The Ming Dynastys fleet of giant    ships predates the Columbus   expedition across the Atlantic.
December 1957
Explorer 1  The first successfulAmerican satellite launch    January 31, 1958   U.S. Army BallisticMissile Agency, under t...
April 1, 1959 - First     NASA Astronauts          SelectedAlan ShepardVirgil I. "Gus" GrissomGordon CooperWalter Schirra,...
May 5, 1961 -- First NASA Astronaut In Space                     Alan Shepard                     “Freedom-7”             ...
Only 20 Days Later …
“I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving thegoal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the ...
25 % of the Population?
Mission Commander    Command Module         Lunar Module Pilot Neil Armstrong,    Pilot Michael Collins   Edwin E. Aldrin ...
Apollo 11 Moon Launch       July 1969
ApolloMoonLaunch
Where We Work                                        Glenn Research CenterAmes Research Center                            ...
34        Apollo 1          19        Gemini         14        MercuryDelta
AtlantisDiscoveryEndeavour
Orbiter Processing Facility
Cape Canaveral - 1964
Vehicle Assembly Building             Kennedy Space Center Florida525 Feet48 Stories
Vehicle Assembly BuildingKennedy Space Center Florida
STS 114
ISS From STS 118 August 9 2007
STS 116 STS-116 Mission Dec 2006 - Port Truss
STS 116
Fires in the Everglades
Northern half     of Long      Island,    Bahamas
Hurricane FrancesSeptember 2004
Namibia, theBrandberg Massifgranite intrusion120 million old8,550 feet
Nukuoro Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia -Expedition 13 – Near                   Equator Mid Pacific Ocean   All that...
Sediment laden drainage, Betsiboka       River, Madagascar
Cabo San LucasBaja California Mexico
Strait of Homuz in the Persian Gulf              Iran
Plankton plume North Island              New Zealand
Hurricane Emily – July 2005ISS Expedition 11
Mount McKinley AlaskaHighest point in North America 20,230 feet
South Georgia Island Island                       South GeorgiaBritish territory in the South Atlanticon South Georgia Isl...
Nile River, the Nile River Delta, SinaiPeninsula, the Suez Canal, Red Sea and part o            the Mediterranean Sea
Profile of the Atmosphere and the Setting Sun
Navajo Mountain, Utah
Alaskan Volcano EruptsTaken by ISS Expedition 13 Crew                   May 25, 2006
Great Barrier Reef – EastCoast of Australia
Saharan Dust over Italy
Strait of Messina (center),which runs between Italys"foot" part of the so-called"boot" (bottom) and the heavilycloud-cover...
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
International Space Station
ISS Overview & CapabilitiesWingspan End-to-End -- 361 feet (361 ft. today)   Operating Altitude -- 220 mile average       ...
Belgium   Brazil    France        Spain         The NetherlandsGermany                                              JapanS...
ISS ConfigurationJohn F. Kennedy Space Center                                                                Elements curr...
Projected Launch Schedule      2009                           2010                            2011                        ...
ULF-5 ELC 4                                                    9/2/2009      LMC ULF-2                                    ...
I SS Launch VehiclesShuttle   Soyuz   Ariane   HI I A &   Falcon 9 Taurus I I                  & ATV     HTV       & Drago...
Nineteen Expeditions on OrbitExpedition 1 Crew        Expedition 2 Crew        Expedition 3 Crew       Expedition 4 Crew  ...
The Automated Transfer Vehicle• ISS depends on regular deliveries of  experimental equipment and spare parts  as well as f...
The H-II Transfer Vehicle• Japan’s transfer vehicle is called the H-II   The system uses Japans  Transfer Vehicle (HTV)   ...
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
Crew Launch Vehicle      • Serves as the long term crew launch capability        for the U.S.      • 5 Segment Shuttle Sol...
Orion System ElementsOrion consists of four functional modules                                                  Launch Abo...
Lunar Heavy Cargo Launch Vehicle    •   5 Segment Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters    •   Liquid Oxygen / liquid hydrogen cor...
Heritage Derived Launch Vehicles                                             400 FtReturn to the Moon and Beyond          ...
Components of Program Constellation      Earth Departure      Stage                                               Orion - ...
Conceptual Lunar Outpost Surface Systems
Augustine Report
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
ExploringMars
Mars Fact Sheet•   Average Distance from Sun 142 million miles•   Mass 0.107 Earths mass•   Diameter 4,222 miles (Earth =7...
Olympus Mons 15 miles high, 340miles in diameter volcano.By comparison the largest volcano onEarth is Mauna Loa which is 6...
Valles Marineris2500 miles long, 4 miles deep
Mars Exploration Rover at KSC           April 2003
2003 Twin Mars Exploration RoversFirst microscopicview of Mars      Spirit Rover           Opportunity RoverLaunch: May 30...
First Pictures from Mars
Heat shield impact site of NASAs Mars Exploration RoverOpportunity.   Mosaic was acquired on Opportunitys sol 330 (Dec. 28...
2003 Mars Exploration Rover                Opportunity“Wheel Spin”                    Victoria Crater
Opportunity as  of Sol 2008, as of Sep 17,2009 has drivenmore than 10.8     miles
Mars polar viewcomposite mosaicMarsReconnaissanceOrbiterOctober 2006
An image from NASAs Mars ReconnaissanceOrbiter shows the Mars  Exploration Rover Opportunity near the   rim of "Victoria  ...
High Resolution              Imaging Science              Experiment on              NASAs Mars              Reconnaissanc...
