Creation of Delivery and Presentation Standards for Boating Safety Courses
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Creation of Delivery and Presentation Standards for Boating Safety Courses

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A recent study conducted by NASBLA indicates that nearly 70 percent of boaters are choosing to complete their boating safety courses online. With this in mind, it is important to ensure that students ...

A recent study conducted by NASBLA indicates that nearly 70 percent of boaters are choosing to complete their boating safety courses online. With this in mind, it is important to ensure that students taking an online boating safety course are presented the correct information and that the course is delivered in such a way as to support learning. Researchers from the University of Missouri worked alongside members of the NASBLA Education & Awareness Committee to craft a set of online course delivery and presentation standards that have been included as Standard 10 in the National Boating Education Standards. The researchers share the preliminary results of their research into the efficacy and usability of online boating safety courses which led to the new set of standards.

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Creation of Delivery and Presentation Standards for Boating Safety Courses Creation of Delivery and Presentation Standards for Boating Safety Courses Document Transcript

  • 10/8/09 Joi L. Moore, Ph.D. Associate Professor moorejoi@missouri.edu NASBLA Conference – Corpus Christi, Texas October 1, 2009 A Common User Experience? Happiness Confusion Frustration Despair Usability Goal: Make this an uncommon experience 1
  • 10/8/09 International Standards Organization 9241 Usability Definition The effectiveness, efficiency, context and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in particular environments. content users Myth of the average user There is not one Web users are unique Cultural Differences Experiences Expertise Socialization 2
  • 10/8/09 User Centered Design Older users Problems with: small fonts, pointing devices, multiple Visually impaired users windows Need text equivalent for every non-text element on websites Younger users Like lots of colors and animation; need large clickable objects Usability and Learning 1.  When system usability increase, overall student learning also increases •  Meiselwitz & Sadera, 2008 2.  Tool design and efficient usage significantly influences student learning outcomes and attitudes. •  Fredericksen et al., 1999; Oliver & Herrington, 2003; Valenta, Therriault, Dieter & Mrtek, 2001 3.  Student interactions with interface is positively correlated to success in the course (Hillman, Willis, & Gunawardena (1994) 3
  • 10/8/09 Information Experience Lab Project Tasks 1.  Usability Evaluation: •  Navigation, appearance, multimedia, and organization of the courses •  Instructional and message design strategies 2.  Methods: •  Heuristic Evaluation •  Usability Testing at Boat Shows •  Usability Testing at IE Lab Working and Long Term Memory Clark, R. (2007). Leveraging Multimedia for Learning 4
  • 10/8/09 Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning 1.  Multimedia - Link pictorial and verbal presentation together 2.  Modality - Animation with narration is better than animation and on-screen text •  (Exception: instructions and second language) 3.  Redundancy – If animation and narration, no need for additional on-screen text 4.  Interactivity principle - students learn better when given control of the media Mayer, 2002 Elements Course A Course B Course C Reading Time Requires amount of Recommends No time Control/ time before amount of time requirement Information proceeding to next before proceeding section to next section Audio No narrative text, Narrative text No audio or but narration/audio narration with video Animation Interactive Practice Content Animation None Activity Video Video with audio None None Images Static Static Static 5
  • 10/8/09 Florida and Minnesota Boat Shows Florida and Minnesota Boat Shows N=90 •  Age: Mean (46.39), Min (18), Max (70) •  Gender: Males (56) Females (34) •  Internet experience: Advanced (21), Intermediate (43), Novice (15), Non-users (11) •  Online course experience: Yes (34), No (56) •  Preferences •  Content on one page (25 ) More than one page (65) •  Testing •  Review content first then test (48) •  Test first then review content (28) •  Keep taking the test without reviewing the content, until pass (14) 6
  • 10/8/09 Florida and Minnesota Boat Shows A one-way ANOVA test showed that non internet users tend to prefer Course B (animation with narration) over the other courses. 7
  • 10/8/09 Course Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Total A 2 0 2 6 4 14 (video) B 0 2 7 4 7 20 (animation) C 2 6 12 10 10 40 (text) Results for incorrect responses 8
  • 10/8/09 Course Mean St. Dev. N A (video) 8.80 3.15 20 B (animation) 21.09 5.127 20 C (text) 9.55 3.15 20 Time in minutes Observations of User Behaviors 9
  • 10/8/09 Confusion when placing text 10
  • 10/8/09 Recommendations for Online Course Delivery and Presentation An online course should be organized into at least 5 chapters. •  There is no research stating an “ideal” number of chapters •  Depends on the content and number of learning objectives •  Chunk content into related units to prevent long durations of processing 11
  • 10/8/09 The credited time on any given content page should not exceed three (3) minutes. •  Recommend 2-5 minutes for lessons (Clark, 2007) •  Students can learn more from “leaner” lessons with less but meaningful text (Mayer, 2005) •  Working memory capacity should be considered The minimum number of content pages for the entire course should be at least ninety (90). •  There is no research stating an “ideal” number of pages •  Chunk at the screen level: Topic, learning objective, or concept level •  Ensure that chunk does not require the learner to hold more than a few things in working memory at one time 12
  • 10/8/09 Whenever a video or animation is used within the course, a written script of the narration should accompany it. •  Provide text for hearing impaired (Section 508 compliance) If the state permits, a student may opt to take a challenge exam prior to beginning the course. •  Boat show data: 46% wanted to take the test without reviewing the content. •  28 wanted to take test first then review •  14 wanted to keep taking test until they passed 13
  • 10/8/09 Throughout the online course, an e mail link or phone number should be provided for students to use to contact the course provider. All inquiries should be responded to within two (2) business days. •  Instructor-student interactions are important components of elearning (Moore, 1989; Davidson- Shivers, 2009) •  Inexperienced online learners need to know that there is support •  E-learning evaluation instruments include “contact information” as criteria: Reeves et al. (2002) Provide “engaging” practice activities and appropriate feedback before the test •  When comparing courses, participants wanted interactive “drag and drop” activity represented in Course A (video). •  Provide feedback for response and input errors •  Have simulation type interactions dispersed throughout lesson •  attention and continuous processing of new content is important (Clark, 2007) •  Gagne’s 9 events of instruction (1985) 14
  • 10/8/09 Minimize line lengths to approximately 60-75 cpl and do not create large chunks of text with little white space •  Moderate line lengths of 50 – 60 characters are optimal for reading from screens (e.g. Dyson & Kipping, 1998; Dyson & Haselgrove 2001). •  Adults prefer medium line length (76 cpl) and children prefer shorter line lengths (45 cpl), Bernard, Fernandez, Hull, & Chaparro (2003) •  IE Lab observations: older users 40+ used mouse/ cursor to read, and positioned finger on side of monitor Joi L. Moore, Ph.D. Associate Professor moorejoi@missouri.edu 15