PM Challenge 2007              STARDUST          Bringing a Comet Home                 Lockheed Martin Space Systems      ...
PM Challenge 2007STARDUST                       2
PM Challenge 2007                      Trajectory Overview                 Earth                 Gravity     Earth        ...
PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 Encounter                        4
PM Challenge 2007             Spacecraft Overview - at EncounterLaunch Mass: 385 kg (848 lb)-Bus: 254 kg (560 lb)-SRC: 46 ...
PM Challenge 2007             Cometary Dust Collection AerogelCollection  Grid     Navigation Camera Mirror               ...
PM Challenge 2007Interstellar Particle Collection                Aerogel               Collection                 Grid    ...
PM Challenge 2007Aerogel Sample Collector                            1 cm Interstellar                            Grid    ...
PM Challenge 2007Stardust Structure                         9
PM Challenge 2007Whipple Shield                       10
PM Challenge 2007Whipple Shield Does Its Job         1 cm         2 cm         5 cm        11 cm                          ...
PM Challenge 2007Dust Flux Monitor                         12
PM Challenge 2007DFM on Whipple Shield Bumper         Mass Simulator                               13
Cometary & Interstellar Dust Analyzer                PM Challenge 2007               (CIDA)                               ...
PM Challenge 2007Navigation Camera (Nav Cam)                              15
PM Challenge 2007Stardust Assembled                         16
PM Challenge 2007On Delta II (7426)                         17
PM Challenge 2007Launch, 7 February 1999                            18
PM Challenge 2007Fairing Separation                         19
PM Challenge 2007                               AnneFrank Encounter 2 Nov 2002                                            ...
PM Challenge 200781P/Wild 2                     21
PM Challenge 2007Orbital Evolution of Wild 2                              22
PM Challenge 2007                         Wild 2 TrailM. Ishiguro, et al, The Astrophysical Journal, 589:L101–L104, 2003 J...
PM Challenge 2007                                     Wild-2 Flyby GeometryWild-2 Encounter Geometry                      ...
PM Challenge 2007                     Wild 2 17 November 2003•   Windowed frame                              •   Wild 2 in...
PM Challenge 2007Optical Navigation Image @ E - 14             Hours                                    26
Image 2022         PM Challenge 2007Distance=6793 kmTime=E-1113 secMirror=1.9 deg                                       27
Image 2034         PM Challenge 2007Distance=4599 kmTime=E-753 secMirror=2.7 deg                                       28
Image 2041         PM Challenge 2007Distance=3321 kmTime=E-543 secMirror=3.8 deg                                       29
Image 2044         PM Challenge 2007Distance=2773 kmTime=E-453 secMirror=4.3 deg                                       30
Image 2046         PM Challenge 2007Distance=2409 kmTime=E-393 secMirror=5.7 deg                                       31
Image 2048         PM Challenge 2007Distance=2045 kmTime=E-333 secMirror=6.6 deg                                       32
Image 2050         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1742 kmTime=E-283 secMirror=7.9 deg                                       33
Image 2052         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1320 kmTime=E-213 secMirror=10.2 deg                                       34
Image 2053         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1260 kmTime=E-203 secMirror=10.8 deg                                       35
Image 2054         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1201 kmTime=E-193 secMirror=11 deg                                       36
Image 2056         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1082 kmTime=E-173 secMirror=12.6 deg                                       37
Image 2058        PM Challenge 2007Distance=963 kmTime=E-153 secMirror=14.2 deg                                      38
Image 2059        PM Challenge 2007Distance=903 kmTime=E-143 secMirror=15 deg                                      39
Image 2060        PM Challenge 2007Distance=845 kmTime=E-133 secMirror=16 deg                                      40
Image 2061        PM Challenge 2007Distance=787 kmTime=E-123 secMirror=17.5 deg                                      41
Image 2062        PM Challenge 2007Distance=729 kmTime=E-113 secMirror=19 deg                                      42
Image 2063        PM Challenge 2007Distance=671 kmTime=E-103 secMirror=20 deg                                      43
Image 2064        PM Challenge 2007Distance=915 kmTime=E-93 secMirror=23 deg                                      44
Image 2065        PM Challenge 2007Distance=559 kmTime=E-83 secMirror=25 deg                                      45
Image 2066        PM Challenge 2007Distance=504 kmTime=E-73 secMirror=28 deg                                      46
Image 2067        PM Challenge 2007Distance=452 kmTime=E-63 secMirror=32 deg                                      47
Image 2069        PM Challenge 2007Distance=352 kmTime=E-43 secMirror=42 deg                                      48
Image 2071        PM Challenge 2007Distance=274 kmTime=E-23 secMirror=59 deg                                      49
Image 2073              Closest Approach ImageDistance=236 km                PM Challenge 2007Time=E-3 secMirror=85 deg   ...
