NAYANA. N. P
What is Leadership…??
“Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek
defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human
factor which binds a group together and motivates
Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and
influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment
of specific goals in a given situation. It is the ability of a manager to
induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
Leadership is the potential to influence behavior of others. It is also
defined as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization
of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to
motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.
Importance of leadership
starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates
motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards
play a guiding role for the subordinates.
expressing the work efforts to the subordinates,
giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively
hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.
a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of
their abilities as they work to achieve goals.
Builds work environment
human relations should be kept into mind by a leader..
He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals.
Requisites to be present in a good
KNOWLEDGE OF WORK
VISION AND FORESIGHT
SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY
(unbiased, fair judgment)
(stepping into others shoes)
retains power (classical approach)
is decision-making authority
does not consult employees for input
Subordinates expected to obey orders without explanations
Motivation provided through structured rewards and punishments
Eg: Adolf Hitler(Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi
Manager manages “by the book¨
Everything must be done according to procedure or policy
Police officer more than leader
Performing routine tasks
Need for standards/procedures
Eg : Max Weber (founding architect of sociology, German
Often referred to as participative style
Keeps employees informed
Shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities
Gathers information from staff members before making decisions
Help employees evaluate their own performance
Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted
E.g. :Winston Churchill ( British politician who was Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945and 1951 to 1955)
Power from a person‟s authority to punish
Most obvious types of power a leader has.
Good leaders use coercive power only as a last option
In times of crisis
When left with no other choice
e.g. Saddam Husain (fifth president of Iraq)
Motivate followers by appealing to their own self-interest
Focuses on the accomplishment of tasks & good worker
relationships in exchange for desirable rewards.
Encourage leader to adapt their style and behavior to meet
expectations of followers
This style is used when:
When there are approaching deadlines that must be met
Relationship is short term
e.g. : Steve Jobs(American entrepreneur, inventor ,chairman, and CEO
of Apple Inc.)
Charismatic and visionary
Inspire followers to transcend their self-interest for the organization
Inspire followers to think about problems in new or different ways
leaders want members to be an active part of the organization and have ownership to it
When people need to be motivated
E.g.: Abraham Lincoln (
the 16th President of the United States Lincoln led the United States
through its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crisis ,preserving the
Union, abolishing slavery, strengthening the national government and modernizing the
Also known as the “hands-off¨ style
Little or no direction
Gives followers as much freedom as possible
Followers must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on
Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated
Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own
Employees are trustworthy and experienced
E.g. Thomas Jefferson ( American Founding Father, the principal author of
the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States (1801–
A team is a work group that must rely on collaboration if
each member is to experience the optimum success and
A team is a small number of people with complementary
purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they
are mutually accountable.
Any team member can perform the critical leadership
functions to assess the current effectiveness of the team
What a Team Leader Must Be & Do
Give feedback & resolve conflict
Help to keep team focused on the mission despite
personality conflict, work style difference and
blockages by interpersonal conflict
Build trust and inspire teamwork
Coach team members and group members toward
higher levels of performance
Facilitate and support the team decisions
GREAT MAN THEORIES
Theories of leadership
Trait Approaches To Leadership
Trait approach to leadership - Leader traits are
referred to his or her earned personal characteristics
Focuses exclusively on the leader not the situation or the follower‟s therefore
more straight forward.
Concerned with what traits are important and who possesses these traits
Theory argues that it is the leader and his personality and other characters are
central to leadership
Concerned with uncovering the particular characteristics that differentiated
leaders from non leaders to find what captured the admiration of other people.
Leaders are born with special characteristics rather than made
org can develop methods to identify leaders and find ways to develop and
enhance traits in others
Also considered to be a source of personal awareness – assess own traits
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991)
six traits that differ between leaders and non-leaders.
This trait includes a group of five
motives, achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity and initiative, that reflect a
high effort level.
Leaders must have a strong desire to influence and lead others. They must be
willing to assume responsibility.
Without these virtues, leadership is undermined. Honesty and integrity form
the foundation of a trusting relationship between leaders and followers.
A person without confidence will not be able to make the difficult
Leaders must possess a level of intelligence high enough to process large
amounts of information and formulate strategies and solve problems.
