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Wayne.brantley

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  • 1. 5 Keys to Successful Project ManagementWayne Brantley, MS. Ed, PMP, ITIL, CPLP, CRP Senior Director of Professional Education Villanova University www.VillanovaU.com 1-800-571-4953
  • 2. Overview Baseline data Project performance Why projects fail The five keys to project success
  • 3. Can you predict the future?
  • 4. The future isnt as scary if you know the past Do you baseline project performance?
  • 5. Why do projects fail? What determines project failure? What determines project success? What are the commonalities in successful projects?
  • 6. Create Best Practices Lessons learned databases Create a Center of Excellence Develop best practices Executive buy-in
  • 7. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management1. Obtain Good Requirements2. Perform Detailed Project Planning3. Do Risk Management4. Lead the Project Team5. Create an Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management
  • 8. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management1. Obtain Good Requirements
  • 9. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management• What do requirements establish in a project?• What are some signs that thorough requirements were not acquired?
  • 10. Improved Requirements Gathering “How the customer explained it” 11
  • 11. Improved Requirements Gathering“How the Project Leader understood it” 12
  • 12. Improved Requirements Gathering “How the Analyst designed it” 13
  • 13. Improved Requirements Gathering “How the Programmer wrote it” 14
  • 14. Improved Requirements Gathering“How the Business Consultant described it” 15
  • 15. Improved Requirements Gathering “How the project was documented” 16
  • 16. Improved Requirements Gathering “What Operations installed” 17
  • 17. Improved Requirements Gathering “How the customer was billed” 18
  • 18. Improved Requirements Gathering “How it was supported” 19
  • 19. Improved Requirements Gathering “What the customer really needed” 20
  • 20. Obtain Good Requirements Needs analysis – Where do needs arise from?  Market demands  Laws  Technology evolution  Others? Evolution of a need  Emergence – “Change is the generator of needs”  Recognition – Must be a conscious effort  Articulation – See what it means to all stakeholders
  • 21. Obtain Good Requirements Articulate the Needs – See what it means to all stakeholders  Step 1 – Ask those that have the need to define it as clearly as possible  Step 2 – Ask a full set of questions about the need  Step 3 – Carry out whatever research is necessary to enable you to understand the need better  Step 4 – Formulate the need as best as you can  Step 5 – Have customer/stakeholder review, and revise accordingly
  • 22. Obtain Good Requirements How do you obtain good requirements? 1. Take time to do it 2. Ask the right people the right questions 3. Draw a picture 4. Build a model 5. Build a little 6. Check and re-check 7. Sign off C = Cover Y = Your A = Activities
  • 23. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management2. Perform Detailed Project Planning
  • 24. Detailed Project Planning Project initiation - project planning handoff
  • 25. Detailed Project Planning What is done in planning?  Develop the project management plan  Requirements  Scope  WBS  Schedule  Estimate durations  Estimate costs  Quality  Human resources  Communications  Risk management  Procurement
  • 26. Detailed Project Planning Documentation that is developed when we started  Statement of Work  Contracts  Project requirements documents  Project Charter When is the project manager assigned? When should the PM be assigned?
  • 27. Detailed Project Planning• The WBS• Project scope and the WBS• The WBS and the work• The WBS and project management
  • 28. Detailed Project Planning• Uses of the WBS – Planning – Estimating • Schedules • Budgets • Resources – Change Control – Project Control
  • 29. Detailed Project Planning Develop a schedule  Durations  Dependencies  Constraints  Resource availability
  • 30. Detailed Project Planning Get good estimates Know how good +/- some variance Order of Magnitude (also known as a SWAG) +75/-25% Budget Estimate +25/-10% Definitive Estimate -25% +75% -10% +25% +10/-5% -5% +10% Think of optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic PERT = O + 4 (ML) + P / 6 Don’t pad Don’t be the martyr
  • 31. Detailed Project Planning Develop duration estimates Where do your estimates come from? Who has the most valid estimate? Develop estimating techniques PERT estimates = Optimistic + 4 (Most Likely) + Pessimistic / 6 EX: O = 3 days ML = 5 days P = 9 days • Answer = 5.33 days
  • 32. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management3. Do Risk Management
  • 33. Do Risk Management Project team member number 1 – Murphy Risk management planning – Do it! Identifying risk Evaluating risks Contingency planning Continuous risk management
  • 34. Who is Murphy?• He shows up to every project• He is on your team• He can be the difference between a successful and a failed project• Murphy’s Law – “If something can go wrong, it will” 35