Image 2075        PM Challenge 2007Distance=257 kmTime=E+17 secMirror=113 deg                                      51
Image 2077        PM Challenge 2007Distance=326 kmTime=E+37 secMirror=133 deg                                      52
Image 2079        PM Challenge 2007Distance=421 kmTime=E+57 secMirror=145 deg                                      53
Image 2080        PM Challenge 2007Distance=472 kmTime=E+67 secMirror=150 deg                                      54
Image 2081        PM Challenge 2007Distance=526 kmTime=E+77 secMirror=153 deg                                      55
Image 2083        PM Challenge 2007Distance=637 kmTime=E+97 secMirror=158 deg                                      56
Image 2084        PM Challenge 2007Distance=694 kmTime=E+107 secMirror=160 deg                                      57
Image 2085        PM Challenge 2007Distance=752 kmTime=E+117 secMirror=161 deg                                      58
Image 2086        PM Challenge 2007Distance=810 kmTime=E+127 secMirror=163 deg                                      59
Image 2087        PM Challenge 2007Distance=869 kmTime=E+137 secMirror=164 deg                                      60
Image 2088        PM Challenge 2007Distance=927 kmTime=E+147 secMirror=165 deg                                      61
Image 2091         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1105 kmTime=E+177 secMirror=167.6 deg                                       62
Image 2092         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1165 kmTime=E+187 secMirror=168.4 deg                                       63
Image 2094         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1285 kmTime=E+207 secMirror=169.4 deg                                       64
Image 2096         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1405 kmTime=E+227 secMirror=170.3 deg                                       65
Image 2098         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1525 kmTime=E+247 secMirror=171.1 deg                                       66
Image 2100         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1646 kmTime=E+267 secMirror=171.8 deg                                       67
Image 2104         PM Challenge 2007Distance=1888 kmTime=E+307 secMirror=172.9 deg                                       68
Image 2108         PM Challenge 2007Distance=2130 kmTime=E+347 secMirror=173.7 deg                                       69
Image 2112         PM Challenge 2007Distance=2373 kmTime=E+387 secMirror=174.3 deg                                       70
Image 2115         PM Challenge 2007Distance=3467 kmTime=E+567 secMirror=176.1 deg                                       71
PM Challenge 2007                    First Image Released• Many Flat Bottomed  Craters• Jets May be Coming  From Walls of ...
PM Challenge 2007                                                 Encounter Attitude Control                              ...
PM Challenge 2007                Nucleus Tracking                        Location of Center of Brightness in CCD Frame    ...
PM Challenge 2007                                                   Closest Approach                                      ...
PM Challenge 2007                        Wild 2 Jets                        Image 2076                        Distance=287...
PM Challenge 2007                    77
PM Challenge 2007Jet Source Regions (Sekanina et al., 2004)                                             78
PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 surface ≠ asteroid or satellite surfaces                                                  79
PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 Map                     80
PM Challenge 2007                 Pit-Spall Craters• The pit/spall zone morphology is common for microcraters  on lunar ro...
PM Challenge 2007     Wild 2’s Spires(Monument Valley in dirty ice)                                          spire shadow ...
PM Challenge 2007       White SpotA dust jet above the surface?  Transient condensates? 3 views from different angles     ...
PM Challenge 2007                                Particle Fluxes                                  Fluxes (1 sec)10000     ...
PM Challenge 2007The Importance of Sample Return Missions• Science   is done on the ground• Instrumentation is state-of-th...
PM Challenge 2007Try to Launch This . . .Or this . . .                                               86
PM Challenge 2007                                             Approach Events                                             ...
PM Challenge 2007                                                Entry, Descent and Landing      TCM-19,x (E-36,12h)      ...
PM Challenge 2007Utah Test and Training Range                                  Landing Target                             ...
PM Challenge 2007Cross Track Downto 20 km by 1/11/06                           90
PM Challenge 2007Navigation Criteria Diagram                                      YELLOW DIVOT                            ...
PM Challenge 2007                    92
PM Challenge 2007     Helicopter for Recovery                                   Night Sun                                 ...
PM Challenge 2007SRC Recovery Operations EnvironmentFull Moon Rise:   5:47 pm (MST) Jan 14SRC Entry:        2:57 amSRC Lan...
PM Challenge 2007Incoming Over Nevada – from Aircraft                                       95
PM Challenge 2007Incoming Over Nevada                        96
PM Challenge 2007SRC After Victory Roll                           97
PM Challenge 2007Off the Helo on Way to Clean Room                                    98
PM Challenge 2007Starting Disassembly                          99
PM Challenge 2007Delivery to Johnson Space Center                                   100
PM Challenge 2007First Inspection of Aerogel Grid                                   101
PM Challenge 2007Particle Entry Track                          102
PM Challenge 2007Two Fluffy Particle Impacts?                               103
PM Challenge 2007                    104
PM Challenge 2007Particles Along Track                           105
PM Challenge 2007Cutting Aerogel – Harmonic Saw                                 106
PM Challenge 2007Valentine Particle                         107
PM Challenge 2007Particle Analysis                         108
PM Challenge 2007               Olivine (Forsterite) ParticleThis particle, a type of olivine called forsterite, was broug...
PM Challenge 2007             Don Brownlee at Science WorkshopComet Particle Composition – many built like loose dirt-clod...
PM Challenge 2007                      Stardust Web Site               http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/Stardust is a NASA Dis...
PM Challenge 2007             What Did We Do?, Technically:             PLAN                                         ACTUA...
PM Challenge 2007     What Did We Do?, Programmatically:             PLAN                                    ACTUAL•   Mid...
PM Challenge 2007How Did We Do It On Time & In Cost?•   KISS•   Attitude•   Requirements ≤ Capability•   NO!!! Requirement...
PM Challenge 2007                          KISS• ’94 Proposal Kept to Focused Science Mission• Primary Science:  – Interst...
PM Challenge 2007                        Attitude• No Overrun!! → Termination (for Real!)   – Mark Saunders, NASA HQ Disco...
PM Challenge 2007        Requirements ≤ Capability• Phase B SRR was “Capability & Requirements  Review”  – Culmination of ...
PM Challenge 2007         NO!!! Requirements Creep• Mantra: “Do Not Allow Requirements Creep Camel to  get his Nose Under ...
PM Challenge 2007                  Team PartnershipPartners: NASA, PI, Agent (JPL), Industrial Partner (LM)• 4 Party Agree...
PM Challenge 2007             Virtual Co-Location• Replicating Servers Through Fire Walls• Telecons with Each End Pulling ...
PM Challenge 2007                   Good EnoughDuring Development I was Often Asked How do you  do FBC, What do you Leave ...
