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Improving Project Performanceby Creating and Re-Using Knowledge<br />Niclas RinmanShea Wilson<br />2011-02-09<br />
The ability to sustain significant improvements in development over long periods of time rests on the capability to learn ...
The General Problem<br />Picture Reference:Ward, Allen C. (2007). LeanProduct and Process Development.  Cambridge, MA: The...
Continuous Incremental Improvements<br />Picture Reference:<br />Wheelwright, Steven C. & Clark, Kim B. (1992). Revolution...
Agenda<br />Background<br />Project<br />Findings<br />Framework<br />Summary<br />| Introduction | Background | Project |...
Scope<br />Learning in a Project-based Organization<br />Provide knowledge and experiences to future project teams in orde...
Conventional Solutions<br />Process Based Methods<br />e.g. project reviews and audits<br />Document Based Methods<br />e....
Barriers<br />Eliciting Knowledge and Experiences<br />Time Pressure<br />Motivation<br />Skill<br />…<br />Re-Using Knowl...
The Project<br />Background<br />Better process for capturing and sharing lessons learned highly needed<br />Objective<br ...
Case Company<br />Project-based organization using a defined stage-gate development process<br />Matrix structure with cro...
Methodology<br />Interviews<br />About 35 semi-structured interviews<br />Cross-site and cross-functional<br />Research<br...
Interview Findings<br /><ul><li>Creating and Sharing Knowledge</li></ul>“We do not have time to sit down and think about t...
Interview Findings<br />Little useable knowledge created and made available by projects.<br />| Introduction | Background ...
Interview Findings<br />Little useable knowledge created and made available by projects.<br />There is a trade off in proj...
Interview Findings<br />Accessing and Retrieving Information<br />“People read project reports, but don’t understand them....
Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not documented and stored in a good way.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project |...
Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not documented and stored in a good way.<br />It is hard to find, search, and access ...
Interview Findings<br />Creating Action and Change<br />“All projects have problems, and the same kind of problems re-appe...
Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not re-used throughout the organization.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project |...
Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not re-used throughout the organization.<br />The use of project reports in projects ...
Interview Conclusions<br />Tick-off item. Trade-off in time.<br />Not available and not useful. <br />No visible changes. ...
Interview Conclusions<br />Tick-off item. Trade-off in time.<br />Not available and not useful. <br />No visible changes. ...
Goal – A Better Way<br />Sustainably increase project performance…<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings |...
Goal – A Better Way<br />Sustainably increase project performance... by using a resource that is currently being wasted.<b...
Creating the Framework<br />Goal: Increase project performance through knowledge re-use.<br />Provide knowledge to future ...
| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
Creating the Framework<br />Re-using knowledge in projects<br />Increased problem solving capability and frontloading of p...
| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
Creating the Framework<br />Re-Using Knowledge in the Functional Organization<br />Making improvements and changing<br />P...
| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
Creating the Framework<br />Encoding Knowledge<br />Encode knowledge in order to enable the previous two activities<br />E...
| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
Creating the Framework<br />Creating Knowledge in Projects<br />Create and deliver useful knowledge<br />Needed: Motivatio...
| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
Broken Cycle<br />A broken cycle<br />For the cycle to work, you need all the connections.<br />Focusing on just one of th...
Proposals<br />Projects create useful knowledge<br />Change from “tick-off item” to important delivery<br />Emphasize the ...
Proposals<br />Encode knowledge so it is useful<br />Subject based knowledge articles instead of project based reports<br ...
Proposals<br />Increase project performance by re-using knowledge<br />From passive reading to active use through<br />Pro...
Proposals<br />Constantly improve the functional organization<br />Pull feedback from knowledge articles<br />Create conti...
Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create Knowledge in Projects<br />Encode Knowledge<br />Re-Use Knowledge ...
Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create a pull system. Pull knowledge from projects based on the desired r...
Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create a pull system. Pull knowledge from projects based on the desired r...