2003 Mars Exploration Rover              OpportunityVictoria Crater                            Endeavour Crater
Earth From Mars                  This is the first                      image ever                   taken of Earth       ...
Hidden Water Ice - Eastern Hellas Region (MRO)The deposits in Marss eastern Hellas basin alone contain an 800-metre-thick ...
2003 Mars Exploration RoverSpirit                                                Silica-rich deposit                   McM...
Life ???
Is Mars Active Geologically or Biologically?
Phoenix          Search for environments suitable for microbial life on Mars                           and to research the...
In The Shadow of SaturnEarth from 1 BillionMiles Away                               Cassini–Huygens studying the planet Sa...
Dawn – Exploration of The Asteroid BeltLaunched on September 2007 is now on its way to the twomost massive members of the ...
Lunar ReconnaissanceThe Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)•   Robotic spacecraft that will be placed in lunar    polar orb...
Pluto New HorizonsApril 2, 2008                Pluto New Horizons will be the first spacecraft to fly by                 a...
Exploring Asteroids                                                                   2008                                ...
NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and...
How Big is this challenge?
Voyager 2 - Launch Aug 20 1977                   The fastest objects ever made by Humans are                   the Voyager...
Milky Way Galaxy - Our Home                                    One of the                                                 ...
Voyager 2 - Launch Aug 20 1977 The Great                          It would takeAndromeda                           47,393,...
To Exploring the Far Reaches               of the Universe with the               Hubble Space TelescopeA Window onthe Uni...
The Hubble                                                                    Space                                       ...
Fixing the Hubble Primary Mirror – Before and After
The Accelerating Universe
Hubble Space Telescope           This view of nearly 10,000Deepest Views of the Early Universe   galaxies is the deepest v...
Age of the Universe ~ 13.7 Billion Years Old
Monster Black Holes are Everywhere                     Andromedas monster black is 140 million                           t...
Quasars - Massive Black Holesin the Center of Distant Galaxies
Birthplaces  of New Planetary Systems
Stellar nursery      called theCarina Nebula, located 7,500    light-years           away    HST Sep 2009
Unprecedented Details of Stars Death
NGC 6302Butterfly Nebula                   HST Sep 2009
Galactic Wreckage in                                     Stephans Quintet                           NGC 7320 is 40 million...
Stars in our Galactic Center
Kepler                                 Launch date/time: March 5,                                   2009 at 10:48 pm ESTTh...
Planets Outside Our Solar System
"The survival of the human race depends onits ability to find new homes elsewhere in theuniverse … It is important for the...
Stonehenge
“And yet it does move. ”                               Galileo            Moons around   Craters on    Phases ofSun Spots ...
“There shall be  wings! If theaccomplishment be not for me,  tis for some      other.”  Leonardo da     Vinci
“The Wright brothers first flight was not reported in asingle newspaper because every rookie reporter knewwhat could and c...
Sputnik 1October 4, 1957
“I could have gone on flying through space       forever.”   Yuri A. Gagarin
AlanSheppard -First USAstronaut
March 1, 1962, New York Ticker Tape ParadeCelebrating John Glenn’s return from his first space launch,
Rocket RowCape Canaveral– 1963
“We chose To do these things …… not because they are  easy but because they are hard” John F Kennedy
Apollo 11Moon Launch July 1969
“He whonever walks   except  where he sees other   mens tracks will  make nodiscoveries”
Columbia sits on the Launch Pad before its maiden flight                       April 1981
Shuttle Night Launch
Sunrise on OrbitSpace Shuttle
Aurora Australis from the Space Shuttle
Florida Keys
Fort Jefferson Dry Tortugas National Park
Galapagos Islands
Sunset on Orbit
Dune Fields, Namibian Coastal Desert
AmazonDeforestation
Ozone Hole Observed Over Antarctica
“Adventure Is worthwhile in itself”        Amelia Earhart
The Space Shuttle Challenger
International Space Station International Space Station
Sunset OnThe SpaceShuttle
Our Sun
Close-up of A Sun Spot
Solar Flare
A Solar Filament Lifts Off
“No PessimistMars   ever discovered       the secrets of the       stars ..       or sailed to an       uncharted land .. ...
TheDottedDunesof Mars
Mars’ moon - PhobosSTS-116 Mission Dec 2006 - Port TrussNew Zealand and Cook Strait in the Pacific Ocean
Jupiter
Jupiter and His Moon - Io
IoIn True Color
In The Shadow of SaturnEarth from 1 BillionMiles Away
Saturn Rings in Natural Color
10,000                                   galaxies                                   sprinkled                             ...
Galaxies Colliding
Galaxies Colliding
The Eagle Nebula   in Infrared
The Sombrero“If you wish to make an apple pie truly from Galaxy scratch, you must first invent the universe” in           ...
Cats Eye Nebula
"The beginning of knowledge isthe discovery of something we      do not understand”
Big Bright Bug Nebula
Orion
The Great Andromeda Galaxy
Comet NEAT and the Beehive Cluster
MARS“Do not followwhere the path maylead. Go insteadwhere there is nopath and leave atrail.”R. Zaphiropoulos
"Earth is the cradle of mankind.But one cannot live in the cradle            forever.”                   Konstantin E. Tsi...
NASA W eb Sitehttp://spaceflight.nasa.gov
BACKUP
How We Plan to Return to the MoonCrew Exploration Vehicle•   A blunt body capsule is the safest, most    affordable and fa...
Earth Departure Stage•   Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen    stage     – Heritage from the Shuttle External       Tank     ...
How We Plan to Return to the MoonLunar Lander and Ascent Stage  •   4 crew to and from the surface       –   Seven days on...