PM Challenge 2007                             EVM +•   Baselined Schedule & Resources in 3rd Month of Phase C/D    – Entir...
PM Challenge 2007                                         EVM + (continued)                                   Staffing Slo...
PM Challenge 2007                                              EVM + (continued)                                          ...
PM Challenge 2007                                                        EVM + (continued)• Independent Milestone Count – ...
PM Challenge 2007                                             EVM + (continued)    • ATLO Schedule Margin Tracked Daily   ...
PM Challenge 2007                    Risk Management• Identified Risks Early• TPMs to Track Technical Status & Identify Ri...
PM Challenge 2007            Risk Management (continued)SRC (3 months to Launch)Mass                        45.7 kg weighe...
PM Challenge 2007                  Risk Management (continued) Project Fever Summary (7 months to Launch)           Techni...
PM Challenge 2007     Risk Management (continued)• Reviewed Weekly & Monthly  – Description & Status  – Estimated Resource...
PM Challenge 2007      Risk Management (Continued)• Invested Reserve > 10% To Go in Risk Mitigation   – Electronics Board ...
PM Challenge 2007            Dedication of Team• People Like Working Science Programs• Fast Programs are Very Appealing• A...
PM Challenge 2007Here’s to Your Project        BeingMore Successful than       Stardust                          133
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Vellinga joe

  1. 1. PM Challenge 2007 STARDUST Bringing a Comet Home Lockheed Martin Space Systems Civil Space Space Exploration Systems Joe Vellinga Project Management Challenge 2007 February 6, 2007Discovery 4 PI Don Brownlee Managing Industrial Mission @ Univ of Wash Agency Partner 1
  2. 2. PM Challenge 2007STARDUST 2
  3. 3. PM Challenge 2007 Trajectory Overview Earth Gravity Earth Comet Wild-2 Assist Return Orbit 01/15/01 01/15/06 Launch 02/07/99* Loop 1 3 Loops 2&3 Annefrank 11/02/02 Earth V inf=7.2 km/s X Ecliptic Orbit Rsun=2.3 AU J2000 Wild-2 REarth=2.3 AUEncounter A 01/02/04V inf=6.1 km/s 1 Heliocentric Loops 1, 2 and 3Rsun=1.9 AU Feb 99-Jan 01, -Jul 03, -Jan 06REarth=2.6 AU B 4 Interstellar Particle Collection A-B: Feb-May 00, Aug-Dec 02 2 Deep Space Maneuvers 1: Jan 2000, 2: Jan 2002 3: Jun 2003, 4: Feb 2004 * second day of launch period Interstellar Particle Stream 3
  4. 4. PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 Encounter 4
  5. 5. PM Challenge 2007 Spacecraft Overview - at EncounterLaunch Mass: 385 kg (848 lb)-Bus: 254 kg (560 lb)-SRC: 46 kg (101 lb)-Fuel: 85 kg (187 lb) Dust Flux Monitor Instrument Thrusters 5
  6. 6. PM Challenge 2007 Cometary Dust Collection AerogelCollection Grid Navigation Camera Mirror 6
  7. 7. PM Challenge 2007Interstellar Particle Collection Aerogel Collection Grid 7
  8. 8. PM Challenge 2007Aerogel Sample Collector 1 cm Interstellar Grid 3 cm Comet Grid Particle Carrot Track 8
  9. 9. PM Challenge 2007Stardust Structure 9
  10. 10. PM Challenge 2007Whipple Shield 10
  11. 11. PM Challenge 2007Whipple Shield Does Its Job 1 cm 2 cm 5 cm 11 cm 11
  12. 12. PM Challenge 2007Dust Flux Monitor 12
  13. 13. PM Challenge 2007DFM on Whipple Shield Bumper Mass Simulator 13
  14. 14. Cometary & Interstellar Dust Analyzer PM Challenge 2007 (CIDA) 14
  15. 15. PM Challenge 2007Navigation Camera (Nav Cam) 15
  16. 16. PM Challenge 2007Stardust Assembled 16
  17. 17. PM Challenge 2007On Delta II (7426) 17
  18. 18. PM Challenge 2007Launch, 7 February 1999 18
  19. 19. PM Challenge 2007Fairing Separation 19
  20. 20. PM Challenge 2007 AnneFrank Encounter 2 Nov 2002 NavCam CCD Pixel 0 64 128 192 256 320 384 448 512 576 640 704 768 832 896 960 1024 0 Mirror Angle 120 64 Navigation put it in 110 128 192 Field of View 100 256 90 320 80 Nucleus Tracking Mirror Angle (deg.) 384 70 Control 448 60 Locked OnLine 512 50 576 Default Trajectory 40 Roll Maneuver, 640 30 If It Had Been 704 Required 768 20 832 10 896 0 720678700 720678800 720678900 720679000 720679100 720679200 720679300 720679400 720679500 720679600 720679700 720679800 720679900 720680000 720680100 720680200 720680300 960 1024 sclk 20
  21. 21. PM Challenge 200781P/Wild 2 21
  22. 22. PM Challenge 2007Orbital Evolution of Wild 2 22
  23. 23. PM Challenge 2007 Wild 2 TrailM. Ishiguro, et al, The Astrophysical Journal, 589:L101–L104, 2003 June 1,DISCOVERY OF THE DUST TRAIL OF THE STARDUST COMET SAMPLERETURN MISSION TARGET: 81P/WILD 2 23
