87. Capt. Hall to Henry Grinnell on North Pole Expedition: July 6, 1870 Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=2&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=3&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 87
  • 88. Capt. C. F. Hall to Henry Grinnell on North Pole Expedition: Nov. 9, 1870 Re: Meeting with President Grant at Executive Mansion Dinner with Gen. J. H. Martindale & David Field in N.Y. Henry Grinnell Letters 1860-1871: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=19&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/CPageImage.cfm?PageNum=20&BibID=34256&Box=1&Folder=3 88
  • 89. Capt. Charles F. Hall & Henry Grinnell “Charles Francis Hall, apparently inspired by Kanes adventures, became convinced that some of Franklins men might still be alive. Even McClintocks news, brought home in 1859, did not dissuade him. Remarkably, he too found a friend in Henry Grinnell, and through him secured passage on a northbound whaling ship in 1860.” by Prof. Russell Potterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall Arctic Researches and Life Among the Esquimaux by Capt. C. F. Hall, pg. xviii 89
  • 90. Grinnell Glacier Frobisher Bay, Canada(Not Grinnell Glacier, Montana, whichwas named after George Bird Grinnell.) Arctic Researches and Life Among the Esquimaux by C. F. Hall, pg. 118 90
  • 91. “Mr. Grinnell’s Memorial supported by Clay, Seward, and Pearce in the Senate” “Grinnell and De Haven Expedition of C. F. Hall, 1860-1862 Generous Aid by Mr. Grinnell” American Explorations in The Ice Zones by J. E. Nourse, p. 8 91
  • 92. “Henry Grinnell’s Memorial” (copy of Henry’s Memorial on slide 95)American Explorations in The Ice Zones by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N. http://www.archive.org/details/americanexplorat00nouriala 92
  • 93. Henry Clay presents Henry Grinnell’s Memorial to CongressAmerican Explorations in The Ice Zones by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N. http://www.archive.org/details/americanexplorat00nouriala 93
  • 94. Memorial of Henry Grinnell, presented by Henry Clay, 1852NBWM #B83-4, Folder 3 94
  • 95. Second Arctic Expedition made by Capt. Charles F. Hall, 1864-1869 Henry Grinnell: Hall’s Patron, Advocate, & Treasurerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] 95
  • 96. Second Arctic Expedition Made by Capt. Charles F. Hall, 1864-1869 Henry Grinnell: Hall’s Patron, Advocate, & Treasurer SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] 96
  • 97. Lady Franklin Letter to Henry Grinnell: Oct. 30, 1869SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/franklin-lady-jane-2065 97
  • 98. Lady Franklin Letter to Henry Grinnell: Oct. 30, 1869SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Franklin 98
  • 99. Capt. C. F. Hall to Henry Grinnell: December 14, 1869 Benefits derived from Arctic Exploration by Capt. S. Osborne to Royal Geographic Society SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, pg. xxxvi 99
  • 100. Capt. Osborne to Royal Geographic Society (cont.) Henry Grinnell to American Geographical Society: “…extension of commerce and trade which have flowed from Arctic researches…” including several new whale fisheries. SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 More on Henry & American Geographical Society @ slide 745+ 100
  • 101. Capt. C. F. Hall returns to New Bedford aboard the ANSELL GIBBS: September 26, 1869 SECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] 101
  • 102. Capt. C. F. Hall telegraphs Henry Grinnell from New Bedford: September 26, 1869 Capt. Charles F. HallSECOND ARCTIC EXPEDITION MADE BY CHARLES F. HALL by Prof. J. E. Nourse, U.S.N., 1879 [Internet Archives] http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=5018 102
  • 103. pg. 25 http://archive.org/details/cu31924029881012 “Mr. Henry Grinnell, the well-known philanthropist” http://archive.org/details/cu31924029881012 pg. 627 http://archive.org/details/cu31924029881012http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=5018 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Hall 103
  • 104. U.S.S. Polaris Captain C. F. Hall, Commander Henry Grinnell was Hall’s Patron & TreasurerNarrative of the North Polar Expedition by Rear-Admiral C. H. Davis, U.S.N., 1876 104
  • 105. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto http://images.rom.on.ca/public/index.php?function=image&action=detail&sid=&ccid= “The POLARIS, Far North” by William Bradford, 1882 Under command of Capt. C. F. Hall, “The USS POLARIS sailed from New York in 1871 in search of the North Pole. Stuck in ice in Smith Sound in October 1872, 19 crew members and Inuit guides abandoned ship, the remaining 14 following suit later.” Bradford’s above 1882 rendition of the POLARIS is a copy of the engraving in Narrative of the North Polar Expedition by Rear-Admiral C. H. Davis, U.S.N., 1876 (previous slide). Henry Grinnell was Capt. Hall’s patron/backer beginning in 1860, and Henry advocated for Hall to get this ship. 105
  • 106. Mystic Seaport #1939.1244 http://www.mysticseaport.org/imagestorage/m113/m113229-r.jpgBark GEORGE HENRY of New London, ConnecticutDate: May 28, 1860 (date depicted). Description: Engraving of bark GEORGE HENRY (bu. 1841, Waldoboro, ME; lost in Hudson Bay1863; Capt. James M. Buddington, 1855; Sidney O. Budington in 1860). Signed "OSBON". "THE BARK "GEORGE HENRY," CAPTAINSIDNEY O. BUDDINGTON[sic], OF NEW LONDON, WHICH STARTED FOR THE ARCTIC REGIONS ON TUESDAY, MAY 28, 1860.” 106
  • 107. Capt. James M. Buddington of the whaler GEORGE HENRY found the HMS RESOLUTEand Capt. Sydney O. Buddington took Capt. C. F. Hall to the Arctic in the GEORGE HENRY Repository: G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Creator: Buddington family Title: Buddington Family Collection Dates: 1706-1986 (bulk 1830-1863) http://library.mysticseaport.org/manuscripts/coll/coll257.cfm#head38545944 107
  • 108. “Farewell Demonstration to Capt. Hall and His Comrades by the Geographical Society”“At the close of Capt. Hall’s remarks, Hon. Henry Grinnell presented him with a small American flag to take with him. Mr. Grinnell announcedthat the flag was a noted one. It was first used by Wilkes in Arctic exploration in 1838, and in 1850 Lieut. Walker carried it with him on his tripto the Antarctic Pole. It was also used by Lieut. DeHaven and by Dr. Kane in their searches for Sir John Franklin and afterward by Dr. Hayes.” http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F50B1EF93C5D117B93C5AB178DD85F458784F9 108
  • 109. Commander George W. Delong & Henry Grinnell Retirement of the “FATHER OF AMERICAN ARCTIC DISCOVERY”*Voyage of the Jeannette edited by Emma DeLong, 1883 Voyage of the Jeannette edited by Emma DeLong, pg. 42 Voyage of the Jeannette edited by Emma DeLong, pg. 43 “From 1850 to 1870, Henry was a tireless advocate for Arctic exploration.” After retiring from Grinnell, Minturn & Co. in the early 1850’s, he spent most of his fortune searching for the lost Franklin Expedition and advancing Arctic science. *Capt. C. F. Hall in Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society 1851-1951: by John K. Wright, 1952, pg. 57 (slide 753) 109