Mars Exploration Program
How Big is this challenge?
Space Shuttle Columbia
The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB)•    Presented its final report on the causes of the 1 February, 2003 Spac...
Space Exploration: Real Reasons and Acceptable Reasons                         Michael D. Griffin                         ...
Cave Skylights Spotted on Mars                           NASAs Mars                           Odyssey                     ...
66 Flights to ISS (11/98-12/07)             23 shuttle flights                                 23 USA                 STS ...
The Moon - the 1st Step to Mars and Beyond…. •   Gaining significant experience in operating away from     Earth’s environ...
How We Humans Get to Mars•   4 – 5 assembly flights to low Earth orbit with a 100 metric ton class launch    system•   Pre...
April 12, 1981 Space Shuttle STS-1
More         Hydrogen          Less2001 Mars Odyssey has revealedabundant water ice in the upper fewfeet at high latitudes
Self-portrait of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Spirit                    August 2005
Phoenix Mars Scout             Landed 68° North - 2008 May 25 to Nov 2Phoenix 20 km in front of Crater Heimdall           ...
How Big is this challenge?• How Big is the Universe?• Let’s say an average grain of sand is .1 MM which is equal to  0.003...
Distance to the moon = 1/8 th inch - 30.28 grains of sand (actually240,000 miles)Distance to Mars = 16.7 inches (actually ...
Milky Way Galaxy - Our Home   In grains of sand                              measurements…                              . ...
The Great Andromeda Galaxy Our Sister Galaxy                                   In grains of sand                          ...
The close approach of 99942 Apophis to the    Earth and Moon on April 13, 2029                              Apophis will p...
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Romanella

  1. 1. The Ming Dynastys fleet of giant ships predates the Columbus expedition across the Atlantic.
  2. 2. December 1957
  3. 3. Explorer 1 The first successfulAmerican satellite launch January 31, 1958 U.S. Army BallisticMissile Agency, under thedirection of Dr. Wernher von Braun. It discovered radiation belts around Earth, which were named theVan Allen Belts after the scientist who led the research.
  4. 4. April 1, 1959 - First NASA Astronauts SelectedAlan ShepardVirgil I. "Gus" GrissomGordon CooperWalter Schirra,Donald "Deke" SlaytonJohn GlennScott CarpenterNASA Project Mercury thrustAmerica into the space race Theywere the first seven Americans togo into space - and the onlyAmericans to go into space alone.
  5. 5. May 5, 1961 -- First NASA Astronaut In Space Alan Shepard “Freedom-7” Altitude: 116.5 statute miles Orbits: 0 Duration: 0 Days, 0 hours, 15 min, 28 seconds Distance: 303 statute miles Velocity: 5,134 mph
  6. 6. Only 20 Days Later …
  7. 7. “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving thegoal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth “ President John F. Kennedy May 25, 1961
  8. 8. 25 % of the Population?
  9. 9. Mission Commander Command Module Lunar Module Pilot Neil Armstrong, Pilot Michael Collins Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.
  10. 10. Apollo 11 Moon Launch July 1969
  11. 11. ApolloMoonLaunch
  12. 12. Where We Work Glenn Research CenterAmes Research Center Goddard Space Flight Center Dryden Flight Research Wallops Flight Facility Center NASA Headquarters Jet Propulsion Langley Research Center Laboratory Marshall Space Flight Center Johnson Space Center Stennis Space Kennedy Space Center Center
  13. 13. 34 Apollo 1 19 Gemini 14 MercuryDelta
  14. 14. AtlantisDiscoveryEndeavour
  15. 15. Orbiter Processing Facility
  16. 16. Cape Canaveral - 1964
  17. 17. Vehicle Assembly Building Kennedy Space Center Florida525 Feet48 Stories
  18. 18. Vehicle Assembly BuildingKennedy Space Center Florida
  19. 19. STS 114
  20. 20. ISS From STS 118 August 9 2007
  21. 21. STS 116 STS-116 Mission Dec 2006 - Port Truss
  22. 22. STS 116
  23. 23. Fires in the Everglades
  24. 24. Northern half of Long Island, Bahamas
  25. 25. Hurricane FrancesSeptember 2004
  26. 26. Namibia, theBrandberg Massifgranite intrusion120 million old8,550 feet
  27. 27. Nukuoro Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia -Expedition 13 – Near Equator Mid Pacific Ocean All that remains of a sunken extinct volcano. Shape of the atoll is determined by the initial coastline of the original volcanic island
  28. 28. Sediment laden drainage, Betsiboka River, Madagascar
  29. 29. Cabo San LucasBaja California Mexico
  30. 30. Strait of Homuz in the Persian Gulf Iran
  31. 31. Plankton plume North Island New Zealand
  32. 32. Hurricane Emily – July 2005ISS Expedition 11
  33. 33. Mount McKinley AlaskaHighest point in North America 20,230 feet
  34. 34. South Georgia Island Island South GeorgiaBritish territory in the South Atlanticon South Georgia Island, a There is no permanent human base Ocean 1300 kilometers east of the Falkland Islands. British territory in the South Atlantic Ocean that lies 1300 kilometers east of the Falkland Islands.