  24. 24. PM Challenge 2007 Wild-2 Flyby GeometryWild-2 Encounter Geometry XSclosest approach: 01/02/2004 19:22:59.1 UTC SPE angle Earth Sun 17 deg 2.60 AU 1.86 AU Wild 2 V=26.4 km/sec 73 deg S/C Attitude +x // Vinf SD V=21.7 km/sec +y = ToEarth X Vinf V • = 6.12 km/s 230 km Flyby on +z = +x X +y Approach Phase Angle 73 deg Sunside +z is “rolled” 1.9 deg above the flyby plane for Earth point YS nucleus radius ~ 2.7 km coma radius ~100,000 km Earth is 16.7 degrees from XS and 1.9 degrees above the flyby plane Vinf points 2.8 degrees below the eclipiticFlyby plane coordinates (xs,ys,zs) defined by Vinf and Sun Vector Wild-2 heliocentric speed is 26.4 km, s/c is 21.7 km/s 24
  25. 25. PM Challenge 2007 Wild 2 17 November 2003• Windowed frame • Wild 2 in a 15 sec exposure 25
  26. 26. PM Challenge 2007Optical Navigation Image @ E - 14 Hours 26
  27. 27. Image 2022 PM Challenge 2007Distance=6793 kmTime=E-1113 secMirror=1.9 deg 27
  28. 28. Image 2034 PM Challenge 2007Distance=4599 kmTime=E-753 secMirror=2.7 deg 28
  29. 29. Image 2041 PM Challenge 2007Distance=3321 kmTime=E-543 secMirror=3.8 deg 29
  30. 30. Image 2044 PM Challenge 2007Distance=2773 kmTime=E-453 secMirror=4.3 deg 30
  31. 31. Image 2046 PM Challenge 2007Distance=2409 kmTime=E-393 secMirror=5.7 deg 31
  32. 32. Image 2048 PM Challenge 2007Distance=2045 kmTime=E-333 secMirror=6.6 deg 32
  33. 33. Image 2050 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1742 kmTime=E-283 secMirror=7.9 deg 33
  34. 34. Image 2052 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1320 kmTime=E-213 secMirror=10.2 deg 34
  35. 35. Image 2053 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1260 kmTime=E-203 secMirror=10.8 deg 35
  36. 36. Image 2054 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1201 kmTime=E-193 secMirror=11 deg 36
  37. 37. Image 2056 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1082 kmTime=E-173 secMirror=12.6 deg 37
  38. 38. Image 2058 PM Challenge 2007Distance=963 kmTime=E-153 secMirror=14.2 deg 38
  39. 39. Image 2059 PM Challenge 2007Distance=903 kmTime=E-143 secMirror=15 deg 39
  40. 40. Image 2060 PM Challenge 2007Distance=845 kmTime=E-133 secMirror=16 deg 40
  41. 41. Image 2061 PM Challenge 2007Distance=787 kmTime=E-123 secMirror=17.5 deg 41
  42. 42. Image 2062 PM Challenge 2007Distance=729 kmTime=E-113 secMirror=19 deg 42
  43. 43. Image 2063 PM Challenge 2007Distance=671 kmTime=E-103 secMirror=20 deg 43
  44. 44. Image 2064 PM Challenge 2007Distance=915 kmTime=E-93 secMirror=23 deg 44
  45. 45. Image 2065 PM Challenge 2007Distance=559 kmTime=E-83 secMirror=25 deg 45
  46. 46. Image 2066 PM Challenge 2007Distance=504 kmTime=E-73 secMirror=28 deg 46
  47. 47. Image 2067 PM Challenge 2007Distance=452 kmTime=E-63 secMirror=32 deg 47
  48. 48. Image 2069 PM Challenge 2007Distance=352 kmTime=E-43 secMirror=42 deg 48
  49. 49. Image 2071 PM Challenge 2007Distance=274 kmTime=E-23 secMirror=59 deg 49
  50. 50. Image 2073 Closest Approach ImageDistance=236 km PM Challenge 2007Time=E-3 secMirror=85 deg 50
  51. 51. Image 2075 PM Challenge 2007Distance=257 kmTime=E+17 secMirror=113 deg 51
  52. 52. Image 2077 PM Challenge 2007Distance=326 kmTime=E+37 secMirror=133 deg 52
  53. 53. Image 2079 PM Challenge 2007Distance=421 kmTime=E+57 secMirror=145 deg 53
  54. 54. Image 2080 PM Challenge 2007Distance=472 kmTime=E+67 secMirror=150 deg 54
  55. 55. Image 2081 PM Challenge 2007Distance=526 kmTime=E+77 secMirror=153 deg 55
  56. 56. Image 2083 PM Challenge 2007Distance=637 kmTime=E+97 secMirror=158 deg 56
  57. 57. Image 2084 PM Challenge 2007Distance=694 kmTime=E+107 secMirror=160 deg 57
  58. 58. Image 2085 PM Challenge 2007Distance=752 kmTime=E+117 secMirror=161 deg 58
  59. 59. Image 2086 PM Challenge 2007Distance=810 kmTime=E+127 secMirror=163 deg 59
  60. 60. Image 2087 PM Challenge 2007Distance=869 kmTime=E+137 secMirror=164 deg 60
  61. 61. Image 2088 PM Challenge 2007Distance=927 kmTime=E+147 secMirror=165 deg 61
  62. 62. Image 2091 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1105 kmTime=E+177 secMirror=167.6 deg 62
  63. 63. Image 2092 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1165 kmTime=E+187 secMirror=168.4 deg 63
  64. 64. Image 2094 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1285 kmTime=E+207 secMirror=169.4 deg 64
  65. 65. Image 2096 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1405 kmTime=E+227 secMirror=170.3 deg 65
  66. 66. Image 2098 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1525 kmTime=E+247 secMirror=171.1 deg 66
  67. 67. Image 2100 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1646 kmTime=E+267 secMirror=171.8 deg 67
  68. 68. Image 2104 PM Challenge 2007Distance=1888 kmTime=E+307 secMirror=172.9 deg 68
  69. 69. Image 2108 PM Challenge 2007Distance=2130 kmTime=E+347 secMirror=173.7 deg 69
  70. 70. Image 2112 PM Challenge 2007Distance=2373 kmTime=E+387 secMirror=174.3 deg 70