  • 110. http://www.nunavutparks.com/english/parks-special-places/sylvia-grinnell-territorial-park/overview.aspx“American explorer Charles Halls 1861 journey with Inuit brought him in the vicinity ofthe park. Hall was the first to record that Frobishers Strait was actually a bay. Hallnamed a number of features in the upper bay after his financial backers. Among the placenames attributed by Hall is the Sylvia Grinnell River. Sylvia Grinnell was the name of thedaughter of C.F. Halls friend and benefactor, Henry Grinnell.” Sylvia moved to Englandand was one of the signees of William Bradford’s signature book (slide 146). 110
  • 111. Henry Grinnell Obituary The New York Times July 2, 1874Henry was a member of Fish & Grinnell and Grinnell,Minturn & Co. from 1819 to 1850. In case the clippingon the right is illegible, Henry’s obituary states:“Throughout his whole career Henry Grinnell has neverlost sight of the sea – to use an Irish expression.Indeed, his name is more intimately connected withArctic explorations than with his daily avocations as ashipping merchant. That a large tract of the Arcticregions is called ‘Grinnell Land’ is sufficient testimonyto his liberality and enterprise in this direction. On the22nd May 1850 and again in 1854, Mr. Grinnell, withthe sanction of Congress, fitted out, at his own expense,and dispatched the vessels ADVANCE and RESCUE insearch of Sir John Franklin. Dr. Kane accompanied theexpeditions. Though wanting in success in theirprimary objects, the expeditions made severalgeographical discoveries of great importance, especiallythe open polar sea free from ice, and abounding inanimal life, lying in longitude 76 degrees west andrunning as far north as 82 30’ latitude… Mr. Grinnellwas not only an intimate friend of Henry Clay, but alsoof Daniel Webster…” Henry was brother & partner of Cornelius, Jr., Joseph, & Moses http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9504EFDB1139EF34BC4A53DFB166838F669FDE&scp=3&sq=henry+grinnell&st=p 111
  • 112. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9400EEDB1139EF34BC4B53DFB166838F669FDEhttp://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9400EEDB1139EF34BC4B53DFB166838F669FDE&scp=5&sq=grinnell+henry&st=p 112
  • 113. Henry Grinnell 1799-1874NBWM Research Library NBWM Archives Moses to nephew Robert: May 29, 1874 Henry interred at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn 113
  • 114. Henry’s son, Major Robert Minturn Grinnell, interred at Nice, France The Howland Heirs: William M. Emery, 1919Henry Grinnell and his brothers travelled extensively in Europe and had offices in London &Liverpool. Four of Henry’s nine children moved to Europe. Sarah and Robert lived in France.Sylvia and William lived in Britain. Major Robert Minturn Grinnell is buried in the British The Howland Heirs #346 and slide 146 http://www.whoislog.info/profile/henry-walton-grinnell.htmlCemetery in Nice, France. Documents from NBWM Research Library http://www.pdavis.nl/ShowBiog.php?id=1608 114
  • 115. Henry Grinnell “extreme aversion to publicity” “Royal Geographic Certificate awarded to Henry Grinnell, Esq. of New York, making him a Foreign Honorary Member, 1852” Gift of Mary M. Grinnell NBWM #1987.10 Image ComingDictionary of American Biography: Vol. 8, pg. 2 (slide 763) http://ia700806.us.archive.org/11/items/dictionaryofamer08ilamer/dictionaryofamer08ilamer.pdf 115
  • 116. Charles Dickens on Henry Grinnell Lady Franklin’s Revenge by Ken McGoogan No Survivors! Franklin Expedition Annihilated Sir John Franklin Graves of the three sailors from the Franklin Westminster Abbey Expedition, Beechey Is, Nunavut, Canada. (Replica Graves)http://www.martechpolar.com/Lost%20Expedition/Lost%20Expedition.htm http://www.yachtfiona.com/northwestpassage2009/newsletter1.html 116
  • 117. Henry David Thoreau: “Does Mr. Grinnell know where he himself is?” http://ia600400.us.archive.org/32/items/thoreauswalden00thor/thoreauswalden00thor.pdf 117
  • 118. Henry Grinnell & Henry David Thoreau by Prof. Russell A. PotterArctic Spectacles: The Frozen North in Visual Culture, 1818-1875: by Russell A. Potter, 2007, pp. 118-119 http://www.washington.edu/uwpress/search/books/POTARC.htmlThoreau: “Does Mr. Grinnell know where he himself is?” 118
  • 119. Henry Grinnell was posthumously honored by Queen Victoria for his 20+ years of service in the Arctic with a desk made from the HMS RESOLUTE. RESOLUTE by Martin W. Sandler, 2006, pg. 218 Above: Henry Grinnell & Charles Dickens From 1850 to 1870, Henry Grinnell sponsored all the major American Expeditions. After Henry’s death, Queen Victoria honored him for his “twenty years of service” with this desk. If he had been born a British subject like his father, he would likely have been knighted afterRight: Henry Grinnell & the second U. S. Grinnell Expedition returned in 1855. Capt. Cornelius was born in 1758,Lords of the Admiralty when America was still ruled by England. The New York Times Oct. 4, 1879 119
  • 120. The Grinnell Desk NBWM # 1983.58.1 Print given by Mary Grinnell Henry Grinnell & The Grinnell DeskFull title of: “England and America The Visit of Her Majesty Queen Victoria to the Arctic Ship Resolute” The Bulletin from Johnny Cake Hill;New Bedford Whaling Museum, Winter/Spring 2009, pgs. 17& 18 Henry Grinnell was born in New Bedford on Feb. 18, 1799. Today, Henry has become a forgotten man in the city of his birth and was merely referred to as “a wealthy business man with New Bedford ties” in the above article. This chapter has shown that he had an international reputation in business and Arctic exploration in the mid 1800’s. It is hoped that this “digital initiative” will restore his rightful place in U.S history. 120
  • 121. Chapter II. William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, & the GrinnellsNew Bedford Whaling Museum #B81-24.98 https://www.1000museums.com/enlarge/204364/ “Between the Iceberg and Field Ice” by William Bradford, 1869 121
  • 122. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Bradford_(painter) Ref: “Bradford-Hayes Exploring Expedition” (slide 143) http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00615FF395F137B93C3A91782D85F4D8684F9http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00C13FF385E1A7493C4AB178ED85F4D8684F9 122
  • 123. Bradford, Kane, & Grinnell Expeditions Arctic Regions by William Bradford, pg. viiEven though they were of different generations, William Bradford & Henry Grinnell had several similarities aside from beingtwo of the most successful men to come out of Old Dartmouth. They were both bitten hard by the “Arctic Bug” of the 1800’s;and they both lived in Manhattan, developed ties with British Royalty, and were honored by Queen Victoria. Henry was thefounding president of the American Geographical Society (slides 745+); and Wm. Bradford’s art expedition was affiliated withthat society. In fact, Wm. Bradford gave a lecture to the society that was published in their “1885 Bulletin No.2”. 123
  • 124. Bradford in The New York Times and the “Scott Polar Research Institute Review 2008” Published: May 26, 1869 Copyright © The New York Times “A further acquisition is a group of letters, all addressed to William Bradford, relating to nineteenth century Arctic Exploration. Correspondents include John http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res= Rae, Lady Franklin, Charles Hall and George Nares.” by Naomi Boneham, pg. 19 F00C13FF385E1A7493C4AB178ED85F4D8684F9 124