  35. 35. Nile River, the Nile River Delta, SinaiPeninsula, the Suez Canal, Red Sea and part o the Mediterranean Sea
  36. 36. Profile of the Atmosphere and the Setting Sun
  37. 37. Navajo Mountain, Utah
  38. 38. Alaskan Volcano EruptsTaken by ISS Expedition 13 Crew May 25, 2006
  39. 39. Great Barrier Reef – EastCoast of Australia
  40. 40. Saharan Dust over Italy
  41. 41. Strait of Messina (center),which runs between Italys"foot" part of the so-called"boot" (bottom) and the heavilycloud-covered Sicily (top)
  42. 42. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  43. 43. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  44. 44. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  45. 45. International Space Station
  46. 46. ISS Overview & CapabilitiesWingspan End-to-End -- 361 feet (361 ft. today) Operating Altitude -- 220 mile average Length -- 199 feet (199 ft. today) (pressurized modules) Weight -- Approx. 925,000 lbs. (~750,000 lbs. today) Inclination -- 51.6 degrees to the equator covering 90% of the worlds population Volume -- Approx 34,000 cubic feet of pressurized living (~25,000 cf. today) Crew -- Up to 6 people (3 crew members today) Atmosphere -- 14.7 pounds per square inch (same as Earth) Speed -- 17,500 mph orbiting the Earth 16 times a day
  47. 47. Belgium Brazil France Spain The NetherlandsGermany JapanSweden Denmark Canada Switzerland Norway Italy Russia United Kingdom United States
  48. 48. ISS ConfigurationJohn F. Kennedy Space Center Elements currently at KSC Elements yet to be delivered pending US Shuttle launch Elements pending Russian Launch Leonardo Multi Purpose Logistics Modules Raffaello Donatello Page 87
  49. 49. Projected Launch Schedule 2009 2010 2011 2012 15A S6 STS-119 20A STS-130 HTV 2 SpaceX-3 Mar 15, 2009 (A) Node 3, Cupola Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Feb 2010 19A /STS-131 Orbital Demo 1 Orbital-2 HST STS-125 MPLM May 11 2009 (A) Mar 2010 Mar 2011 Jan 2012 2J/A STS-127 ULF4 STS-132 HTV3 HTV 4 JEM-EF, ELM-ES MRM1, ICC-VLD Jul 2011 Jul 2012 Jul 15, 2009 May 2010 SpaceX-2 SpaceX-4 Jul 2011 Aug 2012 17A STS-128 SpaceX Demo 3 MPLM Jun 2010 Aug 18, 2009 Orbital-1 ATV4 HTV 1 ULF5 STS-133 Oct 2012 ELC 3, MPLM Oct 2011 Sept 2009 Jul 2010 ULF3 STS-129 ATV3 ELC 1, ELC 2 ULF6 STS-134 Nov 2009 Oct 2011 AMS, ELC4 Sep 2010 3R ATV2 MLM Nov 2010 Dec 2011RED = Elements yet to be SpaceX-1delivered to KSC Dec 2010BLUE = Currently at KSC inprocess
  50. 50. ULF-5 ELC 4 9/2/2009 LMC ULF-2 ULF-3 ELC1 NODE 3 MPLM FM-3 Cupola 20A MPLM FM-2 ULF-3 ELC2
  51. 51. I SS Launch VehiclesShuttle Soyuz Ariane HI I A & Falcon 9 Taurus I I & ATV HTV & Dragon & Cygnus 12 8
  52. 52. Nineteen Expeditions on OrbitExpedition 1 Crew Expedition 2 Crew Expedition 3 Crew Expedition 4 Crew Expedition 5 Crew Expedition 6 Crew Expedition 7 Crew Expedition 8 CrewKrikalev, Gidzenko, Helms, Usachev, Voss Dezhurov, Turin, Onufrienko, Walz, Korzun, Whitson, Bowersox, Pettit, Malenchenko, Lu Kaleri, Foale Sheperd Mar2001 – Aug 2001 Culbertson Bursch Treschev Budarin Apr 2003 – Oct 2003 Oct 2003 – Apr 2004Oct 2000 – Mar2001 Aug 2001 – Dec 2001 Dec 2001 – Jun 2002 Jun 2002 – Nov 2002 Nov 2002 – May 2003 Expedition 9 Crew Expedition 10 Crew Expedition 11 Crew Expedition 12 Crew Expedition 13 Crew Expedition 14 Crew Vinogradov,, Williams Reiter, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin Fincke, Padalka Chiao, Sharipov. Phillips, Krikalev McArthur, Tokarev Apr 2006 – Jul 2006 Oct 2006 – Dec 2006 Apr 2004 – Oct 2004 Oct 2004 – Apr 2005 Apr 2005– Oct 2005 Oct 2005– Apr 2006 Vinogradov, Williams, Reiter Williams, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin Jul 2006 – Sep 2006 Dec 2006 – Apr 2007 Expedition 15 Crew Expedition 16 Crew Williams, Yurchikhin, Kotov Expedition 17 Crew Expedition 18 Crew Expedition 19/20 Crew Eyharts, Reisman, Tani, Apr 2007 – Jun 2007 Yi, Volkov, Kononenko, Wakat, Fincke, Magnus, De Winne , Padalka, Romanenko Malenchenko, Whitson, Shukor Reisman, Chamitoff Lonchakov, Chamitoff Thirsk, Barratt , Stott, Kopra Anderson , Yurchikhin, Kotov Oct 2007 – Apr 2008 Jun 2007 – Oct 2007 Apr 2008 - Oct 2008 Oct 2008 – Apr 2009 Wakata, Apr 2009 - Today
  53. 53. The Automated Transfer Vehicle• ISS depends on regular deliveries of experimental equipment and spare parts as well as food, air and water for its permanent crew.• From 2007 onward, Europes Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) will be one of the indispensable ISS supply spaceships • Every 12 months or so, the unmanned ATV will haul 7.5 tons of cargo from its Kourou launch site in French Guiana to the Station • Automatically dock with the Stations Russian service module • The ATV will remain there as a pressurized and integral part of the Station for up to six months until its final mission: a fiery one-way trip into the Earths atmosphere to dispose of up to 6.5 tons of Station waste.