  71. 71. Image 2115 PM Challenge 2007Distance=3467 kmTime=E+567 secMirror=176.1 deg 71
  72. 72. PM Challenge 2007 First Image Released• Many Flat Bottomed Craters• Jets May be Coming From Walls of ‘Sublimation Craters’ 72
  73. 73. PM Challenge 2007 Encounter Attitude Control Flight Pointing Errors from Enc_Abs Attitude 4.25 X Rotat. 4.00 Y Rotat. Roll Maneuver 3.75 Z Rotat. 3.50 3.25 3.00Rotation about each Axis(degrees) 2.75 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 -0.25 -30.00 -20.00 -10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 Time from Closest Approach (minutes) 73
  74. 74. PM Challenge 2007 Nucleus Tracking Location of Center of Brightness in CCD Frame 0 64 128 192 256 320 384 448 512 576 640 704 768 832 896 960 1024 0 641281922563203844485125766407047688328969601024 74
  75. 75. PM Challenge 2007 Closest Approach Closest Approach Determination 685.0 635.0 585.0 535.0 485.0km distance 435.0 Closest Approach Distance=237 km (9 km closer) 385.0 236.4 km Time =757538732 SCLK (87 seconds early) 335.0 285.0 235.0 185.0 757538632 757538652 757538672 757538692 757538712 757538732 757538752 757538772 757538792 757538812 757538832 SCLK 75
  76. 76. PM Challenge 2007 Wild 2 Jets Image 2076 Distance=2874 km Time=E+27 sec• “Dozens” of Jets Mirror=124 deg• 107 Tons of Water / Orbit (Lyman Apha Measurements)• Average Recession Rate About 0.25 m / Orbit 76
  77. 77. PM Challenge 2007 77
  78. 78. PM Challenge 2007Jet Source Regions (Sekanina et al., 2004) 78
  79. 79. PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 surface ≠ asteroid or satellite surfaces 79
  80. 80. PM Challenge 2007Wild 2 Map 80
  81. 81. PM Challenge 2007 Pit-Spall Craters• The pit/spall zone morphology is common for microcraters on lunar rocks (strength dominated)• It is unknown on larger bodies (Escape vel. Wild2 ~1 m/s) 81
  82. 82. PM Challenge 2007 Wild 2’s Spires(Monument Valley in dirty ice) spire shadow spire 82
  83. 83. PM Challenge 2007 White SpotA dust jet above the surface? Transient condensates? 3 views from different angles Blow-up 83
  84. 84. PM Challenge 2007 Particle Fluxes Fluxes (1 sec)10000 PVDF-S1 Acoustic 1 1000 Acoustic 2 Acoustic 3 100Cts 10 1 0.1 -300 0 300 600 900 T (sec) 84
  85. 85. PM Challenge 2007The Importance of Sample Return Missions• Science is done on the ground• Instrumentation is state-of-the-art and future SOA• Ultimate in precision & sensitivity• Not limited by mass, power, cost or reliability• Results can be confirmed by independent methods• Instruments can be calibrated before and after• Analysis strategies can be iterative• Samples are a resource for long into the future 85
  86. 86. PM Challenge 2007Try to Launch This . . .Or this . . . 86
  87. 87. PM Challenge 2007 Approach Events Earth Entry Decision Mechanisms: S/C ~in 1. SRC Release Enable (ground command) Release Attitude 2. SRC Release Fault Protection (spacecraft flight software) S/C in 3. SRC Release Disable (ground command) E-10d Release 05 Jan E-6d Attitude 09 Jan TCM 18,18a Enable E-29h FP Disable (2) or 13 Jan Uplink (1) Release Disable (3) TCM-19 [Fixed Attitude] E-12h SRC Release 14 Jan TCM-19a,b * Red or dashed = contingency or [19a - Fixed Attitude] single failure anomaly Bus Divert or [19b - Full Sky] E-5.7h Backup Orbit (4 yrs) -4h 125 KM -3.7h SRC ENTRY: 15 JAN 2006 09:57 UTC (02:57 MST)Deep Space Network (70-m/34-m)Near-continuous from E-30d PACIFIC OCEANDual complex/antennas for critical eventsSix antenna redundant for Release T19 T19a,b Release/Divert Utah Test & Training Range 87
  88. 88. PM Challenge 2007 Entry, Descent and Landing TCM-19,x (E-36,12h) SRC Entry (E=0h, 02:57 MST, 09:57 UTC) STRATCOM SSN V = 12.8 km/s, FPA = -8.2° Earliest: ~E-8:00, [~205,000 km*] SRC Separation (E-4h) Nominal: ~E-4:00, [~105,000 km*] [Maui: ~105,000km*, ~57° elev] End: ~E-0:00, [~3,800 km*] 125 km AtmosphereALTITUDE [ * = slant range ] EDL Events Entry+min Alt (~km MSL) 1. UTTR I/R & CINE Tracking +0.6 76 2. Peak Heating +0.9 61 1 3. Peak G-loads +1.0 53 4. 3-G Timer Start +1.9 36 5. Drogue Deploy/UTTR Skin Tracking +2.2 32 2 6. Enter UTTR Airspace +3.9 17 7. Main Chute/UHF Deploy +8.0 3 3 8. Arm Main Chute Cutter +8.3 3 9. Landing +14.6 1.2 4 Recovery Operations 5 • Helos vectored via HILL AFB MCC: 2 Vertigo + UTTR On-Scene Commander • Ground vehicles available if weather does not permit flight • Recovery crew bags SRC and returns to clean room at MAAF for GN2 purge 6 • Depart for JSC in 2 days, dedicated cargo plane To MAAF • Challenges: Night time, ground fog/inversion, water/mud/snow, cold 7 8 9 DOWNRANGE 88
  89. 89. PM Challenge 2007Utah Test and Training Range Landing Target 40° 19’ N, 113° 27’ W Baseline Delivery Ellipse 76 x 44 km, 99% 89
