From Record-Bound to Boundless: FRBR, Linked Data and New Possibilities for Serials Cataloging


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As resources have become ever more complicated in a digital world, it is evident that cataloging practices and the metadata standards we use to guide these practices are becoming more constrained. Nowhere is this more apparent than with the cataloging of serial publications. For librarians, serial publications have been a constant challenge due to issues such as the multiple version problem, frequent changes in title or issuing body and complex publication histories. For users, serial publications are challenging due to the fact that a boundary has been established in the library profession where serial publications are described by librarians while the articles contained within those publications are handled by indexing and abstracting services. Although web-scale discovery systems have attempted to bridge the gap by providing a single point of discovery, user access is far from seamless. Recent changes within the library community can have a significant impact on serials cataloging and may help improve information retrieval for the end user. The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) holds great promise for alleviating some of the problems related to serials cataloging. While FRBR provides a useful mechanism for re-examining many of the problems with serials cataloging, the principles of Linked Data may further transform the way in which resources and the relationships between them are captured and presented to our users. By taking description out of our current record constraints, serials librarians will better be able to express how a particular journal has changed over time and the relationships between multiple versions of the same publication. The Linked Data model also opens up many opportunities for the provision of value-added content to bibliographic descriptions. Shifting description to a Linked Data model may not only help to alleviate many of the issues related to serials cataloging, it can also help users better understand and use bibliographic data effectively.
Presenters: Marlene van Ballegooie and Juliya Borie
University of Toronto Libraries

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  • Linked Data image:
  • Albert Einstein:
  • Man pulling hair out:
  • FRBR relationships:
  • Fitting a square peg in a round hole:
  • Bibliographic Model “Best of all possible worlds”:
  • Puzzle piece:
  • BIBFRAME Model:
  • Bibliothequenationale de France
  • Finger pointing the world as a sign of protection Image Retrieved from
  • Photo credit: Timothy Neesam, Frank Gehry staircase, Art Gallery of Ontario 
  • 'Pazairdegipt' (Id 74014 ) : Viaduc de Millau Retrieved from,viaduc,le-pont-de-millau-sous-les-nuagesjpg.php
  • From Record-Bound to Boundless: FRBR, Linked Data and New Possibilities for Serials Cataloging

    1. 1. From Record-Bound to Boundless:FRBR, Linked Data and New Possibilitiesfor Serials CatalogingMarlene van Ballegooie and Juliya BorieUniversity of Toronto LibrariesNASIG 2013
    2. 2. A patron asks……We recently spent considerable timetrying to locate the English translation ofan Einstein paper. After much sleuthingit came to light that UTM had it. This isdefinitely not clear in the sharedcatalogue record. Perhaps somethingcould be done to aid future seekers…(Note from a reference librarian)
    3. 3. What are therelationships?Eine Theorie derGrundlagen derThermodynamik (Work)Albert Einstein(Creator)English Translation (E)Annalen der Physik11 (1903): 170-187 (M) Copy in the U of T Libraries’Gerstein periodical collection (I)The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein(Princeton UniversityPress, 1989)(M) Copy in the U of T Libraries’UTM monographs collection (I)Text in original German(E)Electronic version (M) Copy in the Wiley OnlineLibrary(I )Copy in the European CulturalHeritage Online collection (I)The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein(Princeton University Press, 1989)(M)Copy in the U of T Libraries’Gerstein monographs collection(I)Electronic version (M)Copy in Google Books (I)
    4. 4. What makes serial titles andarticles difficult to find?• Two tiers of metadata (serialand article) handled by twodifferent parties• Frequent title changes/complex publication histories• Multiple versions• Changing catalogingpractices over time leads toan inconsistent searchenvironment
    5. 5. Limitations of MARC• Not designed for direct comprehension bya computer• Cannot adequately represent relationshipsbetween recordso Horizontal relationships (i.e. title changes)o Vertical relationships (i.e. journal to article)• MARC is static and inflexible• Semantic meaning can only be derivedfrom the entire bibliographic record
    6. 6. WorkManifestationPersonExpressionManifestationItemItemItemConceptCorporate bodyPersonSource:• Focus onrelationshipsbetween entities,elements andattributes• Separation of theintellectual from thephysicalFRBR: Rethinking the bibliographicuniverse• Disaggregation of the components of thebibliographic record
    7. 7. FRBR and SerialsFitting a Square Peg in a Round Hole?• Recognition that FRBR model works well formonographs, but not so well for continuingresources• Serials are composed of smaller independent worksthat are intellectual works in their own right• What are the boundaries of aserial work?• The need to differentiateexpressions rarely arises withserials• No one item exemplifies amanifestation
    8. 8. FRBR for Serial Publications• Adams, Santamauro & Blythe (2008) suggest that the fourGroup 1 entities be collapsed into threeo Superworkspressiono Manifestationo ItemCBibliographic model: “Best of all possible worlds”.Successive Entry, Latest Entry, or None of the Above? How the MARC21 Format, FRBR and theConcept of a Work Could Revitalize Serials Management. Katherine Adams, Britta Santamauro& Kurt Blythe, The Serials Librarian, 54:3-4, 193-197.