  54. 54. The H-II Transfer Vehicle• Japan’s transfer vehicle is called the H-II The system uses Japans Transfer Vehicle (HTV) H2 launch vehicle• The HTV is an unmanned orbital carrier, designed to deliver up to six tons of goods to the ISS in orbit at an altitude of about 400 kilometers and return with spent equipment, used clothing, and other waste materials on the return trip• These waste materials will be incinerated when HTV makes re-entry into the atmosphere. • HTV has 2 types of logistics carrier: pressurized section where crewmembers can work when HTV is being berthed to the ISS; and unpressurized section that accommodates Kibo’s Exposed Facility payloads on an Exposed Pallet
  55. 55. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  56. 56. Crew Launch Vehicle • Serves as the long term crew launch capability for the U.S. • 5 Segment Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster • Upper Stage – J-2X – updated version of the J-2 engine that was used on NASA’s Saturn 5 rocket • Payload capability – 55,115 lbs (25 metric tons) to low Earth orbit
  57. 57. Orion System ElementsOrion consists of four functional modules Launch Abort System -- emergency escape during launch Crew Module – crew and cargo transport Service Module – propulsion, electrical power, fluids storage Spacecraft Adapter – structural transition to launch vehicle
  58. 58. Lunar Heavy Cargo Launch Vehicle • 5 Segment Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters • Liquid Oxygen / liquid hydrogen core stage – Heritage from the Shuttle External Tank – 5 RS-68 Main Engines • Payload Capability – 410,000 lbs to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (Saturn 5 was 260,000 lbs) – 157,000 lbs to Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) • Cargo with later evolution to crew if needed
  59. 59. Heritage Derived Launch Vehicles 400 FtReturn to the Moon and Beyond Heavy Lift 300 Ft J-2 In-Line J-2 Crew 200 Ft 100 Ft Shuttle SRB
  60. 60. Components of Program Constellation Earth Departure Stage Orion - Crew Exploration VehicleHeavy LiftLaunchVehicle Lunar Lander Crew Launch Vehicle
  61. 61. Conceptual Lunar Outpost Surface Systems
  62. 62. Augustine Report
  63. 63. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  64. 64. ExploringMars
  65. 65. Mars Fact Sheet• Average Distance from Sun 142 million miles• Mass 0.107 Earths mass• Diameter 4,222 miles (Earth =7,926 m)• Length of Day 24.6 Earth hours• Length of Year 687 Earth days• Surface Gravity 0.377 that of Earth (If you weigh 80 pounds, you would weigh about 30 pounds on Mars.)• Known Moons 2 Phobos & Deimos Escape Velocity 11,229 mph (Earth is 25,022 mph)• Temperatures on Mars average about -67 degrees F. However, temperatures range from around -207 degrees F. in the wintertime at the poles, to +80 degrees F. over the lower latitudes in the summer. (Earth -129 to +136 F)
  66. 66. Olympus Mons 15 miles high, 340miles in diameter volcano.By comparison the largest volcano onEarth is Mauna Loa which is 6 mileshigh 75 miles across.
  67. 67. Valles Marineris2500 miles long, 4 miles deep
  68. 68. Mars Exploration Rover at KSC April 2003
  69. 69. 2003 Twin Mars Exploration RoversFirst microscopicview of Mars Spirit Rover Opportunity RoverLaunch: May 30, 2003 Launch: June 27, 2003Landing: January 4, 2004 Landing: January 25, 2004
  70. 70. First Pictures from Mars
  71. 71. Heat shield impact site of NASAs Mars Exploration RoverOpportunity. Mosaic was acquired on Opportunitys sol 330 (Dec. 28, 2004) On the left, the main heat shield piece is inverted and reveals its metallic insulation layer, glinting in the sunlight. The main piecestands about 1 meter tall (about 3.3 feet) and about 13 meters (about 43 feet) from the rover.
  72. 72. 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity“Wheel Spin” Victoria Crater
  73. 73. Opportunity as of Sol 2008, as of Sep 17,2009 has drivenmore than 10.8 miles
  74. 74. Mars polar viewcomposite mosaicMarsReconnaissanceOrbiterOctober 2006
  75. 75. An image from NASAs Mars ReconnaissanceOrbiter shows the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity near the rim of "Victoria Crater." October 6, 2006
  76. 76. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter October 6, 2006 Victoria crater," an impact crater at Meridiani Planum,Opportunity near the equator of Mars ½ mile in diameter
  77. 77. 2003 Mars Exploration Rover OpportunityVictoria Crater Endeavour Crater
  78. 78. Earth From Mars This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd Martian day, or sol, of its mission.
  79. 79. Hidden Water Ice - Eastern Hellas Region (MRO)The deposits in Marss eastern Hellas basin alone contain an 800-metre-thick glacier and hide 28,000 cubic kilometers of water ice -enough to coat the entire planet with a layer of water 20 cm thick
  80. 80. 2003 Mars Exploration RoverSpirit Silica-rich deposit McMurdo Panorama Silica rich deposit. 900 days into a 90 day mission. Ancient hot springs are only way to have created this
  81. 81. Life ???
  82. 82. Is Mars Active Geologically or Biologically?
  83. 83. Phoenix Search for environments suitable for microbial life on Mars and to research the history of water there. Launched successfully on August 4, 2007 and Successfully landed May 25, 2008.