  • 125. William Bradford and Elisha Kent Kane The below note is in William Bradford’s copy of Kane’s Arctic Explorations, Vol. I: “good subject for rough water with vessel, cliffs in shadow with ice foot running out with vessel in ice with sea breaking on edge of ice”Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 70+ NBWM Research Library “PARTING HAWSERS OFF GODSEND LEDGE” by James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition 125
  • 126. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane http://archive.org/details/arcticexplorati06kanegoog Commander Kane’s “KASARSOAK, SANDERSON’S HOPE, UPERNAVIK” Arctic Explorations, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 294+ 126
  • 127. Arctic Regions by William Bradford Nearly identical to preceding slide from Kane’s Arctic Explorations Plate Number: 68 “View of Upernavik, the most northern settlement on the globe.The snow-clad summit of Kresarsoak seen in the distance.” (Dunmore and Critcherson, 1869) http://whalingmuseum-arcticvisions.org/chasing-the-light-2/ 127
  • 128. Creator: Bradford, William --Dunmore & Chritcherson NBWM #2000.100.1893.13 “Fronticepiece of Bradford’s ‘Arctic Regions” 128
  • 129. New Bedford Whaling Museum Collection https://www.1000museums.com/enlarge/204363/ “Sermitsiaq Glacier with figure from Arctic Regions” by William Bradford, 1869 Ref: “Bradford-Hayes Exploring Expedition” http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00615FF395F137B93C3A91782D85F4D8684F9 129
  • 130. NBWM #B81-24.62 “Looking Down the Karsut Fjord”“Consisting of 76 elephant folio-sized pages, Arctic Regions contains 141 albumen photographs, handtipped with the text. Under the patronage of Queen Victoria, this elaborately produced volume consistsof William Bradfords narrative account of his voyage on the PANTHER in 1869.” (NBWM records) 130
  • 131. Creator: Bradford, William NBWM #00.127.25 PANTHER in Ice Eight men with dead polar bears in foreground. Melville Bay, August 10, 1869. Hunting by steam, the party killing/six polar bears in one day.The stream of black soot & smoke in Bradford’s most famous works was the result of a coal-fed steam engine. As withNew Bedford factory smokestacks, this marked the beginning of man’s wholesale destruction of the environment. Itwas the beginning of global warming and the end of the pristine, pure Arctic that Bradford captured in his paintings. 131
  • 132. NBWM #00.127.17 “Photograph of William Bradford sitting on a rock… at Arsut Fiord, Greenland” 132
  • 133. Creator: Bradford, William NBWM #B-20 “Auxiliary bark PANTHER in the ice under steam” 133
  • 134. Creator: Bradford, William --Dunmore & Chritcherson NBWM #2000.100.1893.3 “PANTHER in ice” 134
  • 135. Creator: Bradford, William --Dunmore & Chritcherson NBWM #2000.100.1893.49 “Vessels BEAR and THETIS” 135
  • 136. Creator: Bradford, William --Dunmore & Chritcherson NBWM #B81-24.103_MSTR “Farthest Point Reached” “Number 103 from Bradfords Arctic Regions.” 136
  • 137. “The steamer taking soundings… Capt. Bartlett finding water 500 feet.” Ref: “Bradford-Hayes Exploring Expedition” http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00615FF395F137B93C3A91782D85F4D8684F9 137
  • 138. Creator: Bradford, William --Dunmore & Chritcherson NBWM #2000.100.1893.30 “Iviktut, with Kunak Mountain in the distance.” “Number 50 from Bradfords Arctic Regions.” 138
  • 139. SECOND GRINNELL EXPEDITION, 1852-1855 Commanded by Dr. Kane and funded by Henry Grinnell, “author/advocate/sponsor” & CEO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Grinnell_Expedition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_GrinnellCreator: James Hamilton from a sketch by Dr. Kane Arctic Explorations, Vol. I by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856, pg. 76 Commander Kane’s “THE NIP OFF CAPE CORNELIUS GRINNELL, FORCE BAY” Cape Cornelius Grinnell was named after Henry’s father, Captain Cornelius Grinnell who died on April 19, 1850 (slide 501) just before the first Grinnell Expedition left New York on May 22, 1850. Since Henry had a brother and a son named Cornelius, it is possible that Cape Cornelius Grinnell was also named after them. Engraving proof courtesy of Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England (slide 124). http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/museum/catalogue/article/y57.8.2/ 139
  • 140. NBWM #2009.9.19 Taken from: Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. II by Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, 1856 Bradford’s colorized lantern slide of Kane’s “THE NIP OFF CAPE CORNELIUS GRINNELL…” “Lantern slide owned and possibly taken by William Bradford”, NBWM records. 140
  • 141. Creator: Bradford, William NBWM #00.127.9 Bradford painting based on Kane’s “THE NIP OFF CAPE CORNELIUS GRINNELL…” “Ship [USS ADVANCE ] in the ice in center middle ground, in front of a large iceberg…” Much more on Capt. Cornelius & Cornelius Grinnell, Jr. (Henry’s father & brother) in Chapter V (slide 404). 141
  • 142. Creator: Bradford, William NBWM #00.127.7 2nd Bradford painting based on Kane’s “THE NIP OFF CAPE CORNELIUS GRINNELL…” “Photo of a painting of two large vessels in ice…” Ship in distance is identical to Kane’s drawing (slide 139). The below notes are also in Bradford’s copy of Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition, Vol. II by Dr. Kane. Pg. 75. Shored Up (small drawing) – "another subject with vessel in the ice with rough water.” Pg. 79. Tracking Along the Ice Belt (small drawing) – "picture subject for composition for tracking the vessel”. 142
  • 143. “Bradford-Hayes Exploring Expedition” The New York Times Sept. 1, 1869 http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res= F00615FF395F137B93C3A91782D85F4D8684F9 143
  • 144. Newfoundland Fishing Schooners Square Island Harbor LabradorPhoto is not from Bradford-Hayes Expedition.Before going to Greenland,Bradford spent fivesummers drawing & painting up to Labrador. Creators: Pierce, William H. --Bradford, William NBWM #2000.100.26 144
  • 145. Creator: Bradford, William NBWM #1989.50 “ship from port bow under full sail” 145
  • 146. William Bradford’s Signature Book from England Sylvia Grinnell Henry’s Daughter Granddaughter of Capt. Cornelius NBWM Archives Sylvia Grinnell Park, slide 110 146
  • 147. William Bradford’s Signature Book from England NBWM ArchivesDuke Lord Dufferin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Hamilton-Temple- Blackwood,_1st_Marquess_of_Dufferin_and_Ava Explorer Frank L. McClintock http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Leopold_McClintock British Explorer John Rae, M.D. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Rae_(explorer) 147
  • 148. William Bradford’s Signature Book NBWM Archives Lady Jane Franklinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Franklin 148
  • 149. William Bradford’s Signature Book NBWM ArchivesExplorer Isaac Israel Hayes, M.D. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Israel_Hayes J. Carson Brevoort American Geographic Societyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Carson_Brevoort Richard Kimball writer for Bradford 149