  90. 90. PM Challenge 2007Cross Track Downto 20 km by 1/11/06 90
  91. 91. PM Challenge 2007Navigation Criteria Diagram YELLOW DIVOT [debris casualty] DUGWAY PROPERTY [property hazards] DUGWAY POPULATION [intact src casualty] APPROVED LANDING ZONE to 95% WARNING TRACK [prediction confidence] EFPA to 99% [-8.05 to -8.35 deg] 91
  92. 92. PM Challenge 2007 92
  93. 93. PM Challenge 2007 Helicopter for Recovery Night Sun UHF AntennaIR Camera 93
  94. 94. PM Challenge 2007SRC Recovery Operations EnvironmentFull Moon Rise: 5:47 pm (MST) Jan 14SRC Entry: 2:57 amSRC Lands: 3:12 amSun Rise: 7:55 amMoon Set: 9:05 amSun Set: 5:31 pm• Average Minimum Temperature: 18.3 Deg F• Average Maximum Temperature: 34.4 Deg F• Mean Wind: 3.92 MPH (3.4 Knots) Recovery Team Prepared, Equipped and Trained For Worst Case Recovery Environment UTTR Jan 13, 2005 UTTR Feb 4, 1998 94
  95. 95. PM Challenge 2007Incoming Over Nevada – from Aircraft 95
  96. 96. PM Challenge 2007Incoming Over Nevada 96
  97. 97. PM Challenge 2007SRC After Victory Roll 97
  98. 98. PM Challenge 2007Off the Helo on Way to Clean Room 98
  99. 99. PM Challenge 2007Starting Disassembly 99
  100. 100. PM Challenge 2007Delivery to Johnson Space Center 100
  101. 101. PM Challenge 2007First Inspection of Aerogel Grid 101
  102. 102. PM Challenge 2007Particle Entry Track 102
  103. 103. PM Challenge 2007Two Fluffy Particle Impacts? 103
  104. 104. PM Challenge 2007 104
  105. 105. PM Challenge 2007Particles Along Track 105
  106. 106. PM Challenge 2007Cutting Aerogel – Harmonic Saw 106
  107. 107. PM Challenge 2007Valentine Particle 107
  108. 108. PM Challenge 2007Particle Analysis 108
  109. 109. PM Challenge 2007 Olivine (Forsterite) ParticleThis particle, a type of olivine called forsterite, was brought to Earth in theStardust sample-return capsule. The grain, encased in melted aerogel, isabout 2-millionths of a meter across. 109
  110. 110. PM Challenge 2007 Don Brownlee at Science WorkshopComet Particle Composition – many built like loose dirt-clods• large strong rocks• very fine powdery materialsRemarkable Range of Minerals• Some of these particles contain minerals that form only at extremely high temperatures – similar to "refractory" materials that formed in the hottest, innermost regions of the disk of gas and dust that formed the Sun and planets, or prior stars• Olivine (iron - primarily magnesium) and high-temperature minerals rich in calcium, aluminum and titanium Isotope ratios show: – Some formed around prior stars – Some formed inside the orbit of Mercury during formation of our Solar System 110
  111. 111. PM Challenge 2007 Stardust Web Site http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/Stardust is a NASA Discovery Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Don Brownlee of the University of Washington is the Principal Investigator. JPL provided the Navigation Camera and performed mission design, navigation and DSN communications and tracking. Images and art work used in this presentation can be found on the JPL Stardust web site above. 111
  112. 112. PM Challenge 2007 What Did We Do?, Technically: PLAN ACTUAL• Launch on 2/6/99 • Launch 2/7/99 (LV Delay) – Recovered from LV Error (312 kg instead of 366 kg) • Self Despin (1 kg Hydrazine)• Go to 2.7 AU on Solar Power • Went to 2.7 AU with no Problems – Invented S/A Switching Unit• Collect Interstellar Particles for • Collected Interstellar Particles for > 150 days 195 days• Encounter Wild 2 on 1/2/04 • Dry Run Encounter at Asteroid – Collect > 1000 >15µ Particles Annefrank 11/2/02 (at no cost ↑) – Survive up to 1 cm Rocks • Encounter 1/2/04 – More than Enough; Many Broke up – 7 ‘Rocks’ ≥ 0.3 cm w/o Damage• Return to Earth @ 12.8 km/sec • Returned @ 12.8 km/sec – Fastest Ever Man Made Object – New Heatshield Material → Orion 112
  113. 113. PM Challenge 2007 What Did We Do?, Programmatically: PLAN ACTUAL• Mid Feb 1999 Launch • Ready for Launch at Opening of Window 2/6/99 – Met All Commitment Dates to Environmental Facilities and Arrival @ KSC• $164.6 M Phases A-E • < $164.6 M Through 2004 – 12% Reserve Ph C/D – Consumed 11.2% of Reserve Ph C/D• Return & Recovery Critical • NASA Added Return & Recovery Event Readiness Reviews Risk Reviews in 2005 for $10 M Planned – CAIB Report: • Stardust Shift from Mission Success → Fail Safe • All Risks Known & Communicated to NASA Management – Genesis MIB Recommendations 113
  114. 114. PM Challenge 2007How Did We Do It On Time & In Cost?• KISS• Attitude• Requirements ≤ Capability• NO!!! Requirements Creep• Team Partnership• Virtual Co-Location• Good Enough• EVM +• Risk Management• Dedication of Team 114