  84. 84. In The Shadow of SaturnEarth from 1 BillionMiles Away Cassini–Huygens studying the planet Saturn and its moons launched October 15, 1997 and entered into orbit around Saturn on July 1 , 2004
  85. 85. Dawn – Exploration of The Asteroid BeltLaunched on September 2007 is now on its way to the twomost massive members of the asteroid belt: the asteroid(2nd largest) Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn isscheduled to explore Vesta between 2011 and 2012, andCeres in 2015.
  86. 86. Lunar ReconnaissanceThe Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)• Robotic spacecraft that will be placed in lunar polar orbit to build a detailed atlas/map of the Moon’s surface features and resources• Emphasis on polar regions where possibility of water is favorableThe Lunar Crater Observation and Shepherding Spacecraft (LCROSS)• Search for water near the Moon’s poles for future human lunar outposts.• Guide the empty Centaur upper stage (5000 lb) to impact a permanently shadowed crater• impact expected to excavate about 200 tons of lunar surface material Atlas V - 401 Planned launch : June 17-20, 2009
  87. 87. Pluto New HorizonsApril 2, 2008 Pluto New Horizons will be the first spacecraft to fly by and study the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix, and Hydra. Launched on January 19, 2006 and a flyby of Jupiter on February 28, 2007, it will arrive at Pluto on July 14, 2015 37
  88. 88. Exploring Asteroids 2008 1950 1999 1800 1990 1900 KnownEarth Crossing •400,000 Minor PlanetsOutside of Earth’s Orbit • 5200 NEO • 900 PHO Courtesy: Scott Manley/Don Yeomans
  89. 89. NASA’s Exploration Mission• Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010• Complete the International Space Station• Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle• Return to the moon no later than 2020• Conduct human expeditions to Mars• Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program• Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond
  90. 90. How Big is this challenge?
  91. 91. Voyager 2 - Launch Aug 20 1977 The fastest objects ever made by Humans are the Voyager Spacecrafts Launched in 1977 these small spacecrafts are now traveling at over 35,000 mph - this is about 10 miles per second Even at those speeds it will take nearly 80,000 years for the Voyager to reach Proxima Centauri, the nearest star. It would take 1, 895,730,000 years to travel across the Milky Way Galaxy Jul 9, 1979 Jan 24, 1986 Aug 26, 1981 Aug 25, 1989
  92. 92. Milky Way Galaxy - Our Home One of the fastest objects ever made by Humans are the Voyager Spacecrafts Launched in 1977 these small spacecrafts are now traveling at over 35,000 mph - this is about 10 miles per second Even at those speeds it will take nearly 80,000 years for the Voyager to reach Proxima Centauri, theIt would take 1, 895,730,000 years to travel 100,000 light years nearest star. across the Milky Way Galaxy
  93. 93. Voyager 2 - Launch Aug 20 1977 The Great It would takeAndromeda 47,393,360,000 Galaxy years to reach our closest sister Galaxy – The Great Andromeda Galaxy
  94. 94. To Exploring the Far Reaches of the Universe with the Hubble Space TelescopeA Window onthe Universe
  95. 95. The Hubble Space Telescope uses mirrors to collect science data. Hubbles main mirror is about eight feet in diameter. These powerful instruments analyze the incoming light stream and translate it into information and images forAfter Hubbles launch in 1990, NASA discovered a flaw in the scientists backlarge, main mirror. The flaw was tiny — about 1/50th the on Earth.thickness of a piece of paper — but significant enough to distortHubbles vision. During the First Servicing Mission, astronautsadded corrective optics to compensate for the flaw. The opticsacted like eyeglasses to correct Hubbles vision.
  96. 96. Fixing the Hubble Primary Mirror – Before and After
  97. 97. The Accelerating Universe
  98. 98. Hubble Space Telescope This view of nearly 10,000Deepest Views of the Early Universe galaxies is the deepest visible- light image of the cosmos. The smallest, reddest galaxies, 4 about 100, may be among the most distant known, existing 5 when the universe was just 800 million years old. The nearest galaxies - the larger, brighter, well-defined 3 spirals and ellipticals - thrived about 1 billion years ago, when the cosmos was 13 billion years old. Peering into the Ultra Deep Field is like looking 2 through an eight-foot-long soda straw. The image required 800 exposures taken over the course 1 of 400 Hubble orbits around Earth.
  99. 99. Age of the Universe ~ 13.7 Billion Years Old
  100. 100. Monster Black Holes are Everywhere Andromedas monster black is 140 million times greater than that of our Sun.
  101. 101. Quasars - Massive Black Holesin the Center of Distant Galaxies
  102. 102. Birthplaces of New Planetary Systems
  103. 103. Stellar nursery called theCarina Nebula, located 7,500 light-years away HST Sep 2009
  104. 104. Unprecedented Details of Stars Death
  105. 105. NGC 6302Butterfly Nebula HST Sep 2009
  106. 106. Galactic Wreckage in Stephans Quintet NGC 7320 is 40 million light- years from Earth. The other members of the quintet reside 290 million light-years away in the constellation Pegasus.NGC 7320 HST Sep 2009
  107. 107. Stars in our Galactic Center
  108. 108. Kepler Launch date/time: March 5, 2009 at 10:48 pm ESTThe Kepler Mission, NASADiscovery mission #10, isspecifically designed tosurvey our region of theMilky Way galaxy to discoverhundreds of Earth-size andsmaller planets in or near thehabitable zone and determinehow many of the billions ofstars in our galaxy have suchplanets.