  • 150. RICHARD C. KUGLER“The Ice Dwellers Watching the Invaders” by William Bradford Gift of William F. Havemeyer, 1910 William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum http://www.whalingmuseumstore.org/william-bradford-sailing-ships-amp-artic-seas.html 150
  • 151. New Bedford Whaling Museum #1972.33 Purchased with funds donated by Andrew G. Hobbs “Sealers Crushed by Icebergs” by William Bradford, 1866 In William Bradford: Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas, NBWM Director Emeritus Richard Kluger wrote: “Returning from Labrador [fall, 1865], Bradford resumed work on his large painting [Sealers]. Toward the end of January 1866, a journalist from Philadelphia called at the Tenth Street Building and found the work ‘on the scaffold in a condition of forwardness.’... Then walking through the side door into Bierstadt’s studio, he confronted Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mount Rosalie, ‘as big as the side of a house,’ also nearing completion…” William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum, pg. 121 151
  • 152. New Bedford Whaling Museum #2001.100.4449 “Caught in the Ice Floes” by William Bradford, 1867 “This is a scene of several sealing brigs caught in the ice off the Labrador coast. In the far background, left, a ship is being burned to eliminate it as a future hazard to navigation. Crew members are seen dragging small boats over the pack ice to an open lead of water in the foreground. The dismasted brig on the far right is being abandoned, with a makeshift tent set up on the ice.” (NBWM records) 152
  • 153. New Bedford Whaling Museum #2001.100.4324 “Caught Among the Icebergs After a Storm” by William Bradford, c. 1880 153
  • 154. New Bedford Whaling Museum #2001.100.4441 “The PANTHER - Trapped in Ice in Melville Bay” by William Bradford, 1883 Ref: “Bradford-Hayes Exploring Expedition” http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00615FF395F137B93C3A91782D85F4D8684F9 154
  • 155. “The PANTHER in Melville Bay” by William Bradford, 1873 The Royal Collection © 2002. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II“The steamer Panther, specially built for Arctic navigation, was commanded by Captain John Bartlett. The expedition, solely for the purposes of art,left St John’s, Newfoundland, on 3 July 1869 flying the U.S. flag, and returned on 3 October. Melville Bay is a coastline of nearly 250 miles fromWilcox Point to Cape York on the north-west coast of Greenland. Bradford sketched the midnight sun and the amazing scenery along the coast. Thekinds of hazards the expedition faced are recorded in the painting. The artist noted that the picture depicted a moment ‘when the steamer came near tobeing lost by being forced on the Icebergs by pressure of the field of ice…’ The painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1875.” http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/401327/the-panther-in-melville-bay 155
  • 156. Artist: William Bradford NBWM #1957.6.1 Etching based on "The PANTHER in Melville Bay” “This etching is based, somewhat loosely, on Bradfords painting of ‘The PANTHER in Melville Bay’, which he painted for Queen Victoria, which is reproduced in fig. 21 in R.C. Kuglers essay in the 2003 Bradford Exhibition catalogue.” (NBWM records) 156
  • 157. New Bedford Whaling Museum #1981.55 “View of the Sermitsialik Glacier” by William Bradford, 1873 “The steam bark PANTHER is at the far right. The glacier is coming to the waters edge under a dark and cloudy sky forming in the background. The location is South Greenland. Painted for the Princess Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria.” (NBWM records) William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum, pg. 137 157
  • 158. Artist: William Bradford NBWM #1991.4 “Icebound” 158
  • 159. NBWM #00.127.10 Painting in Glenbow Museum , Calgary, Canada Wm. Bradford’s photo of his “The POLARIS in Winter Quarters in Thank God Harbor”, 1875"In 1875, William Bradford completed a 6 x 10-foot painting, now in the Glenbow Museum, depicting an ill-fated attempt to reach the hitherto unvisited North Pole.By an act of Congress, fifty-thousand dollars was allocated for the purpose, along with a steam-powered vessel, the Polaris, made available by the U.S. Navy. Agroup of scientists was also assembled to establish the exact location of the Pole. On September 31, 1871, the vessel sailed to northern Greenland and set up a basefor the scientific party at Thank God Harbor. From the start, the expedition was troubled as rival factions engaged, presumably over the conduct of the shipscommander, Charles Francis Hall, who died from arsenic poison shortly after the base was established. With his death, the remainder of the crew and the scientificparty abandoned the purpose of the voyage and departed from the Arctic without completing its mission.” Quotation attributed to Richard Kugler by artfact.com. 159
  • 160. William Bradford & USS POLARISWilliam Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum 160
  • 161. New Bedford Whaling Museum #1968.59 Purchased with funds donated by W. Myron Owen “Seiners on the Coast of Labrador” by William Bradford, c. 1871 William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Director Emeritus Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum, pg. 123 161
  • 162. NBWM #2000.100.3425 “William Bradfords studio (Union Wharf, Fairhaven)” “left to right: Mrs. DeLong, unidentified, William Bradford, Miss Mary E. Bradford,Sylvie DeLong (seated on floor), Mrs. William Bradford, Edward Hacher of Lynn and his wife.” (NBWM records) William Bradford made six “art expeditions” to Labrador and one to Greenland. He was born in Fairhaven and grew up around New Bedford Harbor. Note the polar bear rugs in photo. 162
  • 163. NBWM #1987.26.40William Bradford’s Home on New Bedford Harbor 16 Fort Street, Fairhaven 163
  • 164. NBWM #2000.100.1746William Bradford’s Fort St. House Interior Note: Polar Bear Rugs 164
  • 165. William Bradford’s Studio FairhavenWilliam Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by R. C. Kugler, p. 7 165
  • 166. Creator: James E. Reynolds NBWM #1979.52.3 Location of Wm. Bradford’s first studio, Fairhaven 166
  • 167. Abraham Lincoln, William Bradford, Joseph Grinnell, & John Greenleaf Whittier Grinnell Lincoln http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grinnell Whittier William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 New Bedford Whaling Museum 167