  • 35. This is Murphy’s Shadow 36
  • 36. Risk Management Planning Risk Planning – How much Risk Management do you apply to your project?  $500k - $5M - $500M - $5B project differences  1 month – 6 month – 1 year – 2 year – 5 year project differences  2 person – 6 person – 12 person – 20 person project differences  Your project – boss’s project – CEO’s project differences  Life or death project differences 37
  • 37. Do Risk Management Risk Identification Any possible risk should be identified Do not exclude even the ridiculous Use all stakeholders Techniques used to identify risks Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique Delphi Techniques
  • 38. Risk Management Identification• Techniques used to identify risks – Brainstorming • Open discussion • No discussion on discussion • Comfortable environment • Use note takers • Get all to participate 39
  • 39. Risk Management Identification• Techniques used to identify risks – Expert Interviews • Identify knowledgeable resources inside the company • Identify knowledgeable resources outside the company 40
  • 40. Risk Management Identification• Techniques used to identify risks – Delphi Techniques • Use experts anonymously • Get their response • Iteratively and anonymously feed back to them • Get them to collaborate without them knowing 41
  • 41. Risk Grid LOW IMPACT MED IMPACT HIGH IMPACT H HIGH PROBABILITY HIGH PROBABILITY HIGH PROBABILITYPR 3 2 1OB LOW IMPACT MED IMPACT HIGH IMPACTAB M MED PROBABILITY MED PROBABILITY MED PROBABILITYIL 4 2 2ITY LOW IMPACT MED IMPACT HIGH IMPACT L LOW PROBABILITY LOW PROBABILITY LOW PROBABILITY 4 4 3 L M H IMPACT
  • 42. RISK ACTION1 = AVOID2 = MITIGATE3 = ACKNOWLEDGE4 = ACCEPT
  • 43. PIE Method All risks have an Event, a Probability, and an Impact An Event is the Risk that we identify Probability is the likelihood that it can occur Impact is the amount that it would cost us E=PxI Example: Risk 1 has a 70% probability and a $50,000 impact = $35k Risk 2 has a 40% probability and a $150,000 impact = $60k Risk 3 has a 20% probability and a $250,000 impact = $50k Which risk would be your first concern? 44
  • 44. Risk Management Identification• Top Project Risks (Student Response) – Over commitment of resources – Stakeholder involvement – Incomplete Identification of risks – Contingency planning not done – SMART Goals (not used very often anymore) 45
  • 45. Risk Management Identification• Top Project Risks (Student Response) – Command change out, so project no longer has priority – Higher directives changed negating the need for the product, and thus the project – Schedule change, forcing personnel to sea earlier than expected, thus dwindling down team members – Loss of funding, due to repair requirements elsewhere – Unexpected Loss of personnel/team members 46
  • 46. Risk Management Identification• Top Project Risks (Student Response) – Missing deliverables from customer – Missing deliverables from project teams – Resources not available when needed – Miscommunications – Murphy (hes a stalker) - unforeseen risk that materializes at the worst timeEmail me your top risks at Wayne.Brantley@VillanovaU.com 47
  • 47. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management4. Lead the Project Team
  • 48. Leading the Project Team Development  Project manager or project leader  People  Teams  Personalities  Skills
  • 49. Leading the Project Team Development  Challenges Geographical locations Cultural differences Language differences Spoken Technical Organization alignment
  • 50. Situational LeadershipKen Blanchard identified different leadership styles based on: The situation Matching your leadership style to the developmental level of the workerLeadership styles are based on directive and supportive behaviors Leadership styles are; Directive, Coaching, Supportive, and DelegatingThe worker’s developmental level is based on competence andcommitment behaviors Worker’s developmental levels are; Enthusiastic Beginner, Disillusioned Learner, Reluctant Contributor, Peak Performer
  • 51. Situational LeadershipH S U P Supportive Coaching P O R T I Delegating Directive V E DIRECTIVEL H
  • 52. Situational Leadership Reluctant Disillusioned Contributor Learner Peak Enthusiastic Performer Beginner Competence Commitment
  • 53. Situational Leadership Supportive = Coaching = Reluctant Disillusioned Contributor Learner Delegating = Directive = Peak Enthusiastic Performer Beginner
  • 54. The Project Sandbox –“Can’t we all just get along?”
  • 55. The Project Sandbox Sales Engineering
  • 56. Top 10 Ways to Motivate Today’s Employees 1. Provide personal 6. Involve employees thanks 7. Reward high 2. Make times for performers employees 8. Develop a sense of 3. Provide specific ownership feedback 9. Give chances to grow 4. Create an open and learn environment 10. Celebrate successes 5. Provide information Bob Nelson; Motivating Today’s Employees, 1996
  • 57. The Five Keys to Successful Project Management5. Create an Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management
  • 58. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management How do you get an organization to support project management?