  109. 109. Planets Outside Our Solar System
  110. 110. "The survival of the human race depends onits ability to find new homes elsewhere in theuniverse … It is important for the human raceto spread out into space for the survival of thespecies ” Stephen Hawking June 13, 2006
  111. 111. Stonehenge
  112. 112. “And yet it does move. ” Galileo Moons around Craters on Phases ofSun Spots Jupiter the Moon Venus
  113. 113. “There shall be wings! If theaccomplishment be not for me, tis for some other.” Leonardo da Vinci
  114. 114. “The Wright brothers first flight was not reported in asingle newspaper because every rookie reporter knewwhat could and couldnt be done.”- Edward R. Murrow
  115. 115. Sputnik 1October 4, 1957
  116. 116. “I could have gone on flying through space forever.” Yuri A. Gagarin
  117. 117. AlanSheppard -First USAstronaut
  118. 118. March 1, 1962, New York Ticker Tape ParadeCelebrating John Glenn’s return from his first space launch,
  119. 119. Rocket RowCape Canaveral– 1963
  120. 120. “We chose To do these things …… not because they are easy but because they are hard” John F Kennedy
  121. 121. Apollo 11Moon Launch July 1969
  122. 122. “He whonever walks except where he sees other mens tracks will make nodiscoveries”
  123. 123. Columbia sits on the Launch Pad before its maiden flight April 1981
  124. 124. Shuttle Night Launch
  125. 125. Sunrise on OrbitSpace Shuttle
  126. 126. Aurora Australis from the Space Shuttle
  127. 127. Florida Keys
  128. 128. Fort Jefferson Dry Tortugas National Park
  129. 129. Galapagos Islands
  130. 130. Sunset on Orbit
  131. 131. Dune Fields, Namibian Coastal Desert
  132. 132. AmazonDeforestation
  133. 133. Ozone Hole Observed Over Antarctica
  134. 134. “Adventure Is worthwhile in itself” Amelia Earhart
  135. 135. The Space Shuttle Challenger
  136. 136. International Space Station International Space Station
  137. 137. Sunset OnThe SpaceShuttle
  138. 138. Our Sun
  139. 139. Close-up of A Sun Spot
  140. 140. Solar Flare
  141. 141. A Solar Filament Lifts Off
  142. 142. “No PessimistMars ever discovered the secrets of the stars .. or sailed to an uncharted land .. or opened a new heaven to the human spirit” Helen Keller
  143. 143. TheDottedDunesof Mars
  144. 144. Mars’ moon - PhobosSTS-116 Mission Dec 2006 - Port TrussNew Zealand and Cook Strait in the Pacific Ocean
  145. 145. Jupiter
  146. 146. Jupiter and His Moon - Io
  147. 147. IoIn True Color
  148. 148. In The Shadow of SaturnEarth from 1 BillionMiles Away
  149. 149. Saturn Rings in Natural Color
  150. 150. 10,000 galaxies sprinkled across a“Exploration is the essence of the region of Human Spirit” sky just a tenth the size of the full Moon
  151. 151. Galaxies Colliding
  152. 152. Galaxies Colliding
  153. 153. The Eagle Nebula in Infrared
  154. 154. The Sombrero“If you wish to make an apple pie truly from Galaxy scratch, you must first invent the universe” in Infrared “Carl Sagan”
  155. 155. Cats Eye Nebula
  156. 156. "The beginning of knowledge isthe discovery of something we do not understand”
  157. 157. Big Bright Bug Nebula
  158. 158. Orion
  159. 159. The Great Andromeda Galaxy
  160. 160. Comet NEAT and the Beehive Cluster
  161. 161. MARS“Do not followwhere the path maylead. Go insteadwhere there is nopath and leave atrail.”R. Zaphiropoulos
  162. 162. "Earth is the cradle of mankind.But one cannot live in the cradle forever.” Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky
  163. 163. NASA W eb Sitehttp://spaceflight.nasa.gov
  164. 164. BACKUP
  165. 165. How We Plan to Return to the MoonCrew Exploration Vehicle• A blunt body capsule is the safest, most affordable and fastest approach – Separate Crew Module and Service Module configuration – Vehicle designed for lunar missions with 4 crew • Can accommodate up to 6 crew for Mars and Space Station missions – System also has the potential to deliver pressurized and unpressurized cargo to the Space Station if needed• 5 meter diameter capsule scaled from Apollo – Significant increase in volume – Reduced development time and risk – Reduced reentry loads, increased landing stability and better crew visibility
  166. 166. Earth Departure Stage• Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen stage – Heritage from the Shuttle External Tank – J-2S engines (or equivalent)• Stage ignites suborbitally and delivers the lander to low Earth orbit – Can also be used as an upper stage for low-earth orbit missions• The CEV later docks with this system and the earth departure stage performs a trans-lunar injection burn• The earth departure stage is then discarded
  167. 167. How We Plan to Return to the MoonLunar Lander and Ascent Stage • 4 crew to and from the surface – Seven days on the surface – Lunar outpost crew rotation • Global access capability • Anytime return to Earth • Capability to land 21 metric tons of dedicated cargo • Airlock for surface activities • Descent stage: – Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen propulsion • Ascent stage: – Liquid oxygen / liquid methane propulsion
  168. 168. Mars Exploration Program
  169. 169. How Big is this challenge?
