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  • 1. The National Water Safety Congress Presents
  • 2.
    • Executive Producers: Cecilia Duer Executive Director
    • Jerry Craddock Program & Training Coordinator
    • Brian Davidson Rescue Swimmer & Executive Board Member
    • Gary Owen, President National Water Safety Congress
    • NASBLA
    • Honolulu, Hawaii September 14, 2010
  • 3.  
  • 4. Question on Survival If you fell in ice water in normal clothing, how long do you think you would last before you became hypothermic?
  • 5. Hypothermia – professionals Estimates from 480 medical, paramedical and SAR personnel on how long a person can survive in ice water % minutes
  • 6. Hypothermia – REALITY An hour or more may be required for a person to become unconscious due to hypothermia IF a lifejacket or some other device eliminates the need for vigorous exercise and the airway is kept clear to keep from drowning. Another hour before the heart stops.
  • 7. So Why Should We Care?
  • 8. … Because accidents like these are happening all the time…it’s your job to be ready for them
  • 9. Some drowning stats 2006 U.S. Drownings In water under 49 F / more than 50% of all boating accidents had a fatality U.K. / Dr. M. Tipton 55% drowned within 10 feet of safety Lifesaving Study / Canada 2000 – 2004 Boaters 60% drowned in water under 50 F 38 % in water 50 - 70 C 43 % were less than 6 feet from safety
  • 10.
    • Rescue
    • Recovery
    • Rewarm
    Taking boot camp “beyond” getting people into lifejackets by providing a hands on educational tool for first responders and the accidental rescuer
  • 11.
    • So what happens ?
    • 4 Effects of Cold Water Immersion
      • Gasp
      • Incapacitation
      • Hypothermia
      • (Circum-Rescue Collapse)
  • 12. Cold Water Immersion Survival 1 – 10 – 1 The first three effects ... Shock, Incapacitation and Hypothermia
  • 13. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  • 14. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  • 15. Our water is not cold Lake Pleasant, Arizona
  • 16. Just how cold IS cold water ?
    • Can be as warm as 68 to 77 F
    • Body temperature is 98.6 F
    • Real ‘at risk’ temperature is 68 F
    • Cold shock prevalent at under 59F
    • Shock increases as temperatures
    • decrease
  • 17. Cold Shock !
    • Upon immersion, the physiological reaction is to GASP and you can inhale more than a quart of water if your head is under water.
    • Over the next minute or so you will continue with some deep gasping and then move to hyperventilating with a respiration rate between 6 and 10 times normal.
  • 18. Cold Shock !
    • 1 - 10 – 1
    • Expect about 1 minute to get control of your breathing
    • DON’T PANIC
    • Concentrate on getting control of your breathing
    • Figure out where you are and what you need to do to rescue yourself
  • 19. There is a risk of heart failure due to cold shock particularly if the person has an underlying heart condition. Cold Shock Induced Heart Failure
  • 20. Cold Shock Induced Heart Failure
  • 21. Cold Incapacitation 1 - 10 – 1 You have 10 minutes of meaningful movement to self rescue or prepare to wait it out to be rescued.
  • 22. Cold Incapacitation
    • Body tries to decrease heat loss and increase heat production
    • Constriction of blood vessels in the limbs to decrease heat loss
    • Shunting of blood to the core to maintain core body temperature
  • 23. Cold Incapacitation
    • Muscular failure
    • Lose the ability to swim
    • Lose the ability to maintain posture in the water
    • Lose use of hands to perform survival tasks
  • 24. Cold Incapacitation
  • 25. Hypothermia 1 - 10 – 1 Even in ice cold water (32 degrees F), an hour or more may be required for a person to become unconscious due to hypothermia IF a lifejacket or some other device eliminates the need for vigorous exercise to keep from drowning.
  • 26. Hypothermia Once a victim is unconscious, another hour or more may be required for the heart to stop if the head is kept above water (lifejacket worn) and the water is calm enough for waves not to wash over the mouth.
  • 27.
    • Reason behind the concept
    • Research has shown that many people (still)
    • believe that hypothermia is the killer when it
    • comes to cold water and it takes 5 to 10 minutes.
    • Research has shown that people don’t wear their
    • lifejacket because:
    • I’m a good swimmer
    • I can put my lifejacket on in the water
    • I boat close to shore
    • It won’t happen to me
  • 28. on Location: the rescue crew
  • 29. Our water temperature was +/- 35 degrees
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • ALL teams Hyper-prepared
      • Known factors:
      • Rescue Swimmer / Recue Diver
        • Boat crew
        • Emergency Medical Personnel
        • Air and Land Transport Teams
            • Hospital
    • Unknowns: Reaction of “Boot Camper” at entry
    • Deterioration levels
    • Condition at exit
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • Approximately 20 % of severely hypothermic victims die during or shortly after rescue
    • In WW 11, German Air Sea Rescue Services noted how aircrew who had ditched in the channel and were conscious and even aided in their own rescue became unconscious and died shortly after rescue.
    • Sixteen Danish fishermen were in the North Sea for 2-3 hours before being rescued. They walked across the deck of the rescue vessel and went down into the galley to warm up. Each and everyone collapsed and died in the galley.
  • 35.
    • In general previously healthy persons should not die from a cold water immersion or hypothermic incident if they have been rescued, recovered and re-warmed appropriately and properly and in a timely manner.
  • 36.
    • Weather report for our shoot dates.
    • An intense winter storm tracked across the Midwest on December 8 and 9.  This storm produced widespread blizzard conditions.  As the low tracked into the Great Lakes, a strong cold front swept through the Ohio Valley, dropping temperatures and bringing very gusty winds to much of the region. Highest Measured Wind Gusts 61 mph
  • 37.  
  • 38.
    • The lowest recorded core temperature in a surviving adult is 60.8 degrees.
    • In 1994, a two-year-old girl in Saskatchewan wandered out of her house into a minus-40 night. She was found near her doorstep the next morning, limbs frozen solid, her core temperature 57 degrees. She lived.
  • 39.
    • United States Coast Guard and Auxiliary
    • Public Safety Water Rescue Teams
    • Commercial / Industry Vessel Operators
    • State Boating Law Enforcement Agents
    • Army Corps of Engineers Personnel
    • The ‘accidental rescuers ‘… the public
  • 40.
    • Triage and Treatment
    • Fireside Chat
    • Extraction
    • Thermal protection realities
      • Special Notes For Recreational Boating Public
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.
    • Cold Water Survival / Rescue Recover
    • Re-warm hands on course offered by the National Water Safety Congress with continuing
    • education hours available.
    • DVD's for distribution direct to Boating and Water Safety Educators and First Responders
    • Web delivery and downloading
  • 46.
    • Cecilia Duer Executive Producer
    • Executive Director
    • National Water Safety Congress
    • [email_address]
    • Executive Producers:
    • Jerry Craddock Professional Programs & Training Coordinator
    • Michael Ulrich: Commander Mentor Fire Dive Rescue
    • Brian Davidson & Gary Owen Rescue Swimmer
    • Instructor Trainers
    • www.watersafetycongress.org
  • 47.