  • 59. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management Project Management Maturity Models Project management is free! ROI for Project Management
  • 60. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management  Project Management Maturity Models Why are the needed?
  • 61. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management  Maturity Models A place to start Common language Common methodology Best practices Continuous improvement
  • 62. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management Maturity Models  Capability Maturity Models (CMM) Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Carnegie Mellon University  Additional Project Management Maturity Model
  • 63. CMM Business Benefits• Reduction in system integration and test time• Extend SW-CMM benefits to the total project• Leverage previous process improvement investments• Increased focus and consistency in: – Requirements development and management – System design and development – System integration – Risk Management 65
  • 64. CMM Benefits• Improved schedule and budget predictability• Improved cycle time• Increased productivity• Improved quality• Increased customer satisfaction• Improved employee morale• Increased return on investment• Decreased cost of quality 66
  • 65. Maturity Models CMMI – SEI/Carnegie Mellon Level 1 – Performed Process unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive Level 2 – Managed Process characterized for projects and is often reactive Level 3 – Defined Process characterized for the organization and is proactive Level 4 – Quantitatively managed Process managed and controlled Level 5 - Optimizing Focus on continuous process improvement 67
  • 66. Project Management Maturity Models Harold Kerzner’s Project Management Maturity Model Level 5 – Continuous Improvement Level 4 – Benchmarking Level 3 – Singular Methodology Level 2 – Common Processes Level 1 – Common Language 68
  • 67. Project Management Maturity Models Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) – J. Kent Crawford, 2002 Level 1 – Initial process Ad hoc Management awareness Level 2 – Structure Process and Standards Basic processes Management support Experts and generic tools Project centric 69
  • 68. Project Management Maturity Models Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) – J. Kent Crawford, 2002  Level 3 – Organizational Standards and Institutionalized Process Standardized processes Repeatable processes Actual data collected Industry standards or organizational specifics Organizational focus 70
  • 69. Project Management Maturity Models Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) – J. Kent Crawford, 2002  Level 4 – Managed Process Processes integrated with corporate processes Management mandates Project performance analyzed Organization specifics on estimates Data used 71
  • 70. Project Management Maturity Models Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) – J. Kent Crawford, 2002  Level 5 – Optimizing processes Project effectiveness Project efficiency Project performance improvement Continuous improvement Best Practices 72
  • 71. Project Management Maturity Models  PMI’s Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3™) Standardizing Measuring Controlling Continuously improving 73
  • 72. PMI OPM3 Benefits• Advance organization’s goals through the use of PM• Establishes organizational best practices for PM• Allows an organization to identify where it needs to improve• Identifies priorities for improving and helps with planning 74
  • 73. CMMI Kerzner Crawford PMIPerformed Common Initial Standardizing Language ProcessManaged Common Structure Process Process and StandardsDefined Singular Organizational Measuring Methodology Standards and Institutionalized processQuantitatively Benchmarking Managed ControllingManaged ProcessesOptimizing Continuous Optimizing Continuously Improvement Processes Improving
  • 74. Project Management is Free! What is the cost of project management? What is the benefit of project management?
  • 75. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management ROI of Project Management What would be the costs? What benefits would we see?
  • 76. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management ROI Process – Jack Phillips methodology (www.roiinstitute.net)  Determines the return you get on your investment  We have to show the value of PM  Executive support  Resources  Methodology  Systems  ROI Methodology  6 levels of value 1. Reaction 2. Learning 3. Application 4. Impact 5. ROI 6. Intangibles
  • 77. An Organizational Culture that Supports Project Management ROI Process – Jack Phillips methodology (www.roiinstitute.net) 10 steps: Develop objectives for program evaluation Develop evaluation plans Data collection during program implementation Data collection after program implementation Isolate the effects of the solution Convert data to monetary value Identify intangibles Capture costs Calculate ROI (Net Program Benefits/Program Costs x 100) Develop report and communicate results
  • 78. Example of Converting Data Using Baseline Data Cost of project delay•Delay from pastproject performance = 25% late•Estimated12 month project = 15 month delivered•Salary for PMO (8 personnel) = $700,000 annual salary•Benefit of project = $1M / month•Benefit of PM = 3 months saved @ $1M per month = $3M
  • 79. Summary Baseline data Project performance Why projects fail The five keys to project success