  • 168. Congressman Joseph Grinnell to Abraham Lincoln Tuesday, October 25, 1864 Regarding: Mrs. William (Mary) Bradford The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress It is believed that Congressmen Joseph & Moses wrote letters to politicians in support of Henry’s Arctic expeditions. Unfortunately, very few of the Grinnell brothers’ letters have survived. Joseph was an older brother of Henry & Moses. He is known to have had a significant art collection (slides 477 & 485), and he undoubtedly knew both William Bradford & Albert Bierstadt. Since Joseph had retired from politics in 1851, 13 years before he wrote this letter to Lincoln, he did not assist Mary Bradford as a political duty or favor. In 1864, Joseph was 75 years old and simultaneously functioning as president of the Wamsutta Mills, president of the New Bedford & Taunton Railroad, and president of the First National Bank (slide 500). Joseph Grinnell 1788-1885 President: Fish, Grinnell & Co. President: Marine Bank and First National Bank President: New Bedford & Taunton Railroad President: Wamsutta Mills, 1847-1885 Member: Grinnell, Minturn & Co. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grinnell Abraham Lincoln stayed at Joseph’s County St. mansion on Sept. 14, 1848 (The Daily Mercury). Joseph was the 2nd son of Capt. Cornelius & Sylvia. http://www.abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/Library/newsletter.asp?ID=54&CRLI=134http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/375/3759800/malpage.db&recNum=0 168
  • 169. Poet-Abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier to William BradfordNew Bedford Whaling Museum Archives 169
  • 170. John Greenleaf Whittier, Joseph Grinnell, & William Bradford The below quotations are from Old-Time Fairhaven by Charles A. Harris, 1947, pgs. 225 & 172. “In 1870, there was formed… an organization called the Fairhaven Union Association for Christian Work, and at its first meeting, Mr. Bradford gave stereopticon lecture gratis, and soon became its president.” “The first regular meeting of the Fairhaven UnionAbove: New Bedford Republican Standard, July 7, 1870 Association for Christian Work was held last evening (Thursday, July 7, 1870) in Phoenix Hall.” It seems highly likely that Whittier was visiting Joseph Grinnell on this date in order to see their mutual friend Bradford’s stereopticon lecture. Much more on Joseph at slides 473, etc. His mansion is at slides 460, etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Greenleaf_Whittier “John Greenleaf Whittier (December 17, 1807 – September 7, 1892) was an influential American Quaker poet and ardent advocate of the abolition of slavery in the United States… In 1833, Whittier published the antislavery pamphlet Justice and Expediency,[7] and from there dedicated the next twenty years of his life to the abolitionist cause. The controversial pamphlet destroyed all of his political hopes—as his demand for immediate emancipation alienated both northern businessmen and southern slaveholders—but it also sealed his commitment to a cause that he deemed morally correct and socially necessary. He was a founding member of the American Anti- Slavery Society and signed the Anti-Slavery Declaration of 1833, which he often considered the most significant action of his life… From 1838 to 1840, he was editor of The Pennsylvania Freeman in Philadelphia, one of the leading antislavery papers in the North… Whittier produced two collections of antislavery poetry: Poems Written during the Progress of the Abolition Question in the United States, between 1830 and 1838 and Voices of Freedom (1846)…” 170
  • 171. Harriet Jacobs Abolitionists Harriet Jacobs and Cornelia Grinnell Cornelia lost her parents and was adopted by her uncle Joseph GrinnellCornelia was born on March 19, 1825. Her father, Cornelius Grinnell, Jr., was a founding partner of Post, Grinnell, & Minturn in New York, aMassachusetts State Representative, ship owner/agent, and light house builder. Her mother was the former Eliza Tallman Russell, and Corneliawas the youngest of ten children. Nine of the children were living when their mother died on Jan. 9, 1827. On Oct. 9, 1828, Cornelius,Jr. married his wifes sister, Mary Russell. On Dec. 11, 1830 Cornelius, Jr. took his own life; and Cornelia became an orphan when she was onlyfive years old. Shortly after Cornelius, Jr.’s tragic death, Cornelias uncle Joseph and his wife took her on an tour of Europe while they built amansion next door to Cornelias home (corner of County and Hawthorn Streets). Joseph adopted her after her stepmother died in 1838. In 1846,Cornelia married the famous writer, N.P. Willis. Harriet Jacobs, a former slave, worked as a nanny for the Willis family; and she wrote herfamous work, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, while living with Cornelia. In 1852, Cornelia purchased Harriet’s freedom. Due to N.P.Willis’s pro-slavery sympathies, Harriet was afraid to discuss her writing with Cornelia. For the rest of her life Harriet had a close relationshipwith Cornelia and her children, and it has been reported that Cornelia and her daughter Edith lived in Harriet’s boarding house in Cambridgeafter Uncle Joe died in 1885. The bond between Cornelia and Uncle Joe was so strong that Cornelia and Edith are buried next to him and hiswives in Oak Grove Cemetery (slide 502) instead of being buried with Cornelia’s husband, who was buried in Mt. Auburn Cemetery,Cambridge. Harriet was also buried in Mt. Auburn Cemetery, which is one of the most famous cemeteries in the country.The above photos are from: Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, by Harriet Jacobs, edited by Jean Fagin Yellin. http://www.harrietjacobs.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grinnell 171
  • 172. Cornelia’s Letters in the Library of CongressCornelias contribution to the Abolitionist Movement was described by J. F. Yellin: “In 1850, Congresspassed a Fugitive Slave Law ruling that all citizens, including those in northern states where slavery hadbeen abolished, were subject to punishment if they aided fugitives… [Harriet] met Nathaniel ParkerWillis’s new wife, Cornelia Grinnell Willis, and was employed to care for her newborn baby… To free her,and reassure her about her children’s freedom, Mrs. Willis arranged for the American Colonization Societyto act as an intermediary and early in 1852 bought Jacobs freedom… This transaction, effected with theaid of Rev. John B. Pinney of the New York Colonization Society, is explained in a letter from CorneliaGrinnell Willis to Elizabeth Davis Bliss Bancroft [May 3, 1852], Bancroft-Bliss Family Papers, LibraryCongress.” Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, by Harriet Jacobs, edited by J. F. Yellin, p. 291 Cornelia Grinnell Statue by Horatio Greenough “Mr. [Joseph] Grinnell was in Florence in the spring of 1830 and there employed Horatio Greenough, the sculptor, to make him a statue of his niece, then a child of five years.” (New-Bedford Mercury, slide 493) “Horatio Greenough (September 6, 1805 – December 18, 1852) was an American sculptor best known for his United States government commissions The Rescue (1837-1850) and George Washington (1840). [He was the first artist to receive a commission from Congress] His sculptures reflected truth and reality, but also ancient classical aesthetic ideals… Many of Horatio’s works were done in Florence, Italy where he spent most of his professional life... Some of his other sculptures include: James Fenimore Cooper (1831), Castor and Pollux (1847, Marquis de Lafayette (1831-1832)… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horatio_Greenough The Howland Heirs: Wm M. Emery, 1919, p. 253 NBWM #1979.43 172