Knowledge of Business
In-depth knowledge of the business allows leaders to make well-informed
decisions and understand their consequences.
The strengths of the traits approach
It assumes that it is the leader and his/her personality
that are central to the leadership process.
It supports the general image in the society that leaders are a
special kind of people (gifted people)who can do extraordinary
Trait approach has a long research tradition and a significant body
of research data that support this approach.
The trait approach has given us some benchmarks for what we
need to look for if we want to be leaders.
Criticisms of trait approach
Why do people with leadership traits become leaders in some situations
but not others?
Why is it that some people embodying leadership qualities never become
The weaknesses of the traits approach as follows:
1) The approach has not fixed a definitive list of leadership traits and the list that has
emerged seems endless.
2) The approach has failed to take situations into account.
3) There has much subjective interpretation of the meaning of the data and data is not
always based on reliable research.
4) The trait approach is weak in describing how leaders' traits affect the outcomes of
groups and teams in organizations.
Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
Developed by Fred E. Fiedler in 1960‟s
This theory explains that group performance is a
result of interaction of two factors.
• A leader who is more trusted, who has more confidence and has
more influence with the group is in a more favorable situation
than a leader who is not trusted.
• This refers to the type of task you're doing: clear and structured,
or vague and unstructured.
• This is the amount of power you have to direct the group, and
provide reward or punishment.
• The more power you have, the more favorable your situation.
•Step 1 :Identify leadership style using the model.
• Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed,
and it can be measured using a scale he developed
called Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)
•Step 2 : Think about the person who you've least
enjoyed working with.
•Step 3 : Add up your scores and rate your leader.
•If your total score is high, you're likely to be
a relationship-orientated leader.
• If your total score is low, you're more likely
to be task-orientated leader.
Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale
LPC‟s are low
LPC‟s are high.
low LPCs are very effective at
They're quick to organize a group
to get tasks and projects done.
Relationship-building is a low
High LPCs focus more on
personal connections, and they're
good at avoiding and managing
They're better able to make
Criticisms of the Model
One of the biggest is lack of flexibility.
Fiedler believed that because our natural leadership style is fixed, the
most effective way to handle situations is to change the leader.
Least-Preferred Co-Worker Scale – if you fall near the middle of the
scoring range, then it could be unclear which style of leader you are.
Even under the best circumstances, the LPC scale only has about a 50
percent reliable variance
Tanhenbaum &schmidt leadership continnum
originally written in 1958 and was later updated in the
Work suggests a continuum of possible leadership
behavior available to a manager.
The continuum presents a range of action related to the
degree of authority used by the manager and to the area
of freedom available to non-managers in arriving at
A broad range of leadership styles have been
depicted on the continuum between two extremes
of autocratic(control is maintained by a manager )
free rein(release of control)
can be related to McGregor‟s supposition of Theory X
and Theory Y.
Boss-centered leadership is towards theory X and
subordinate-centered leadership is towards theory Y.
A manager is characterized according to degree of control that is maintained by
him. According to this approach, four main styles of leadership have been
1. The Manager decides and announces the
The manager reviews options in light of
aims, issues, priorities, timescale, etc., then decides
the action and informs the team of the decision.
The team plays no active part in making the decision.
purely task-based decision, which is generally a
characteristic of X-Theory management style.
2. The manager decides and then 'sells' the
decision to the group.
The manager makes the decision, and then explains
reasons for the decision to the team, particularly the
positive benefits that the team will enjoy from the
In so doing the manager is seen by the team to
recognize the team's importance
have some concern for the team.
3. The manager presents the decision with
background ideas and invites questions.
The manager presents the decision along with some of the background which
led to the decision.
The team is invited to ask questions and discuss with the manager the
rationale behind the decision, which enables the team to understand and
accept or agree with the decision
More participative and involving approach
enables the team to appreciate the issues and reasons for the decision, and the
implications of all the options.
This will have a more motivational approach than 1 or 2 because of the higher
level of team involvement and discussion.
4. The manager suggests a provisional decision and
invites discussion about it.
The manager discusses and reviews the provisional decision with the
on the basis of this manager will take on board the views and then
Enables the team to have some real influence over the shape of the
manager's final decision.
Acknowledges that the team has something to contribute to the
decision-making process, which is more involving and therefore
motivating than the previous level.
