Systems Thinking:Historical Perspectivesand Exploration TodayDr. Patrick A. Simpkins Director, EngineeringKennedy Space Center Used with Permission
Systems Engineering/Systems Thinking• Significant role in the vast majority of scientific and engineering advances over the centuries• James Burke, in “Connections”, describes the connections, via systems thinking, between simple efforts and needs (read “requirements”) and technological advances – From weather prediction to rocket engines• Today, the trades and “connections” via systems thinking, are required to a truly universal degree in Constellation Program efforts
Weather to Atom Bombs• Lightning rods – Franklin 1752• Fashion hit in 1770’s• Weather observation - 1861• Cloud colored rings, noted while observing light above a mountain at the Cambridge Observatory, C.T.R. Wilson - 1894• Used X-rays to produce clouds in a test chamber…droplets coagulating on ions separated via the radiation – 1896• Edward Appleton working with Wilson on lightning flashes and cause of crackle when lighting occurred during radio transmissions – 1925• Robert Watson Watt uses Appleton’s discovery of radio to locate storms and eventually bouncing radio signals off of the ionized layer of atmosphere, known as the Appleton Layer, to patent Radio Detection and Ranging device, RADAR – 1935• Meanwhile, Ernest Rutherford took the pictures of Wilson’s experiments showing the streaks of droplets and, working in the field of atomic physics, observed the pictures as depicting the scattering of subatomic particles of alpha radiation• Discovery of the atom – 1912• Atom Bomb dropped on Hiroshima - 1945
Ben Franklin didn’t just change how we look at electricity and lightning…he changed fashion!
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A powerful electrical stormcreated an eerie tapestry of light in the skies near Space ShuttleLaunch Complex 39A in the hours preceding the launch ofChallenger on mission STS-8 at 2:32 a.m. EDT today. Lightning makes a dramatic background and slows the rollout of space shuttle Discovery for STS-128 to Launch Pad 39A at NASAs Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
The battle ofFleurus with the balloonlEntreprenant in the background Chandler, David, editor. Napoleons Marshals. New York: Macmillan, 1987. ISBN 0-02-905930-5
C.T.R. Watson’sCloud Chamber
The Daventry Experiment
The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boyhttp://www.defenselink.mil/multimedia/about.html.
Refrigeration to Rocket Engines• John Gorrie helped understand the need for cold, patented the first ice- making machine – 1851• James Harrison and Thomas Mort develop refrigeration systems to be used to ship meat from Australia to head off famine in England – 1873• More importantly perhaps, Harrison experimented initially with refrigeration in breweries.• Raoul Pictet produced a small amount of liquid gas for the first time – 1877• A Frenchman, Jules Violle, worked out a way of isolating liquid gas from its surroundings using a vacuum but a Scotsman names Sir James Dewar perfected it silvering both internal and external to the tank – 1890• American Robert Goddard was second man to take interest in the technology – 1930’s• German Herman Oberth noticed the fuel system potential and one of his assistant’s, Werner von Braun, helped include pumps, a navigation system, and a combustion chamber – 1940’s
The 1895 cycle.Diagram of John Gorries Ice Machine.From U.S. Patent 8080, May 6, 1851.
Page from a U.S. patent application. U.S. Patent number 872,795, issue date 1907- 12-03http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=872795] Picture of Sir James Dewar, the scientist
German rockets (A) and Meillerwagen trailers (B) were quickly spotted at Peenemünde in June 1943; but the longobject pointing out to sea from the airfield--seen on the same photograph--was wrongly interpreted as a length ofpipe connected with offshore dredging operations. Only in December was it realised that this structure (C) and theadjacent one (D) were prototype flying-bomb catapults. All A 4 rockets were test-fired either from the elliptical TestStand VII (E) or from its triangular foreshore.Irving, David (1964). The Mares Nest, p50,64a,65,67,69,265, London: William Kimber and Co. NOTE: The image in The Mares Nest depicts a wider areaincluding the shoreline and part of the Luftwaffe area.
Launch of a V2 in Peenemünde; photo taken four seconds after taking off from test stand, Summer 1943Deutsches Bundesarchiv (German Federal Archive), Bild 141-1880
To the present day…Systems Engineering andSystems Thinking for something new…from suits