  170. 170. Space Shuttle Columbia
  171. 171. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB)• Presented its final report on the causes of the 1 February, 2003 Space Shuttle accident to the White House, Congress and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on the 26 August, 2003.• The CAIB report concludes that while NASAs present Space Shuttle is not inherently unsafe, a number of mechanical fixes are required to make the Shuttle safer in the short term.• The Board determined that physical and organizational causes played an equal role in the Columbia accident and that the NASA organizational culture had as much to do with the accident as the foam that struck the Orbiter on ascent. The report also notes other significant factors and observations that may help prevent the next accident.• The Board crafted the report to serve as a framework for a national debate about the future of human space flight, but suggests that it is in the nations interest to replace the Shuttle as soon as possible as the primary means for transporting humans to and from Earth’s orbit.• The Board made 29 recommendations in the 248 page final report, including 15 return-to-flight recommendations that should be implemented before the Shuttle returns to flight
  172. 172. Space Exploration: Real Reasons and Acceptable Reasons Michael D. Griffin Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration• http://www.nasa.gov/ – For Media and Press – Speeches – View Archives – 01.19.07 - Remarks at Quasar Award Dinner If we don’t have public support that is both strong and specific, the things we want to do, and believe to be important, will not survive. + View PDF (32 Kb PDF)
  173. 173. Cave Skylights Spotted on Mars NASAs Mars Odyssey spacecraft has discovered entrances to seven possible caves on the slopes of a Martian volcano. The find is fueling interest in potential underground habitats and sparking searches for caverns elsewhere on the Red Planet.
  174. 174. 66 Flights to ISS (11/98-12/07) 23 shuttle flights 23 USA STS 88/2A U.S. Node STS 96/2A.1 Logistics STS 101/2a.2a Logistics STS 106/2B.2B Logistics STS 92/3A Z-1 Truss STS 97/4A P6 Solar Array STS 98/5A Destiny Lab STS 102/5A.1 MPLM, Expedition 2 STS 100/6A Canada Arm2 STS 104/7A U.S. Airlock STS 105/7A.1 MPLM, Expedition 3 STS 108/UF1 Expedition 443 Russian STS 110/ 8A SO Truss and Mobil Transporter STS 111/ UF2 MBS, Science and Expedition 5 STS 112/ 9A S1 Truss, CETA Cart STS 113/11A P1 Truss, CETA Cart STS 114/LF-1 MPLM / ISS ORU’s STS 121/ULF1.1 MPLM / ISS ORU’s STS 115/12A P3/P4 Truss STS 116/12A.1 P5 Truss- SpaceHab module STS 117/13A S3/S4 Truss STS 118/13A.1 S5 Truss STS 120/10A Node 2 42 Russian Flights 2 Proton Flights (Service Module and FGB) 26 Progress Resupply Flights 14 Manned Soyuz Crew Flights 1 Unmanned Soyuz, Docking Compartment Assembly Flight
  175. 175. The Moon - the 1st Step to Mars and Beyond…. • Gaining significant experience in operating away from Earth’s environment – Space will no longer be a destination visited briefly and tentatively – “Living off the land” – Field exploration techniques – Human support systems – Dust mitigation and planetary protection • Developing technologies needed for opening the space frontier – Crew and cargo launch vehicles (125 metric ton class) – Earth entry system – Crew Exploration Vehicle – Mars ascent and descent propulsion systems (liquid oxygen / liquid methane) • Conduct fundamental science – Astrobiology, historical geology, exobiology, astronomy, physics Next Step in Fulfilling Our Destiny As Explorers
  176. 176. How We Humans Get to Mars• 4 – 5 assembly flights to low Earth orbit with a 100 metric ton class launch system• Pre-deployed Mars surface outpost before the crew launches – Habitat and support systems – Power – Communications – Mars ascent / descent vehicle• 180 day transit time to/from Mars – 6 crewmembers – Dedicated in-space crew transit vehicle – Dedicated Earth entry system (CEV)• Up to 500 days on the surface – Capability to explore large regions of the surface – Multi-disciplinary science investigations – In-Situ resource utilization • Consumables: Oxygen and water • Propellants: Liquid oxygen and methane
  177. 177. April 12, 1981 Space Shuttle STS-1
  178. 178. More Hydrogen Less2001 Mars Odyssey has revealedabundant water ice in the upper fewfeet at high latitudes
  179. 179. Self-portrait of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Spirit August 2005
  180. 180. Phoenix Mars Scout Landed 68° North - 2008 May 25 to Nov 2Phoenix 20 km in front of Crater Heimdall “Dodo - Goldilocks”
  181. 181. How Big is this challenge?• How Big is the Universe?• Let’s say an average grain of sand is .1 MM which is equal to 0.0039 inches.• The diameter of the earth at the equator is 7,926 miles.• So let’s say 1 grain of sand is the size of the Earth• .1 MM = 7,926 miles . . . . . . …..
  182. 182. Distance to the moon = 1/8 th inch - 30.28 grains of sand (actually240,000 miles)Distance to Mars = 16.7 inches (actually 34,000,000 miles)Distance to the sun = 45.7 inches (actually 92,955,820 miles )
  183. 183. Milky Way Galaxy - Our Home In grains of sand measurements… . The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is 50,225 miles away (actually 4.22 light-years) The center of our galaxy would be about 292,005,024 miles from the Sun (actually 25,000 light- years )
  184. 184. The Great Andromeda Galaxy Our Sister Galaxy In grains of sand measurements….. The Andromeda galaxy would be about 33,872,582,754 miles Away (actually 2.9 million light years) The most distant known objects in the universe would be 151,842,000,000,000 miles away (actually13 billion light- years from Earth.)
  185. 185. The close approach of 99942 Apophis to the Earth and Moon on April 13, 2029 Apophis will pass Earth within the orbits of geosynchronous communication satellites. The small white bar indicates uncertainty in the range of possible positions. Apophiss length is estimated at 350 meters (1,100 ft).

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