  • 173. Horatio Greenough at the Smithsonian and the Boston Athenaeum Boston Athenaeum Smithsonian Institution Press Horatio Greenough at the MFA (slide 489)Eleven of Horatio’s sculptures are in the Museum of Fine Artshttp://www.mfa.org/search/collections?keyword=horatio+greenough&objecttype=77 Greenough’s Venus Victrix http://www.smithsonianlegacies.si.edu/objectdescription.cfm?ID=66 http://www.bostonathenaeum.org/ 173
  • 174. Collection of the Edgartown Yacht Club http://www.antiquesandfineart.com/articles/article.cfm?request=436 “New York Yacht Club Regatta off New Bedford” by William Bradford, 1856 174
  • 175. “The New York Yacht Club Regatta” Bradford & Grinnell BrothersAbove description is of preceding painting. The New Bedford Yacht Club: by Llewellyn Howland III, 2002 175
  • 176. “Stowing Sails off Fairhaven” by William Bradford (Schooner MOSES H. GRINNELL) Above comments are about “New York Yacht Club Regatta off Clark’s Point”, 1856 (slide 174).Author: Richard C. Kugler http://www.antiquesandfineart.com/articles/article.cfm?request=436 176
  • 177. Schooner MOSES H. GRINNELL Subject of Bradford’s “Stowing Sails off Fairhaven” Schooner MOSES H. GRINNELL Designed by George Steers, 1850In 1856, Moses Grinnell purchased the schooner yacht HAZE, which had been designed by George Steers in 1853.He sailed it to New Bedford that summer for the New York Yacht Club Annual Cruise (slides 516+).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell The Search For Speed Under Sail 1700-1855: by Howard I. Chapelle 177
  • 178. Cornelius Grinnell, Sr.CorneliusGrinnell Glacial Boulder Riverside Cemetery, Fairhaven William Bradford Grave with Whittier Quotation It is believed that the Cornelius Grinnell, Sr. buried to the right of Bradford was one of several Grinnells named after Capt. Cornelius. He was born in Little Compton and was Henry’s cousin. They were both born in 1799. To further complicate matters, this Cornelius had a son named Cornelius (slide 261), and Henry also had a brother & son named Cornelius. 178
  • 179. Riverside Cemetery, Fairhaven Glacial Boulder Gift of Admiral Robert Peary Placed in the ground to the right of Bradford’s grave marker. 179
  • 180. Congressman Joseph Grinnell, Abraham Lincoln, & John Quincy Adamshttp://archive.org/details/historyofnewbedf01peas Both Abraham Lincoln and President John Quincy Adams stayed at Joseph Grinnell’s home. 180
  • 181. Joseph Grinnell, Abraham Lincoln, & John Quincy Adams http://archive.org/details/historyofnewbedf01peasMore on Joseph Grinnell and John Quincy Adams at slide 476 (includes Capt. Cornelius). 181
  • 182. Congressman Joseph Grinnell: Wamsutta Mills President 1847-1885More on Joseph and Wamsutta Mills at slide 494. http://archive.org/details/historyofnewbedf01peas 182
  • 183. Joseph Grinnell: President of the Marine Bank (First National Bank of N. B.) More on Joseph and banking at slide 434+. http://archive.org/details/historyofnewbedf01peas 183
  • 184. Photo: Millicent Library ML 0286 http://www.flickr.com/photos/spinnerpub/3308880267/ William Bradford Double House Center Street, Fairhaven, c. 1890 The Bradford’s owned the far half of this double house. These houses were destroyed when the Town Hall was built in 1892, and this photo was taken when William Bradford’s side of the house was being dismantled (?). Fairhaven was a part of New Bedford until 1812, and Henry Huttleston Rogers tore down several homes to make way for the grand institutional buildings he donated. 184
  • 185. Photo: Millicent Library ML 0284 http://www.flickr.com/photos/spinnerpub/3309708876/ Center St., Fairhaven, Bradford Double House To the right is the double house that Wm. Bradford. To the far left was the home of Capt. Joshua Grinnell. Dr. Atwood’s house in the middle was also destroyed to make way for the new town hall. 185
  • 186. Capt. Joshua Bradford’s Home Map of Fairhaven, 1871 Grinnell Home Demolished to makeBradford’s Studio way for town hall.Location of Brass Plaque F. W. Beers, New York Houses demolished for Millicent Library http://www.historicmapworks.com/Map/US/7972/Rotate/Fair+Haven+Town/Bristol+County+1871/Massachusetts/ 186
  • 187. Bradford & Bierstadt: Grew up in Old Dartmouth & became friends & colleagues. Left: Bradford visited Beirstadt at Malkasten Irvington on Hudson, where Moses Grinnell also lived. William Bradford, 1878 Creator: Bradley & Rulofson, NBWM #00.127.27William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by R. C. Kugler 187
  • 188. http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/archives/image/4084/image http://user.xmission.com/~emailbox/glenda/bierstadt/malkasten.html Bierstadt’s Malkasten. Irvington on Hudson“The base dimensions of the house were 100 feet by 75 feet. Within was a studio 30 feet wide by 30 feet high with 20-foot-tall sliding glass windowsoutside and 20-foot-tall sliding doors inside that opened to a library/music room. When opened, the two rooms became one that was 70 feet long, agood size space to view his canvases of up to fifteen feet by nine feet.” Moses Grinnell’s estate was between Malkasten and the Hudson River. http://www.hudsonvalleyruins.org/rob/?p=606 188
  • 189. Chas. Bierstadt, photographer http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/archives/set/70/bierstadt_collection_1863-1957. Bierstadt’s Studio & Library at Malkasten, Irvington, NYMoses was a neighbor of Albert Bierstadt; and Henry & Joseph must have often visited their brother, nieces, and nephew along theHudson River. Henry & Moses Grinnell, William Bradford, and Albert Bierstadt had common Old Dartmouth Roots; and Bierstadt andBradford had adjacent studios in Manhattan where Grinnell, Minturn offices and wharf were located (slides 507+). Thus, it is highlylikely that the Grinnell family knew Albert Bierstadt and William Bradford and visited the above studio when they were in Irvington. 189
  • 190. Photo: New York Public Library. Taken long after the artists died. Bradford & Bierstadt Tenth Street Studios The artist-friends from Old Dartmouth had adjacent studios in this building, with a connecting door.“Thomas Bailey Aldrich wrote in 1866: … on the ground floor are the studios of Whittredge, Bradford, Dana, Beard, Thompson the sculptor, Le Clear,Guy, and Bierstadt. The second floor is occupied by Church, McEntee, Leutze, Hays, Hart, and Gignoux. Mr. Tuckerman, the author, has a pleasant studyand library on this floor. On the third story are Gifford, Hubbard, Suydam, Shattuck, Thorndike, Haseltine, de Haas, Brown, Casilear, and Martin.” Text: http://helenadekaygilder.org/10th/index.htm 190
  • 191. Tenth Street Studio of Albert Bierstadt & William Merritt Chase Photo when occupied by Chase, c. 1880“William Merritt Chase (who took over Bierstadt’s studio…” from Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West by Gordon Hendricks pg. 93.“Richard Morris Hunt was the architect that designed the building. (He was William Morris Hunts brother, the artist and teacher in Boston…This studio building was the center of the art world in New York City for many years. Winslow Homer, John La Farge, William Merritt Chase,Frederic Church [William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, Mark Twain]… and over 150 other artists were tenants at one time or another.”Photo: Archives of American Art Text: http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/images/detail/william-merritt-chases-10th-street-studio-new-york-ny-5392 191