  115. 115. PM Challenge 2007 KISS• ’94 Proposal Kept to Focused Science Mission• Primary Science: – Interstellar Dust Collection – Hence the name: Stardust – Cometary Particle Collection – Sample Return• Secondary & Tertiary Science – In-Situ Particle Analysis with Mass Spectrometer • Contributed Instrument from Germany – Dust Flux Monitor – Nucleus Images using Navigation Camera Mission had been Offered as ≈$800M Program but NOT Sold. Now we Offered it at 1/4th the Cost 115
  116. 116. PM Challenge 2007 Attitude• No Overrun!! → Termination (for Real!) – Mark Saunders, NASA HQ Discovery Program Manager: • No Question or Doubt of Termination if EVM Projected > Committed Cost • PI Had to Declare Team Couldn’t Do It – NO!!! 15% NASA Overrun Allowance• Team Believed we Could and Would Do It In Cost – Designed to Cost: Stayed Within Capability of Available Hardware – Prepared to Make any Compromises Necessary to Do It – However, Never Needed to Compromise or Descope – How We Would Do It was Up to Us – Manage Reserve to Stay in Committed Cost You have to Believe You Can Do It. 116
  117. 117. PM Challenge 2007 Requirements ≤ Capability• Phase B SRR was “Capability & Requirements Review” – Culmination of Design to Cost – Each CAM Presented Cost Commitment – Learned of LV Capability Error During Dry Run (366 kg → 312 kg)• Short Schedule (28 month Phase C/D) = Buy Components & Make Program Fit – Committed $7M of Major Subcontracts Before PDR Design to ≤ Cost 117
  118. 118. PM Challenge 2007 NO!!! Requirements Creep• Mantra: “Do Not Allow Requirements Creep Camel to get his Nose Under the Tent” – PI, Don Brownlee, Gave Ken Atkins, Development Project Manager, Toy Camel at Ken’s Retirement in Commemoration• Turned Down Improvement ‘Opportunities’ – Addition of Volatiles Capture Mechanism Pushed by Science Team • Concept Study Done • Unknown Risks if Development Approved – TPS Instrumentation • Pushed by ARC Up Through NASA HQ • Unknown Additional Risk in New Heatshield that was Already Highest Risk in Program• One Improvement Incorporated: Variable Density Aerogel @ No Additional Cost When Cost is Committed, Requirements ARE FROZEN 118
  119. 119. PM Challenge 2007 Team PartnershipPartners: NASA, PI, Agent (JPL), Industrial Partner (LM)• 4 Party Agreement Signed by All: Committed Science to be Accomplished, Schedule & Cost• PI Participated in All Major Reviews & Meetings – Maintained Cognizance Throughout• JPL Managed Project & Provided Camera, Navigation, DSMS & Mission Ops with LM – Participated in LM Activity but Small Team Limited Oversight/Insight• LM Developed Spacecraft & Capsule, Conducted Mission with JPL, Lead Recovery – All Activity Open to JPL & PI – Operated with Independence but Full JPL Knowledge – Risks Mitigated by Investment of Excess Reserve Partnership Works 119
  120. 120. PM Challenge 2007 Virtual Co-Location• Replicating Servers Through Fire Walls• Telecons with Each End Pulling Briefing or other Material Off Their Own Server• Periodic Face-to-Face Meetings – Need to Know Partners Lose Your Frequent Flyer Status! 120
  121. 121. PM Challenge 2007 Good EnoughDuring Development I was Often Asked How do you do FBC, What do you Leave Out of ProgramAnswer: Nothing Left Out, But Less Depth• Bounding Analyses, Particularly EDL – As Built Analyses Not Done if Still ‘In Box’• Good Enough – Entry Flight Path Angle Didn’t Use all of UTTR – One Spacecraft Test Lab Find the Good Enough for Project Environment 121
  122. 122. PM Challenge 2007 EVM +• Baselined Schedule & Resources in 3rd Month of Phase C/D – Entire Program Through Launch – Microsoft Project for Schedule – Margin: ≥ 1 mo Delivery to ATLO; ATLO 2 mo in Denver; 1 mo at KSC – All in Resource Baseline (Funded) – About 9000 Milestones in LM Schedule• Earned Value Determined Each Month – CAMS at Subsystem Level – EVM Integrity = Definitive Milestones + Honesty in Assessing Intermediate Status – Focused on Early Identification of Problems – Quickly Developed Workaround Plans• Biggest Challenges: – Staffing Up – Late Deliveries to ATLO – Electronic Parts – Forced Five Openings of Spacecraft – Heatshield (TRL 4 to Flight in About 2 Years) 122
  123. 123. PM Challenge 2007 EVM + (continued) Staffing Slower than Planned STARDUST ENGRG STAFFING PLAN, BUDGET & ACTUALS-9/7/97 PDO Reqs-Open² <<PDR CDR ² Project Reqs-Open140 ENGRG BUDGET BASELINE REV-6/1/97 CDR PDO Reqs-Firm Project Reqs-Firm PDO - On Board Project-On Board120 ACTUALS THRU 9/7/9710080604020 0 OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1996 1997 123
  124. 124. PM Challenge 2007 EVM + (continued) LMA Total Program Variances Schedule Variance Cost Variance $1.0 $0.0Millions of Dollars ($1.0) ($2.0) ($3.0) ($4.0) Staffing ($5.0) Challenge ($6.0) ($7.0) Qtr 4 96 Qtr 1 97 Qtr 2 97 Qtr 3 97 Qtr 4 97 Qtr 1 98 Qtr 2 98 Qtr 3 98 Qtr 4 98 Qtr 1 99 Baseline ATLO Start Launch 124