5. The manager presents the situation or
problem, gets suggestions, then decides.
The manager presents the situation, and maybe some options, to
Team is encouraged and expected to offer ideas and additional
options, and discuss implications of each possible course of action.
The manager then decides which option to take
The team has more detailed knowledge or experience of the issues
than the manager.
high-involvement and high-influence for the team -provides more
motivation and freedom than any previous level.
6. The manager explains the situation, defines the
parameters and asks the team to decide.
The manager has effectively delegated responsibility for the decision
to the team
The manager may or may not choose to be a part of the team which
Gives a huge responsibility to the team
Manager can control the risk and outcomes to an extent, according to
the constraints that he stipulates.
This level is more motivational than any previous but requires a
mature team for any serious situation or problem.
7. The manager allows the team to identify the problem, develop
the options, and decide on the action, within the manager's
an extreme level of freedom, whereby the team is effectively doing what the
manager did in level 1.
The team is given responsibility for
identifying and analyzing the situation or problem
the process for resolving it
developing and assessing options;
and then deciding on and implementing a course of action.
The manager may or may not be part of the team, and if so then he/she has no
more authority than anyone else in the team.
This level is potentially the most motivational of all, but also potentially the most
first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by
Bernard Bass in 1981.
most often used by the managers.
It focuses on the basic management process of
controlling, organizing, and short-term planning.
The famous examples of leaders who have used
transactional technique include McCarthy
The power of transactional leaders comes from their formal
authority and responsibility in the organization.
main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the
can also be mentioned as a „telling style‟.
The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards
If a subordinate does what is desired, a reward will follow
if he does not go as per the wishes of the leader, a punishment will follow.
Here, the exchange between leader and follower takes place to
achieve routine performance goals.
exchanges involve four dimensions
„specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely‟ goals for their
Active Management by Exception:
actively monitor the work of their subordinates, watch for deviations
from rules and standards and taking corrective action to prevent mistakes.
Passive Management by Exception:
intervene only when standards are not met or when the performance is
not as per the expectations. may even use punishment
The leader provides an environment where the subordinates get many
Assumptions of Transactional Theory
Employees are motivated by reward and punishment.
The subordinates have to obey the orders of the superior.
The subordinates are not self-motivated.
They have to be closely monitored and controlled to get the
work done from them.
Implications of Transactional Theory
overemphasize detailed and short-term goals, and standard rules and
do not make an effort to enhance followers‟ creativity and generation of
may work well where the organizational problems are simple and clearly
found to be quite effective in guiding efficiency decisions which are
aimed at cutting costs and improving productivity.
tend to be highly directive and action oriented and their relationship
with the followers tends to be rigid and not based on emotional bonds.
The transactional style of leadership is viewed as
insufficient, but not bad, in developing the maximum
care should be taken by leaders not to practice it
exclusively, otherwise it will lead to the creation of an
environment permeated by position, power, perks, and
business leaders must be able to inspire organizational
members to go beyond their task requirements –thus
came transformational theory.
may be found at all levels of the organization: teams,
departments, divisions, and organization as a whole.
Such leaders are visionary, inspiring, daring, risk-takers,
and thoughtful thinkers.
They have a charismatic appeal.
For bringing major changes, transformational leaders must
exhibit the following four factors:
promotion of consistent vision, mission, and a set of values to the members.
Their vision is so compelling that they know what they want from every
work enthusiastically and optimistically to foster the spirit of teamwork and
leaders encourage their followers to be innovative and creative.
encourage new ideas from their followers and never criticize them publicly for the
mistakes committed by them.
no hesitation in discarding an old practice set by them if it is found ineffective.
believe that a leader can influence followers only when he practices what he
typically place their followers needs over their own, sacrifice their personal
gains for them, and demonstrate high standards of ethical conduct.
power by such leaders is aimed at influencing them to strive for the common
goals of the organization.
Leaders act as mentors to their followers and reward them for creativity and
The followers are treated differently according to their talents and knowledge.
Criticisms of Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership makes use of impression
management and therefore lends itself to amoral self
promotion by leaders
The theory is very difficult to be trained or taught because it is
a combination of many leadership theories.
Followers might be manipulated by leaders and there are
chances that they lose more than they gain.