  • 192. "Reception at the Tenth Street Studios”from "Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper” 1869 http://helenadekaygilder.org/10th/index.htm 192
  • 193. “Sailboats on the Hudson at Irvington” by Albert Bierstadt, 1889Moses Grinnell owned 38 acres between Bierstadt’s Malkasten and the river, including the waterfront (slides 210-214). This view is near thetwo Victorian mansions that Moses built. He purchased this property in 1850, which was the first year of the U. S. Grinnell Expedition,Henry’s first expedition. 1850 was also the year that Capt. Cornelius died, and it seems likely that the will of this old sea captain, ship owner,and banker provided some of the funds for these large expenditures. That his sons could finance arctic expeditions and purchase 38 acres onthe Hudson River was only part of patriot Cornelius Grinnell’s legacy to his family and country. Irving Grinnell, Moses’s son, had an estate onthe Hudson near Poughkeepsie called Netherwood (slide 548+). It was also destroyed, and the land is now part of Bowdoin Park. Private Collection http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bierstadt_Albert_Sailboats_on_the_Hudson_at_Irvington.jpg 193
  • 194. New Bedford Whaling Museum #1904.63 “Bartholomew Gosnold at Cuttyhunk” by Albert Bierstadt, 1858 Albert Bierstadt grew up in New Bedford, and most boats passing in and out of New Bedford Harbor sail by the little island of Cuttyhunk. https://www.1000museums.com/enlarge/201742 194
  • 195. “Sunset Light, Wind River Range of the Rocky Mountains” by Albert Bierstadt, 1861 (39” X 60”) New Bedford Free Public Library 195
  • 196. “Rocky Mountains in the Selkirk Range, near the Canadian Border, Mount Sir Donald” by Albert Bierstadt New Bedford Free Public Library (83.5 × 57.5 in.) Bierstadt Bros: NBWM #1986.34.2 Albert Bierstadt 196
  • 197. “Sunset near the Platte River or Salt Lick at Sunset Glow” by Albert Bierstadt: New Bedford Free Public Library (39 × 60 in.) 197
  • 198. Photographer: Fred W. Palmer NBWM #2000.100.80.159 Bierstadt Family Home, New Bedford Acushnet Avenue & Mill Street (DEMOLISHED) 198
  • 199. NBWM #1986.34.3NBWM #1986.34.1 NBWM #1986.34.4 “Sunlight and Shade” Sketch by Albert Bierstadt, 1862 Gift of Miss Mary M. Grinnell 199
  • 200. Albert Bierstadt’s New Bedford Studio Portrait of Albert Bierstadt NBWM #2000.100.2603William Bradford Sailing Ships & Arctic Seas by Richard C. Kugler, © 2003 NBWM, p. 11 200
  • 201. Albert Bierstadt Charles Bierstadt Photo: D. J. Pimentel Albert Bierstadt Family, New Bedford Rural Cemetery Front row: Charles Bierstadt; Henry & wife Christina; Eliza Bierstadt; Albert Bierstadt.“Albert Bierstadt created grandiose, dramatic scenes of the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevadas that lured many people to visit those sites. Bierstadt was born inSolingen, near Dusseldorf, Germany [1830], and sailed as a baby with his family who settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts… In 1853, he returned to Dusseldorf wherehe studied at the Royal Academy with landscape painters Andreas Aschenbach and Karl Friedman Lessing… In 1857, he returned to the United States and painted theWhite Mountains of New Hampshire, and in 1858, exhibited for the first time at the National Academy of Design in New York… In January 1859, he heard a lecture inNew Bedford on the American West by Bayard Taylor… and this exposure stirred an interest that played a large part in his future career. Meanwhile, he had settled intoNew York City where he lived and occupied a studio in the Tenth Street Building, which had 25 studio spaces and became well known for its prestigious occupants…” http://www.askart.com/AskART/artists/biography.aspx?searchtype=BIO&artist=6467 201
  • 202. Grinnell Mansion (Delmonico’s) Fifth AvenueIn the late 1850’s, Moses retired from 30+years as president of Fish, Grinnell & Co.and Grinnell, Minturn & Co. He sold hismansion on Fifth Ave. to Delmonico’s andmoved to his country estate in Irvington-on-Hudson (slides 209+). The following isfrom Delmonico’s web site:East 14th Street - Six years after openingthe Chambers Street restaurant, Lorenzomoved again further uptown to UnionSquare. On April 9, 1862, Lorenzo openeda converted mansion at Fifth Avenue andEast 14th Street into the most luxuriousrestaurant that had ever existed in NewYork. The entrance was No. 1 East 14thStreet, one block west of Union Square.The reviews were outstanding. Wrote aTribune representative: "As New Yorkspreads herself, so must the House ofDelmonico dilate. Before Fifth Avenue wasbuilt, there was the downtown Delmonico;when it was achieved, there were theChambers Street and BroadwayDelmonico’s; and now that Central Park isundertaken, precedent to a line of noblemansions to its walls, Delmonico hasspread up to the corner of Fifth Avenue andFourteenth Street…http://www.delmonicosny.com/about,77,26,Delmonicos_History.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell 202
  • 203. Moses Grinnell Mansion, 14th St. & Fifth Ave., c. 1865http://collections.mcny.org/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult_VPage&VBID=24UP1GULSGHJ&SMLS=1&RW=1824&RH=936 Museum of the City of New York 203
  • 204. Moses Grinnell’s 5th Ave. mansion under the ownership of Delmonico’s.“New York City : 12th annual dinner of the Dartmouth College Alumni Association of New York, at Delmonicos, Wednesday evening, January 19th.” [1876] New York Public Library Digital Gallery: Image ID: 809549 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell 204
  • 205. Lady Franklin visited Henry Grinnell at his home on Bond Street, Manhattan. Lady Franklin’s Revenge by Ken McGoogan, p. 397 The Grinnell brothers knew Abraham Lincoln & General Grant; and they all made large contributions to the Union Cause. Henry was the more conservative brother; but he was not a Southern sympathizer in any way, as the above seems to state. Like most Brits, Lady Franklin was anti-slavery, Albert Gallatin’s Residence, Bond Street too. (Treasury Secretary & NYU Founder)Bond Street, 1830’s Henry’s home was similar. “The architecture on Bond drew the attention of the 1833 guidebook New York as It Is, which claimed the mansions on Bond “may vie, for beauty and taste, with European palaces.” Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (1761-1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, politician, diplomat, congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1831, he founded... New York University.” http://mediahistoryny.wordpress.com/bond-street/ & WikipediaAccording to Sturgis S. Dunham (below), Bond St. was far from a fashionable address when Lady Franklin visited Henry. Since Henry spentmost of his fortune on Arctic exploration, he could not afford to move to a 38-acre estate on the Hudson like his brother Moses (slides 209+). http://thehistorybox.com/ny_city/nycity_historical_bond_st_pt_1__article00344.htm 205