Thank You!<br />
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Transcript of "Wilson.shea"

  1. 1. Improving Project Performanceby Creating and Re-Using Knowledge<br />Niclas RinmanShea Wilson<br />2011-02-09<br />
  2. 2. The ability to sustain significant improvements in development over long periods of time rests on the capability to learn from experience.- Steven C. Wheelwright and Kim B. Clark <br />Almost all defective projects result from not having the right knowledge in the right place at the right time.- Allen C. Ward<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  3. 3. The General Problem<br />Picture Reference:Ward, Allen C. (2007). LeanProduct and Process Development. Cambridge, MA: The Lean Enterprise Institute Inc. <br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  4. 4. Continuous Incremental Improvements<br />Picture Reference:<br />Wheelwright, Steven C. & Clark, Kim B. (1992). Revolutionizing Product Development: Quantum Leaps in Speed, Efficiency and Quality. New York, NY: The Free Press.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  5. 5. Agenda<br />Background<br />Project<br />Findings<br />Framework<br />Summary<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  6. 6. Scope<br />Learning in a Project-based Organization<br />Provide knowledge and experiences to future project teams in order to enhance their problem solving ability.<br />Continuously improve organizational structures, processes, tools and routines based on knowledge from previous projects.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  7. 7. Conventional Solutions<br />Process Based Methods<br />e.g. project reviews and audits<br />Document Based Methods<br />e.g. final project reports, databases<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  8. 8. Barriers<br />Eliciting Knowledge and Experiences<br />Time Pressure<br />Motivation<br />Skill<br />…<br />Re-Using Knowledge and Experiences<br />Formal Barriers<br />Informal Barriers<br />Learning from development projects is one of the most difficult things that an organization can do.<br />- Steven C. Wheelwright and Kim B. Clark <br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  9. 9. The Project<br />Background<br />Better process for capturing and sharing lessons learned highly needed<br />Objective<br />Create a platform (framework) for lessons learned at the case company<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  10. 10. Case Company<br />Project-based organization using a defined stage-gate development process<br />Matrix structure with cross-functional project teams<br />Uses project reports for documenting lessons learned<br />Automotive Industry<br />Global presence and about 5000 employees<br />| Introduction | Background | Project| Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  11. 11. Methodology<br />Interviews<br />About 35 semi-structured interviews<br />Cross-site and cross-functional<br />Research<br />Literature study<br />Formal documentation<br />Observations and hallway conversations<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  12. 12. Interview Findings<br /><ul><li>Creating and Sharing Knowledge</li></ul>“We do not have time to sit down and think about the past when we have a project to deliver.”<br />“It is a tick-off item.”<br />“If we want to consume good information we need to be willing to help create it.”<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  13. 13. Interview Findings<br />Little useable knowledge created and made available by projects.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  14. 14. Interview Findings<br />Little useable knowledge created and made available by projects.<br />There is a trade off in projects between documenting knowledge and delivering the product.<br />The creation of the final project report is seen as a tick-off item done before passing a gate.<br />Knowledge is lost by writing the project report at the end of projects.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  15. 15. Interview Findings<br />Accessing and Retrieving Information<br />“People read project reports, but don’t understand them.”<br />“The project reports sound useful, but I don’t know where to find them.” <br />“Which one do I need to read? If I have to use the tool, make it useable and valuable and easy to reference and understand.”<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  16. 16. Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not documented and stored in a good way.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  17. 17. Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not documented and stored in a good way.<br />It is hard to find, search, and access information in the project reports.<br />The information is of varying usefulness and levels of detail.<br />Outspoken need to have knowledge made available in a simple and understandable way.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  18. 18. Interview Findings<br />Creating Action and Change<br />“All projects have problems, and the same kind of problems re-appear, and they are repeatedly documented in the project reports.”<br />“Why document mistakes if we are not going to change anything?”<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  19. 19. Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not re-used throughout the organization.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  20. 