  125. 125. PM Challenge 2007 EVM + (continued)• Independent Milestone Count – Good Agreement with EVM At Apr 26, 1998 Planned = 8723 Actuals = 8382 96.1% 1.1 (Act/Base) 0.9 CUM 0.7 0.5 MAY MAR FEB JUL SEP NOV APR AUG DEC JAN JUN OCT 1000 10000 900 9000 800 8000 CUM EVENTS 700 7000 600 6000 500 5000 400 4000 300 3000 200 2000 100 1000 0 0 DEC DEC JUN JUN JAN MAR JUL JAN MAR JUL NOV APR MAY AUG NOV APR MAY AUG OCT SEP OCT SEP FEB FEB FY 97 | FY 98 Baseline Plan Current Schedule Completed CUM Baseline CUM Current Plan CUM Actuals 125
  126. 126. PM Challenge 2007 EVM + (continued) • ATLO Schedule Margin Tracked Daily ASSEMBLY & TEST SCHEDULE MARGIN PLAN 45 40 Post-Bus GREEN 35 FunctionalDAYS OF MARGIN 3/18/98 30 Delayed Move to MTF 25 YELLOW 20 * Pre-Ship 15 10/6/98 10 RED 5 0 Feb-98 Aug-98 Oct-98 Sep-98 Nov-98 Jun-98 Jan-98 Apr-98 May-98 Jul-98 Mar-98 MONTHS EVM – Must Do BUT at Value Added Level 126
  127. 127. PM Challenge 2007 Risk Management• Identified Risks Early• TPMs to Track Technical Status & Identify RisksSpacecraft (3 mo to Launch): 11.5 kg Wet Mass Margin including thermal liens;Mass G Margin allows launch with full tank & ΔV Margin; and ²V Actual Weight 0.4 kg < CBE 19.2% at Aphelion (24 watts)Power G Powered On Testing (~10 watt additional margin) Thermal Mods Liens TBDPropellant G ΔV 5.3% margin to ²V Budget (377mps)CPU Throughput G 62% Processor Utilization at EncounterDRAM Memory G 128 Mbytes - 28 FSW; 75 N-Cam; 13 CIDA; 2 DFM; 10 Downlink 40% Margin (3 Mbytes Prom) ContainsEEPROM Memory G Entire FSW LoadSoftware Maturity Y 61% ATP Dry Run and 40% ATP Complete Sequence Testing SPT #1, #2, #3 Complete Fault Protection Testing In-Work 127
  128. 128. PM Challenge 2007 Risk Management (continued)SRC (3 months to Launch)Mass 45.7 kg weighed Vs 44 to 46 Rqmt G (+0.2 kg Parachute Lid Mod)Power 100% Margin; Redundant Batteries GStability 6 DOF Simulations Verify Stability at G Spin Rate, X/D & b; > 3 s Entries within Design Limits (99.86% Successful out of 3000 Cases)Mass Properties X/D =.348 Vs. .351 Requirement G Spin Rate 12 rpm with failed spring Vs. 12 - 18 rpm Rqmt b = 59 Vs. 60 kg/m2 RqmtLanding Footprint 61 km x 23 km (3 Sigma) Vs. 84 x 30 km G UTTR Rqmt (6 DOF Sims)Parachute Performance Mortar Deploy Tests by Pioneer G UTTR Balloon Drop Test (impact speed < 15fps)PICA Performance 30% Thickness Margin Based on PICA to G Structure Bondline T = 250°C 128
  129. 129. PM Challenge 2007 Risk Management (continued) Project Fever Summary (7 months to Launch) Technical Schedule Resources M ar Apr M ay M ar Apr M ay M ar Apr M ay G G G G G Y G G G DEC JAN FEB MAR APR JUNPROJECT Y Y Y Y Y Y Cost G G G G G G Reserves Look OK Key Agreements R R Y G G G NEPA-EA G G G G G G FONSI signed and publishedFLIGHT SYSTEM Cost vs Budget G G G G G G Staffing G G Y Y G G Staff Rolling Off Schedule (To Atlo) Y Y Y Y G G Schedule (To Launch) G G G G Y Y 21 Days Pre-Ship margin remains Performance G G G G G G C&DH (PACI) - Interface Robustness being worked as backup Margins G G G G G G Interfaces Y Y Y Y Y G Plan Working to Gain Robustness -- R/R Buy of FPGAs Sample Return Capsule G G G G G G ACS Starcam Procure Y Y G G G G Delivered ACS IMU Procurement R R Y Y Y G Flight Software G G G G G G Pre-ATLO Testing-SMTS G G G G G GSCIENCE: Aerogel & Collector R R R Y Y Y Flight Production & Gradient Density Qual. CIDA Y Y G G G G Dust Flux Monitor G G G G G GMISSION G G G G G G NavCam Y Y Y G Y G Delivered & Installed Navigation G G G G G G Mission Design & Plan G G G G G G Operations Development G G G G G G Facility Operational @ JPL Launch Vehicle G G G Y Y G Boeing swap made in fab flow. Progress OK 129
  130. 130. PM Challenge 2007 Risk Management (continued)• Reviewed Weekly & Monthly – Description & Status – Estimated Resource Required to Mitigate 130
  131. 131. PM Challenge 2007 Risk Management (Continued)• Invested Reserve > 10% To Go in Risk Mitigation – Electronics Board & Box Test Sets – ATLO Test Units (C&DH and PCA) – Soft Sim Work Risk Hard from Beginning to End Invest Excess Reserve Wisely 131
  132. 132. PM Challenge 2007 Dedication of Team• People Like Working Science Programs• Fast Programs are Very Appealing• Almost No Attrition – A Few Retirements• People Move from Development to Mission Operation back to Development• Team Very Committed to Stardust – Proving that it was Working Properly – Done on Time or Acceptable Work Around Esprit de Corps is Worth a Lot 132
  133. 133. PM Challenge 2007Here’s to Your Project BeingMore Successful than Stardust 133
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