  • 206. Hetty Green was married at Henry’s home on July 11, 1867 Hetty Green was a great granddaughter of Henry’s grandfather, Gideon Howland (Sr.) of Round Hill. Hetty Married at Henry’sN.Y. Home The Witch of Wall Street by Sparkes & Moore 206
  • 207. Hetty Green & Henry Grinnell Henry’sNY Home & Hetty Green The Witch of Wall Street by Sparkes & Moore 207
  • 208. Hetty Green The New York Times July 4, 1916 Her [Hetty Green’s] father was a successful merchant and ship owner in the days when it meant more to own ships hailing from New Bedford than it does now… He became through marriage a partner in the firm of I. Howland, Jr., & Co. Coming to New York in 1850 he became associated with William T. Coleman & Co, shipping merchants… When he died in 1865 he left a fortune of $9,000,000, which Hetty Green, his only child, inherited… She had had frequent trips to New York, and she came here finally to stay when she was 29 years old, in 1863, joining her father at his home here. She was chaperoned by the Grinnell family, with whom she was connected on her mother’s side, a fact which meant much in those days and gave her entry in exclusive circles [including the top echelons of Wall Street]… (Partial Article) Shortly after her father’s death, her aunt, Miss[Sylvia Ann] Howland, died. This aunt left a fortune amounting to $4,000,000… In this second suit Hetty Robinson alleged that her aunt, being on bad terms with her father, and not wishing him to get any of the Howland money, requested her to make a will excluding her father from any share in her estate, and agreed to make a similar will which would leave the aunt’s fortune to the niece.http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C0DE4DD103DE333A25757C0A9619C946796D6CF&scp=20&sq=hetty+green&st=p 208
  • 209. Moses Grinnell retired to Irvington, NY & was a neighbor of Albert Bierstadt & Washington Irving.http://www.museumofwashingtonirving.com/ Creator: Frederick Langenheim, 1856 New York Public Library #1531122 Washington Irving’s Sunnyside Moses Grinnell’s Wolferts Dell, 1856 “Washington Irving designed Sunnyside and its grounds “One of the first merchants to build here around 1850 was Moses Hicks himself, collaborating with his neighbor, the artist George Grinnell, a one-time United States representative, real estate developer, Harvey. "It is a beautiful spot," Irving wrote, "capable of being merchant, and financier. His high society connections extended beyond made a little paradise." Beginning in 1835, he expanded a small business; in 1836 Grinnell married Julia Irving, niece of the famous author cottage in stages, combining his sentimental interests in the Washington Irving. It was immediately north of Irvings "Sunnyside" that architecture of colonial New York and buildings he knew in Grinnell settled in the early 1850s. For himself, he built a mansion known Scotland and Spain. The house became a three-dimensional as "Wolferts Dell”; about the same time or shortly thereafter, he built a autobiography. The grounds reflect Washington Irvings second mansion, similar in appearance to his own, on the northern portion romantic view of art, nature, and history.” of his 38-acre estate. In the 1850s, Grinnells niece, Mary Russell Grinnell, resided in the northerly mansion with her husband Henry Holdredge.” http://www.hudsonvalleyruins.org/yasinsac/spratt/spratt.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_H._Grinnell 209
  • 210. Bierstadt built Malkasten adjacent to Moses Grinnell’s Wolferts Dell. Albert Bierstadt Malkasten Artist Albert Beirstadt’s Estate Built 1864, Destroyed 1882 (slides 187+) Moses H. Grinnell’s niece Wolferts Dell M. H. Grinnell Moses Grinnell’s Estate (Built 1850, Destroyed) M. H. Grinnell Sunnyside Washington Irving’s Estate Hudson River (Open to Public) Washington Irving Plate 26: Hastings upon Hudson - Dobbs Ferry – Irvington, 1868 Creator: Beers, F. W., New York Public Library ID: 1516818 1861 Map by F. W. Beers“Malkasten’s architect was the English-born Jacob Wrey Mould… With Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted, Mould designed some of Central Park’smost-cherished features including Belevedere Castle and Bethesda Terrace. With Vaux, Mould also designed the original buildings of the American Museumof Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Also in connection with the Malkasten, or the neighborhood in which it was built, Mould was broughtto New York to design the All Souls Church [Unitarian] by a fellow named Moses Hicks Grinnell. Grinnell owned an estate near Malkasten…”http://www.hudsonvalleyruins.org/rob/?p=606Moses was a member of the All Souls Church, and his funeral was held there. He was a Commissioner of Central Park 1860-1869.http://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/commissionersAfter her parents died, Joseph adopted Cornelia Grinnell, youngest child of Cornelius Grinnell, Jr. She married N. P. Willis and they had an estate at Cornwall-on-Hudson called Idlewild (slide 491). It was also designed by Calvert Vaux, and it was about 20 miles from Irvington. http://www.historicmapworks.com/Map/US/2593/Greenburgh+Town/New+York+and+its+Vicinity+1867/New+York/ 210
  • 211. Moses Grinnell’s 1850 Estate Wolferts Dell, Irvington, N.Y. Photo c. 1932 “The columned porch was likely added to the house by theHopkinses or the owners just before them. It was fashionable at this time to remodel the older dark Victorian homes thenseen as out of taste. Large columned porches became a trendy ideal on some of the old Hudson River homes in this area.” http://www.hudsonvalleyruins.org/yasinsac/spratt/spratt.html 1927 Ad: “22 Acres with 600 feet of Hudson River Shore Front” http://digitalcollections.smu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ ryr&CISOPTR=372&CISOBOX=1&REC=2 Robert Yarnall Richie photograph collection, Southern Methodist University 211
  • 212. Moses Grinnell’s Estate, Irvington, N.Y. c. 1932“The house [sans columns] was built around 1850 by Moses Grinnell for his niece, Mary Russell, and her husband…” http://www.hudsonvalleyruins.org/yasinsac/spratt/spratt.html http://digitalcollections.smu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ryr&CISOPTR=362&CISOBOX=1&REC=1 212
  • 213. Verusselle on Moses Grinnell’s Estate c. 1920 The exterior walls of the original Victorian mansion built by Moses were surrounded by neoclassical columns, and the result was named Verusselle. It is of interest to note that the Library of Congress lists the mansion that Moses originally built for his niece as merely the Lyndhurst… Cottage; and the grounds are now included in the Lyndhurst estate (slide 215). Lyndhurst was designed in 1838 by Alexander Jackson Davis; and in 1845 he designed a Gothic Cottage for William J. Rotch in New Bedford (slides 617+). Mr. Rotch lived about two blocks from Joseph Grinnell, and it was his grandfather who employed Cornelius Grinnell as a captain in the the 1790’s (slide 10). After being abandoned for many years, Verusselle was used in the TV series “Dark Shadows” in the 1960’s. Like Beirstadt’s Malkasten, it burned to the ground (1969). “The South End of Tarrytown, by virtue of its location 25 miles north of Manhattan, contained one of the greatest concentrations of estates along the Hudson River. Washington Irving, who penned The Legend of 1891 Map