    9. 9. What about the articles…aren’tthey works too?Krier (2012) – Serials , FRBR and Library Linked Data: AWay Forward• Split between library catalogues and journaldatabases is not intuitive to users.• FRBR can be applied at the journal level as well asthe article level.• Linked data model can be used to bring two work-level resources together.• Users can begin search at either level – journal orarticle – and shift between works depending onuser needs.
    10. 10. • Serials are the shape-shifters of the library worldo Fluid, ever-changingo Many inter-relationships (journal to article, earlier titles, latertitles, translations)o Often available in multiple formatsSerials, FRBR and Linked Data:A Better Fit?• FRBR generally accepted bylibrary community, but notwidely implemented due toMARC limitations.• Linked data is a perfect vehiclefor realizing the potential of FRBR
    11. 11. • RDF is the primary data model for Linked Data• Concept of triples is used to describe a relationshipbetween two things (subject – predicate – object)• Statement: The „Journal of Ethology‟ is about animalbehavior.o Each triple is a statement about a resource.o URIs are used to make statements “machine actionable”.(subject) (predicate) (object)Journal of EthologyisAboutAnimal behavior MARC…Hello RDF!
    12. 12. From Strings…
    13. 13. …to Things… schema:name “Rheumatology” . rdf:type schema:CreativeWork/Periodical . schema:contributor <> . schema:about <> . owl:sameAs <> .contributorname Society for RheumatologyaboutRheumatismname
    14. 14. Library of CongressBibliographic Framework Initiative• The Bibliographic Framework Initiative will re-imagine and implement a bibliographicenvironment for a post-MARC world.• BIBFRAME Requirementso Content model agnostico Description and management of all types oflibrary holdings, traditional and born-digitalo Provision for all library data:bibliographic, authority, holdings, classificationo Replace MARC
    15. 15. BIBFRAME Model
    16. 16. BIBFRAME Model
    17. 17. BIBFRAME ModelJournalPrint Electroniccontributor
    18. 18. Problems that linked data canpotentially solve for serials
    19. 19. The Journal/Article Dividethe Journal/Article DivideAge andAgingMortality inolder homecare residentsin England andWalesSerial “Work”Article “Work”containscontainedInWorks can relate to other works reflecting part/whole relationships
    20. 20. Complex Publication HistoriesCAnnals ofPhysicalMedicineRheumatologyand PhysicalMedicineRheumatologyandRehabilitationcontinuedBy continuedBysupercedes supercedesRheumatologyandRehabilitationBritish JournalofRheumatologyRheumatology“Preceding” and “succeeding” relationships can be applied to journal “works”.