20. Interview Findings<br />Knowledge is not re-used throughout the organization.<br />The use of project reports in projects is limited to reading some of them in the early phases.<br />There is no structured, visible, process for making changes based on information in the project reports.<br />There is a desire from the functional organization to get feedback from projects in order to make changes.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  21. 21. Interview Conclusions<br />Tick-off item. Trade-off in time.<br />Not available and not useful. <br />No visible changes. Feedback missing.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  22. 22. Interview Conclusions<br />Tick-off item. Trade-off in time.<br />Not available and not useful. <br />No visible changes. Feedback missing.<br />Consequences:<br />Re-inventing the wheel<br />Repeating mistakes<br />Failed projects<br />Waste<br />Frustration<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  23. 23. Goal – A Better Way<br />Sustainably increase project performance…<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  24. 24. Goal – A Better Way<br />Sustainably increase project performance... by using a resource that is currently being wasted.<br />Re-use knowledge in future project teams to improve performance, e.g. lead time, project cost.<br />Re-use knowledge in the functional organization to improve, e.g. processes, tools, methods.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  25. 25. Creating the Framework<br />Goal: Increase project performance through knowledge re-use.<br />Provide knowledge to future project teams<br />Use knowledge to improve the organization<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  26. 26. | Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  27. 27. Creating the Framework<br />Re-using knowledge in projects<br />Increased problem solving capability and frontloading of problem solving.<br />Improved risk management with earlier identification of risks.<br />Needed: Useful knowledge<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  28. 28. | Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  29. 29. Creating the Framework<br />Re-Using Knowledge in the Functional Organization<br />Making improvements and changing<br />Procedures<br />Tools/Methods<br />Process<br />Structure<br />Principles<br />Needed: Feedback on project performance and usage of processes, tools, etc.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  30. 30. | Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  31. 31. Creating the Framework<br />Encoding Knowledge<br />Encode knowledge in order to enable the previous two activities<br />Enable easy to search and access<br />Enable easy documentation of knowledge<br />Needed: Useful knowledge from previous projects<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  32. 32. | Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  33. 33. Creating the Framework<br />Creating Knowledge in Projects<br />Create and deliver useful knowledge<br />Needed: Motivation for spending time on knowledge creating activities <br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  34. 34. | Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  35. 35. Broken Cycle<br />A broken cycle<br />For the cycle to work, you need all the connections.<br />Focusing on just one of these does not work. <br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  36. 36. Proposals<br />Projects create useful knowledge<br />Change from “tick-off item” to important delivery<br />Emphasize the value of useful knowledge, with the goal of re-use in mind<br />Product<br />Project<br />Useful Knowledge<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  37. 37. Proposals<br />Encode knowledge so it is useful<br />Subject based knowledge articles instead of project based reports<br />From documents to collaborative knowledge base<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  38. 38. Proposals<br />Increase project performance by re-using knowledge<br />From passive reading to active use through<br />Problem Solving<br />Risk Management<br />Access knowledge articles to find solutions and possible risks<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary | <br />
  39. 39. Proposals<br />Constantly improve the functional organization<br />Pull feedback from knowledge articles<br />Create continuous improvements, e.g. to processes<br />Personal mastery and role responsibility<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework| Summary | <br />
  40. 40. Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create Knowledge in Projects<br />Encode Knowledge<br />Re-Use Knowledge in Projects <br />Re-Use Knowledge in the Functional Organization<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary| <br />
  41. 41. Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create a pull system. Pull knowledge from projects based on the desired re-use.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary| <br />
  42. 42. Summary<br />Four areas you need to support<br />Create a pull system. Pull knowledge from projects based on the desired re-use.<br />Learning from experience is one of the most difficult, but also one of the most important things that an organization can do.<br />| Introduction | Background | Project | Findings | Framework | Summary| <br />
  43. 43. Thank You!<br />
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