    21. 21. Multiple VersionsCPrintRheumatologyhasInstance hasInstance hasInstanceElectronic MicrofilmMultiple formats are treated as “instances” of a creative “work”
    22. 22. CMortality in oldercare homeresidents inEngland andWalesThe mortalityexperience ofpeople admittedto nursinghomesResidential carefor elderlypeople: Adecade ofchangecitescitedByCitation LinkingcitescitedByArticle “works” can be linked together through citations
    23. 23. Linked Einstein
    24. 24. OriginalPaperPublisherCreator ConceptJournalarticleGermanTypeMetadata1903Bibliogra-phiccitationRelationshipsThermo-dynamicsJ.A. BarthPrincetonUniversityPressChapterEnglishType1989Bibliogra-phiccitationRelationshipsMetadataPublisherConceptPublisherhasTranslationURI URI
    25. 25. OriginalPaperThermo-dynamicsCreator Thermo-dynamics ConceptMonograph1903:11v.2:part1.2Monographis part of has partPrinthas instance is instance ofElectronicWileyis available asPrintis available asis available asElectronicECHOTranslationofhasTranslationis part of has partis part of has partis part of has partis part of has partis part of has partTranslationofhasTranslationhas instance is instance of has instance is instance of has instance is instancis available as
    26. 26. Linked Data: Gateway toNew OpportunitiesMajor worksArchivalinformationLinkingwithinLinkingoutArticleBiographicalinformation
    27. 27. New User ExpectationsInformationWeb-basedLinkedInteractiveMobileGlobalDisintermediated
    28. 28. Let’s add value!• Connecting works withcreators (link to ORCIDprofiles)• Semantic enhancements atboth journal and article levels• Seamless linking tosupplementary materials(statistics, questionnaires, tables, images, etc.)• Linking articles to researchdatasets• Linking to multi-media content associated with journals andarticles• Integrating citation analysis into displays
    29. 29. Enriched Content of aJournal ArticleRoyal Society of Chemistry - Project ProspectRetrieved from!divCompound
    30. 30. Semantic PublishingPensoft journals
    31. 31. Multimedia at anArticle LevelNew England Journal of MedicineRetrieved from
    32. 32. Multimedia at aJournal LevelThe Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE)Retrieved from:
    33. 33. Data Management• Access to research data aspart of the scientific discovery• Creating data managementinfrastructure to• Identifiers for datasets(DataCite DOIs)• New Library role in facilitatingdata management forresearchersDryad RepositoryRetrieved from
    34. 34. Bibliographic Descriptionas Linked Datadata.nature.comRetrieved from
    35. 35. “The Semantic Web will likely profoundlychange the very nature of how scientificknowledge is produced and shared, in waysthat we can now barely imagine”.(Berners-Lee, Tim; Hendler, James (April 26, 2001). “Scientific publishingon the „semantic web‟”. Nature)
    36. 36. Linking Researchers to TheirResearch
    37. 37. Light the path to our resourcesLight the path to our resourcesLibraries asKnowledge HubsDiscoveryInterfacesPromotionofCollectionsPromotionofResearcher’s ProfileAuthorityControl
    38. 38. “We are moving fromcataloging to catalinking”Eric Miller, ALA Midwinter 2013
    39. 39. Resources• Katherine Adams, Britta Santamauro & Kurt Blythe. SuccessiveEntry, Latest Entry, or None of the Above? How the MARC21Format, FRBR and the Concept of a Work Could Revitalize SerialsManagement, The Serials Librarian, 54:3-4, 193-197.• Laura Krier. “Serials , FRBR and Library Linked Data: A WayForward”, Journal of Library Metadata, 12(2-3), 177-187.• Riva, Pat. “Defining the Boundaries: FRBR, AACR and the Serial”, TheSerials Librarian, 45(3), 15-21.• Philip Evan Schreur. “The Academy Unbound: Linked Data asRevolution”, Library Resources & Technical Services, 56(4), 227-237.• Library of Congress. “Bibliographic Framework as a Web of Data:Linked Data Model and Supporting Services”• Ed Jones. “The FRBR Model as Applied to Continuing Resources””, Library Resources & Technical Services, 49(4), 227-241.• Kevin Ford. “LC‟s Biblographic Framework Initiative: An Update”
    40. 40. Resources• Karen Calhoun. “Being a librarian: metadata and metadata specialists inthe twenty-first century.” Library Hi Tech 25 (2), 174-187.• Eric Miller. “Linked Data for Holdings and Cataloging: The first step is thehardest!” ALA Midwinter 2013.• David Shotton. “Five stars of online journal articles.” D-Lib Magazine 18(1/2), 1-17.• David Shotton. “Semantic publishing: the coming revolution in scientificjournal publishing.” Learned Publishing 22 (2), 85-94.• Sharon Dyas-Correia. “New Serials, New Roles, New Issues?” IFLA AnnualConference 2012• Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler. “Scientific publishing on the „semanticweb‟”. Nature• Alexander Street Press. Alexander Street Press. May 27, 2013).• Dryad Digital Repository. Dryad. May 20, 2013).• Nature. Nature Linked Data. (accessed May20, 2013).• JoVE. JoVE. (accessed April 20, 2013).
    41. 41. Resources• University of Toronto Libraries. Focus on Research. (accessed May 30, 2013)• Veritasium. April 20, 2013)• Bibliothèque nationale de France. (accessed May20, 2013)• New England Journal of Medicine. (accessed April12, 2013)• Pensoft. PhytoKeys. May 12, 2013)• Royal Society of Chemistry. Project Prospect!divCompound (accessed April 12, 2013)